To address the strengthening mechanism caused by TBs, the distribution of the normal component (π33) of the atomic level stress17 on part of a section along the wire axis is shown in Figure 3. Due to the large surface-to-volume ratio, nanowires sustain high interior compressive stresses induced by tensile surface stresses. In the twin-free wire (Figure 3a), the stress is quite uniform in the interior at equilibrium state (T = O K after energy minimization).
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