Lead anodes have been employed in commercial aqueous electrowinning for close to a century. In the past three decades, several attempts have been made to replace lead anodes with other materials. For the most part, the use of other anodes, particularly coated titanium anodes (CTAs), has been limited to niche electrowinning applications.
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"Will Lead-Based Anodes Ever Be Replaced in Aqueous Electrowinning?"Please download to view full document