Medium-sized Cities and Creative Industries

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					                                                                         Klaus R. Kunzmann .Potsdam

Medium-sized Cities and Creative Industries
Visit of a Delegation of the Department of Regional Development
Capital Region of Denmark
Cultural Identity, Cultural Mapping and Planning in the Oresund Region
Potsdam 6. October 2007

1. Medium-sized Cities?
2. Creative/ Cultural Industries?
3. Location Factors and Features of Creative Industries
4. Territorial Capital of Medium-sized Cities
5. Policies to Promote Creative Industries in Medium-sized Cities
6. Creative Industries in Berlin
                                                  Klaus R. Kunzmann .Potsdam

1. Medium-sized Cities           in Europe!

A in the metropolitan region
B between metropolitan regions
C in peripherial regions                      Location
D in border regions                           matters Western, Eastern,
  Northern or in
       Southern Europe?
                    Klaus R. Kunzmann .Potsdam

Medium-sized town
on the border

                                                                                                                             Klaus R. Kunzmann .Potsdam

2.What are creative industries?                      > > > Cultural industries? Creative industries? The creative economy

                      the   UK
Cultural Industries
               ..are based on individuals with creative arts skills..
      alliance with managers and technologists..
               ..making marketable products..
               ..whose economic value lies in their cultural (or ‘intellectual’) properties.

Defined by the UK’s Department of Culture, Media and Sport as "…those activities which have their origin in individual creativity, skill and talent
and which have a potential for wealth and job creation through the generation and exploitation of intellectual property",

the Creative Industries include:
                                                > Advertising
                                                > Architecture
                                                > Crafts and designer furniture
                                                > Fashion clothing
                                                > Film, video and other audiovisual production
                                                > Graphic design
                                                > Educational and leisure software
                                                > Live and recorded music
                                                > Performing arts and entertainments
                                                > Television, radio and internet broadcasting
                                                > Visual arts and antiques
                                                > Writing and publishing
     Klaus R. Kunzmann

Quelle: STADTart 2007
                                                                                        Klaus R. Kunzmann . Potsdam

2 The Creative Class

  “The economic need for creativity has registered itself in the rise of a new class,
  which I call the Creative Class. Some 38 million Americans, 30 percent of all
  employed people, belong to this class. I define the core of the Creative Class to
  include people in science and engineering, architecture and design, education,
  arts, music and entertainment, whose economic function is to create new ideas,
  new technology and/or new creative content. Around the core, the Creative Class
  also includes a broader group of creative professionals in business and finance,
  law, health care and related fields. These people engage in complex problem
  solving that involves a great deal of independent judgement and requires high
  levels of education or human capital. In addition, all members of the Creative
  Class – whether they are artists of engineers, musicians or computer scientists,
  writers or entrepreneurs – share a common creative ethos that values creativity,
  individuality, difference and merit. For the members of the Creative Class, every
  aspect and every manifestation of creativity – technological, cultural and
  economic – is interlinked and inseparable.” (p. 8)

  Richard Florida The Rise of the Creative Class,
  And How It’s Transforming Work, Leisure, Community and Everyday Life, 2002.
                                                                              Klaus R. Kunzmann

3 Location Factors of Creative

    1                                                         Cultural   Industries
•   Attractive Townscape and fancy town quarters
•   History and urban heritage
•   Cosmopolitan living and working spaces
•   Target of international tourism
•   Open society...... Tolerance

             •    Access to specialized higher education culture and IT
             •    Local and regional consumer environment
             •    A broad spectrum of cultural infrastructure and events
             •    Qualified labor
             •    Locally embedded traditional crafts and competence
             •    Sticky places and creative clusters

                    •    Identity
                    •    Architectural icons
                    •    Derelict industrial and commercial spaces
                    •    Affordable rents for young creatives
                    •    Marketable profile
                    •    Trend setting media
                                                                                Klaus R. Kunzmann . Potsdam

3 Features
     2                   of   Creative Industries?
Cultural Industries

• Small firms (with exceptions)
• Low average sales/wages
• High degree of self-employment                > > > Creative industries are different !
• High degree of job satisfaction
• Flexible working times
• Milieu sensitive
• Network integration
• Low degree of unionisation
• High percentage of female labour
• Consumer dependency

The creative economy is polarized,
        ....though both poles are highly interdependent
                                                                         Klaus R. Kunzmann

4. Territorial Capital of Medium-sized Cities
   Beyond history, identity, local commitment, quality of life
                                                           for creative industries
A Accessibility Relief location for Metropolitan core,
  Specialized Industrial clusters skilled labor
  Gown Towns international students, tolerance, young entertainment
B Logistic hub
   Central place for rural regions regional market
C Health, Recreation and Leisure potential tourism
   Central place for rural regions regional market
   Accessibility to scenic regions
D Cultural competence language
                                                                                 Klaus R. Kunzmann .Potsdam

5. Policies to Promote Cultural Industries                   in Medium-sized Cities

•   Create an administrative hot spot as a communication centre for creative action
•   Identify the local creative potential and missing links
•   Identify local constraints and bottlenecks for creative investment
•   Explore potential creative buildings and spaces and quarter
•   Identify actors, promoters, key players
•   Organize cluster development and partnerships
•   Develop a strategic concept and communicate the concept to the various target groups
•   Involve local media into concept development
•   Explore potential linkages with the creative economy in the metropolitan core, offer creative
    back-office function and affordable creative spaces
                                                                                         Klaus R. Kunzmann . Potsdam

6 The discovery of creative industries in Germany

•   De-industrialisation technological change
•   The demise of large industrial corporations
•   A world, where images dominate over functions
•   The music revolution and IT contents
•   Cultural Industries Reports (NRW, Hessen, Berlin etc..)
•   A new generation of Germans, growing-up in affluent families, and educated in creative
•   The emergence of re-unified Berlin as a creative city
•   The creative class and the Richard Florida effect
•   Urban competition and benchmarking
•   The desperate search of economic policy advisors
             for new fields to promote employment and
•   Culture, a chance for sustainable development                                 QuickTime™ and a
                                                                         TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
                                                                                   are needed to see this picture.
                                                                        Klaus R. Kunzmann . Potsdam

6 Creative Industries in Berlin

         Berlin Characteristics

• Capital/ metropolis
• Cosmopolitan city/environment .......13% foreign born
• High density of cultural infrastructure
• A plethora of cultural events, fairs and festivals
• Tourist city
• Highly attractive for young people .....higher education, low rents
• High tolerance open, liberal society
• Discourse environment
• Digital city
                                                                              Klaus R. Kunzmann . Potsdam

6 Creative Industries in Berlin
Some facts

Definition: cultural industries, software development, media and marketing
                creativity as a key element
                     chains > from research > education > development > production
                                > distribution > to consumption

• 2002 turnover € 8.104 billion
• 18.573 firms and enterprises (with a turnover above € 16.617 )
                                         > not including public museums, theatres etc.
• 11% of Berlin‘s GDP (77,1 billion €)
• 90.339 jobs (50% female) 7% of Berlin‘s employment
    not below € 400/month and not less than 15hours/week, registered to social welfare system
• Growth 1998 to 2002 8%
                Klaus R. Kunzmann . Potsdam

Creative Spaces in Berlin

       Quelle: STADTtart/Kunzmann/Dümcke
                                                                   Klaus R. Kunzmann . Potsdam

6 Creative Industries in Berlin

Future action areas: economic, cultural and spatial development

• Communication that the sector has economic impact
• Clustering among individual actors
• Promotion of spatial clustering
• Improving regulatory framework
• Promotion of private commitment > civil society
• Export promotion
• Screening of financing programmes
• Linking cultural industries to tourism
• Start-up promotion
• Further qualification of graduates from university of the arts
• Establishing virtual infrastructure
• Continuous monitoring
• Promoting and theming creative spaces in Berlin
Thank you !