In January 2008, the AICPA, the National Association of State Boards of Accountancy (NASBA), and Prometric implemented a biometric identity management system for the CPA exam. According to information on the NASBA Web site, biometric technology is used "to capture candidates' fingerprints and match the fingerprints with other personal identity information to increase security and identity validation." Critics of the CPA exam's new identification system have expressed concerns that the proverbial pendulum has swung too far away from privacy protection in the name of security. The fingerprinting program has been compared by some to the Big Brother nightmare of George Orwell's 1984. One of these concerns involves the integrity of the procedures for encrypting and electronically storing candidates' fingerprints and other identifying information for an indefinite period of time.