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ASME B31.4 Pipeline Transportation Systems For Liquid Hydro

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                                                 ADOPTION   NOTICE

               ASME-B31.4, "Liquid Transportation Systems for Hydrocarbons,
               Liquid Petroleum Gas, Anhydrous Ammonia, and Alcohols," was
               adopted on October 3, 1994 for use by the Department of
               Defense (DoD). Proposed changes by DoD activities must be
               submitted to the DoD Adopting Activity: Commanding Officer,
               Naval Construction Battalion Center, Code 156, 1000 23rd
               Avenue, Port Hueneme, CA 93043-4301. DoD activities may
                                                   the
               obtain copies of this standard from Standardization
               Document Order Desk, 700 Robbins Avenue, Building 4D,
               Philadelphia, PA 19111-5094. The private sector and other
               Government agencies may purchase copies from the American
               Society of Mechanical Engineers, 345 East 47th Street, New
               York, NY 10017.

                Custodians:                                          Adopting Activity
                Army - ME                                            Navy - YD-1
                Navy - YD-1
                Air Force - 99




                                                                              FSC 4710

                DISTRIBUTION STATEMENTA. Approved for public release;
                distribution is unlimited.




COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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                             STD=ASME B31-Y-ENGL     1778 9 0 7 5 1 b 7 0 Ob07185 311


                       The American Society of
                       Mechanical Engineers




             A N                      N             S
                        A M E R I C A N A T I O N A L T A N D A R D




                                        PL E R NP M T N
                                         I I
                                        PEN T A SO AO   II
                                            SYSTEMS FOR LIQUID
                                            HYDROCARBONS A
                                                 OTHER LIQUIDS



                                                                 A M B31.4-1988 EditiOII
                                                                  SE

COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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                                                          Date of Issuance: April 30, 1999
                                                          Mandatory Date: October 31,1999

                       The 1998 Edition of this Code is being issued with an automatic update service that
                    includes Addenda,Interpretations,and Cases. The next Edition scheduled for publication
                                                                                   is
                    in 2001.
                       The use of Addenda allows revisions made in response to public review comments or
                    committee actions to be published on a regular basis; revisions published in Addenda will
                    become effective 6 months after the Date of Issuance of the Addenda.
                       ASME issues writtenreplies to inquiries concerning interpretationsof technical aspects
                    of the Code. The Interpretations are published in a separate supplement.
                       Periodically certain actions of the ASME B31 Committee will be published as Cases.
                    While these Cases do not constitute formal revisions of the Code, they may be used in
                    specifications, or otherwise, as representing considered opinions of the Committee. The
                    Cases are published in a separate supplement.
                       The user of the Code will note that metric equivalents of U.S. Customary units appear
                    in many places in this Code. The values statedin U.S. Customary units are to be regarded
                    as the standard, unless otherwise agreed between contracting parties.




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                                                          Copyright O 1999 by
                                           THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS
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                                                          CONTENTS


                 Foreword .................................................................................            xi
                                                                                                                       ...
                 Personnel .................................................................................          x111

                 Introduction ...............................................................................         wii
                 Summary of Changes ......................................................................            xix
                 Chapter I      Scope and Definitions
                 400            GeneralStatements .........................................................             1
                 400.1          scope .....................................................................             1
                 400.2          Definitions .................................................................           2
                 Figures
                 400.1.1        DiagramShowingScope of ASME B31.4 ExcludingCarbonDioxide
                                  PipelineSystems(SeeFig . 400.1.2) ......................................              3
                 400.1.2        DiagramShowingScope of ASME B31.4 for CarbonDioxidePipeline
                                  Systems .................................................................             4
                 Chapter II     Design
                 PartI          Conditions and Criteria ...................................................             9
                 401            DesignConditions      .........................................................         9
                 401.1          General ...................................................................             9
                 401.2          Pressure ...................................................................            9
                 401 3
                    .           Temperature ...............................................................             9
                 40 14  .       AmbientInfluences .........................................................             9
                 401.5          Dynamic Effects ...........................................................             9
                 40 1.6         Weight Effects .............................................................            9
                 40 17  .       Thermal            and
                                        Expansion Contraction    Loads         ..................................      10
                 401.8          RelativeMovement of Connected Components ...............................               10
                 402            Design Criteria    ............................................................        10
                 402.1          General ...................................................................            10
                 402.2          Pressure-TemperatureRatings for PipingComponents ........................              10
                 402.3          Allowable  Stresses Other
                                                  and     StressLimits          .................................      11
                 402.4          Allowances ................................................................            14
                 402.5          FracturePropagation in CarbonDioxidePipelines         ............................     14
                 Part 2         PressureDesign of PipingComponents ....................................                14
                 403            Criteria for PressureDesign of PipingComponents ..........................             14
                 404            PressureDesign of Components ............................................              14
                 404.1          Straight
                                       Pipe      ..............................................................        14
                 404.2          CurvedSegments of Pipe ..................................................              16
                 404.3          Intersections ...............................................................          16
                 404.5          PressureDesign of Flanges .................................................            24
                 404.6          Reducers ..................................................................            24
                 404.7          PressureDesign of OtherPressureContainingComponents             ...................    24

                 Part 3          DesignApplications of PipingComponentsSelection         and Limitations   ......      25

                                                                  ...
                                                                  111




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            Chapter II        Design (Cont’d)
            405               Pipe .......................................................................        25
            405.2             MetallicPipe ..............................................................         25
            406               Fittings.Elbows.Bends.andIntersections       ...................................    25
            406.1             Fittings ....................................................................       25
            406.2             Bends.Miters.and     Elbows .................................................       25
            406.3             Couplings .................................................................         26
            406.4             Reductions ................................................................         26
            406.5             Intersections ...............................................................       26
            406.6             Closures ...................................................................        26
            407               Valves ....................................................................         27
            407.1             General ...................................................................         27
            407.8             SpecialValves .............................................................         27
            408               Hanges.Facings.Gaskets.andBolting         ......................................    27
            408.1             Flanges ....................................................................        27
            408.3             FlangeFacings     ............................................................      27
            408.4             Gaskets ...................................................................         21
            408.5             Bolting ....................................................................        28
            409               U e PipingComponentsandEquipment ....................................
                               sd                                                                                 28
            Part 4            SelectionandLimitation of Piping Joints .................................           28
            41 1              Welded Joints    .............................................................      28
             1 .
            4 12              ButtWelds ................................................................          28
            412               Flanged Joints   .............................................................      28
            412.1             General ...................................................................         28
            414               Threaded  Joints ............................................................       28
            414.1             General ...................................................................         28
            418               Sleeve.Coupled.andOtherPatentedJoints          ..................................   29
            418.1             General ...................................................................         29
             Part 5           Expansion.Flexibility.StructuralAttachments.Supports.and
                                Restraints ..............................................................         29
             419              ExpansionandFlexibility ...................................................         29
             419.1            General ...................................................................         29
               95
             41 .             Flexibility .................................................................       29
             419.6            Properties .................................................................        29
             419.7            Analysis ...................................................................        30
             420              Loads on PipeSupportingElements .........................................           33
             420.1            General ...................................................................         33
             421              Design of PipeSupportingElements       ........................................     33
             421.1            Supports.Braces.andAnchors      ..............................................      33
             Part 6           AuxiliaryandOtherSpecificPiping         .......................................     33
             422              DesignRequirements .......................................................          33
             422.3            InstrumentandOtherAuxiliaryLiquidPetroleum          or LiquidAnhydrous
                                AmmoniaPiping .........................................................           33
             422.6            PressureDisposalPiping     ...................................................      33
             Figures
             4431b()
              0..()3          ReinforcedExtrudedOutlets   ................................................        17
             4 4 3 l c ( 1)
              0..()           Welding Details for OpeningsWithCompleteEncirclementTypesof
                                Reinforcement ...........................................................         19
                              WeldingDetailsforOpeningsWithLocalizedTypeReinforcement             ...........     20



                                                                 iv



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                    Chapter II      Design (Cont'd)
                    404.3.1(~)(3)   WeldingDetailsforOpeningsWithoutReinforcementOther              Than That
                                      in HeaderandBranchWalls        .............................................       21
                    404.3.1(d)(2)   ReinforcementofBranchConnections        .......................................      23
                    419.6.4(c)      FlexibilityFactor k andStressIntensificationFactor     i ........................    31
                    Tables
                    402.3.1(a)      Tabulation of Examples ofAllowableStresses for Reference Use in
                                      PipingSystemsWithintheScope      of ThisCode ...........................           12
                    402.4.3         Weld Joint Factor E .......................................................          15
                    404.3.1(c)      Design Criteria forWeldedBranchConnections      .............................        21
                    Chapter III     Materials
                    423             Materials - GeneralRequirements .........................................            35
                    423.1           Acceptable        and
                                              Materials Specifications       .....................................       35
                    423.2           Limitations on Materials ....................................................        35
                    425             MaterialsApplied to MiscellaneousParts ....................................          35
                    425.3           Gaskets ...................................................................          35
                    425.4           Bolting ....................................................................         35
                    Table
                    423.1                  Standards
                                    Material             .........................................................       36
                    Chapter IV      Dimensional Requirements
                    426                      Requirements and
                                    Dimensional       for Nonstandard
                                                     Standard      Piping
                                      Components ..............................................................          39
                    426.1           Standard
                                       Piping
                                       Components                ...............................................         39
                    426.2           Nonstandard
                                           Piping
                                            Components              ............................................         39
                    426.3           Threads ...................................................................          39
                    Table
                    426.1           Dimensional
                                       Standards             .....................................................       40
                    Chapter V       Construction.Welding. and Assembly
                    434             Construction ...............................................................         41
                    434.1           General ...................................................................          41
                    434.2           Inspection .................................................................         41
                    434.3                of
                                    Right Way        .............................................................       41
                    434.4           Handling. Hauling.         and
                                                      Stringing. Storing           ...................................   41
                    434.5           DamagetoFabricatedItemsandPipe            .......................................    41
                    434.6           Ditching ...................................................................         42
                    434.7           Bends.Miters.andElbows         .................................................     42
                    434.8           Welding ...................................................................          43
                    434.9           Tie-In .....................................................................         47
                    434.10          Installation of Pipe in the Ditch ............................................       47
                    434.11          Backfilling .................................................................        41
                    434.12          Restoration of Right of Wayand Cleanup ...................................           48
                    434.13          Special Crossings ..........................................................         48
                    434.14          InlandCoastalWaterConstruction         ..........................................    49
                    434.15          BlockandIsolatingValves        .................................................     49
                    434.16          ConnectionstoMainLines         .................................................     50
                    434.17          ScraperTraps ..............................................................          50
                    434.18          LineMarkers ..............................................................           50
                    434.19          CorrosionControl ..........................................................          50


                                                                        V




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            Chapter V     Construction.
                                     Welding.
                                           and            Assembly (Cont’d)
           434.20         Pump Station. Farm. Terminal
                                      Tank       and        Construction              ........................     50
           434.21         Storage and Working   Tankage      ..............................................        51
           434.22         Electrical Installations ......................................................          52
           434.23             Metering
                          Liquid              ...........................................................          52
           434.24         Liquid Strainers and Filters .................................................           52
           435                     of
                          AssemblyPiping  Components           ............................................        53
           435.1          General ...................................................................              53
           435.2                Procedure
                          Bolting              ..........................................................          53
           435.3                  Unit
                          Pumping Piping           .......................................................         53
           435.4          Manifolds .................................................................              53
           435.5          AuxiliaryLiquidPetroleum.CarbonDioxide.LiquidAnhydrous
                            Ammonia. or Liquid    AlcoholPiping       ......................................       53
           Figures
           434.8.6(a)-(1)
                        Acceptable Welded Design
                                 Butt    Joint                   for Equal Thicknesses
                                                                         Wall                  ............ 45
           434.8.6(a)-(2)
                        Acceptable Welded
                                 Butt              Joint Design Unequal Thicknesses
                                                               for     Wall                       ......... 46
           434.8.6(b)      RecommendedAttachment
                                               Details       of Flanges ................................    48
           Table
           434.qa)        Minimum
                               Cover        for Buried Pipelines .......................................           43
           Chapter VI     InspectionandTesting
           436            Inspection .................................................................             55
           436.1          General ...................................................................              55
           436.2                      of
                          Qualification     Inspectors ..................................................          55
           436.5          Type ExtentExamination
                              and      of          Required             ..................................         55
           436.6          Repair of Defects ..........................................................             56
           437            Testing ....................................................................             56
           437.1          General ...................................................................              56
           437.4            Pressure
                          Test            ..............................................................           56
           437.6          Qualification Tests .........................................................            57
           437.7          Records ...................................................................              58
           Chapter VI1    OperationandMaintenanceProcedures
           450            OperationandMaintenanceProcedures          Affecting theSafetyofLiquid
                             Transportation Systems
                                          Piping               ............................................        59
           450.1          General ...................................................................              59
           450.2                   and            Plans Procedures
                          Operation Maintenance and                              ............................      59
           45 1                  Operation Maintenance
                          Pipeline        and                      ........................................        60
           451.1                  Pressure
                          Operating             .........................................................          60
           451.2          Communications ...........................................................               60
           45 1.3         Markers ...................................................................              60
           45 1.4         Right of Maintenance
                                  Way                    .................................................         60
           45 1.5         Patrolling ..................................................................            60
           45 1.6               Repairs
                          Pipeline            ...........................................................          60
           45 1.7         Derating a Pipeline a
                                              toLowerOperating Pressure            ..........................      64
           45 1.8             Maintenance .........................................................
                          Valve                                                                                    64
           451.9          Railroads and Highways Crossing       Existing Pipelines .........................       64
           45 1.10             Waters
                          Inland            Risers
                                     Platform               ..............................................         65
           452            Pump Station. Terminal. Tank
                                                   and Farm     Operation Maintenance
                                                                         and                           .........   65
           452.1          General ...................................................................              65
           452.2          Controls Protective
                                  and         Equipment          ..........................................        65

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                     Chapter VI1             and        Procedures
                                    Operation Maintenance        (Cont’d)
                    452.3           StorageVessels ............................................................          65
                    452.4           Storage of CombustibleMaterials ...........................................          65
                    452.5           Fencing ...................................................................          65
                    452.6           Signs ......................................................................         65
                    452.7           Prevention of AccidentalIgnition ...........................................         65
                    453             CorrosionControl ..........................................................          66
                    454             EmergencyPlan     ...........................................................        66
                    455             Records ...................................................................          67
                    456             Qualifying a PipingSystem for a HigherOperatingPressure .................            67
                    457             Abandoning a PipingSystem ...............................................            67
                    Figure
                    451.6.2(a)(7)ParametersUsed      in Analysis of the Strength of CorrodedAreas       ..............   62
                    Chapter VI11 CorrosionControl
                    460          General ...................................................................             69
                    46 1         ExternalCorrosionControl for BuriedorSubmergedPipelines          ...............        69
                    461.1        New Installations ..........................................................            69
                    461.2        ExistingPipingSystems ....................................................              71
                    461.3        Monitoring ................................................................             71
                    462          InternalCorrosionControl   ..................................................           72
                    462.1        New Installations ..........................................................            72
                    462.2        ExistingPipingSystems    ....................................................           72
                    462.3        Monitoring ................................................................             72
                    463          ExternalCorrosionControl for PipingExposedtoAtmosphere           ...............        73
                    463.1        New Installations ..........................................................            73
                    463.2        ExistingPipingSystems    ....................................................           73
                    463.3        Monitoring ................................................................             73
                    464          Corrective Measures ........................................................            73
                    465          Records ...................................................................             73
                    Chapter IX     OffshoreLiquidPipeline Systems
                    A400           General Statememts ........................................................           75
                    A400.1         scope .....................................................................           75
                    A400.2         Definitions .................................................................         75
                    A40 1          Design Conditions .........................................................           76
                    A401.1         General ...................................................................           76
                    A40 1.9        InstallationDesign Considerations ...........................................         76
                    A401.10        Operational DesignConsiderations       ..........................................     77
                    A401.11        Hydrostatic Test DesignConsiderations ......................................          78
                    A401.12        Route Selection Considerations .............................................          78
                    A402           Design Criteria ............................................................          79
                    A402.3         Allowable Stresses and Other Stress Limits .................................          79
                    A402.4         Allowances ................................................................           83
                    A404           Pressure Design of Components ............................................            83
                    A404.1         Straight Pipe ..............................................................          83
                    A404.3         Intersections ...............................................................         83
                    A405           Pipe .......................................................................          83
                    A405.2         Metallic Pipe ..............................................................          83
                    A405.3         Flexible Pipe ..............................................................          84
                    A406           Fittings.Elbows.Bends.andIntersections         ...................................    84




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           Chapter IX           Liquid
                         Offshore    Pipeline         Systems (Cont’d)
          A406.2         Bends.      and
                               Miters. Elbows             .................................................      84
          A406.4         Reductions ................................................................             84
          A406.6         Closures ...................................................................            84
          A407           Valves ....................................................................             84
          A407.1         General ...................................................................             84
          A408           Flanges.Facings. Gaskets. and     Bolting    ......................................     84
          A408.1         Flanges ....................................................................            84
          A408.3             Facings
                         Flange               ............................................................       84
          A409           Used Piping              and
                                    Components Equipment                 ....................................    84
          A410               Design Considerations ................................................
                         Other                                                                                   84
          A410.1         Pigs and        Inspection
                                  Internal          Tools         ..........................................     84
          A410.2         Special Components ........................................................             84
          A414           ThreadedJoints       ............................................................       85
          A414.1         General ...................................................................             85
          A419                      and
                         Expansion Flexibility          ....................................................     85
          A42 1          Design of Pipe-Supporting     Elements     ........................................     85
          A423           Materials - General     Requirements      .........................................     85
          A423.1         Acceptable Materials and Specifications .....................................           85
          A423.2         Limitations on Materials ....................................................           85
          A434           Construction ...............................................................            85
          A434.2         Inspection .................................................................            85
          A434.3         Right-of-way ..............................................................             85
          A434.4         Handling. Hauling.Stringing.and        Storing ...................................      85
          A434.6         Ditching ...................................................................            85
          A434.7         Bends.Miters. Elbows
                                     and                  .................................................      86
          A434.8         Welding ...................................................................             86
          A434.11        Backfilling .................................................................           86
          A434.13        Special Crossings ..........................................................            86
          A434.14        OffshorePipeline
                                        Construction         ..............................................      86
          A434.15             and
                         Block Isolating Valves           .................................................      87
          A434.18        Line
                           Markers         ..............................................................        87
          A436           Inspection .................................................................            87
          A436.2         Qualification
                                     of      Inspectors ..................................................       87
          A436.5         Type ExtentExamination
                             and      of             Required              ..................................    87
          A437           Testing ....................................................................            87
          A437.1         General ...................................................................             87
          A437.4         Test
                           Pressure       ..............................................................         87
          A437.6         Qualification Tests .........................................................           87
          A437.7         Records ...................................................................             88
          A450           OperationandMaintenanceProcedures            Affecting the Safety ofLiquid
                           Transportation Systems
                                          Piping               ............................................      88
           A450.2        Operation Maintenance and
                                   and              Plans Procedures              ............................   88
           A45 1         Pipeline
                                Operation Maintenance
                                         and                        ........................................     88
           A45 1.3       Markers ...................................................................             88
           A45 1.4       Right-of-wayMaintenance          .................................................      88
           A45 1.5       Patrolling ..................................................................           88
           A45 1.6       Pipeline
                               Repairs         ...........................................................       88
           A45 1.7       DeratingPipeline
                                  a              to aLower Operating      Pressure ..........................    89
           A45 1.8       ValveMaintenance        .........................................................       89
           A45 1.9       Railroads and  Highways   Crossing     Existing Pipelines .........................     89

                                                              ...
                                                              11
                                                             v1




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                    Chapter IX      Offshore Liquid Pipeline Systems (Cont’d)
                   A451.10          OffshorePipelineRisers ....................................................      89
                   A451.11          Inspection .................................................................     89
                   A452             OffshorePlatform.PumpStation.Terminal.andTank           Farm Operationand
                                      Maintenance .............................................................      89
                   A452.5           Fencing ...................................................................      89
                   A452.7           Prevention Accidental
                                              of         Ignition      ...........................................   89
                   A454             Emergency Plan    ...........................................................    89
                   A460             General ...................................................................      89
                   A46 1            ExternalCorrosionControlforOffshoreSubmergedPipelines           ................ 90
                   A461.1           New Installations ..........................................................     90
                   A46 1.3          Monitoring ................................................................      91
                   A463             ExternalCorrosionControl for OffshorePipingSystemsExposed          to
                                      Atmospheric  Conditions ..................................................     91
                   A463.1           New Installations ..........................................................     91
                   Table
                   A402.3.5(a)      DesignFactorsforOffshorePipelineSystems        ...............................   80
                   Appendices
                   A                ReferencedStandards .......................................................      93
                   B                Submittal of TechnicalInquiries to theB31PressurePipingCommittee       .......   97
                   Index    ....................................................................................     99




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                                                                  FOREWORD


                     need
                  The for                     code pressure
                                  a national for               piping           intensive review of the 1942 code, and a revised code
               became increasingly        from to
                                   evident 1915 1925.       To                  was         and
                                                                                   approved published                    1951
                                                                                                               in February with
                               the
               meet this need American       Engineering   Standards            thedesignation ASA B31.1-1951,whichincluded:
               Committee(laterchanged to theAmericanStandards                      (a) a general revision and extension of requirements
               Association)initiated Project          in
                                                  B31 March           1926at    to agree with practices current at the time;
               therequest of TheAmericanSociety               of Mechanical
               Engineers, and with that society as sole sponsor. After             (6) revision references
                                                                                                 of          to       existing dimensional
               severalyears’work by SectionalCommittee B31and                   standardsandmaterialspecifications,and          the addition
               its subcommittees, a first edition was published in 1935         of referencesto new ones;and
               as anAmericanTentativeStandardCodeforPressure                        (c) clarification of ambiguous or conflicting require-
               Piping.                                                          ments.
                  A revision the
                            of original tentative standard was                     Supplement No. 1 to B3 1.1 was approved and pub-
               begun in 1937. Several more years’ effort was given to           lished in 1953 as ASA B31.la-1953. This Supplement
               securing uniformity between sections and to eliminating          andotherapprovedrevisionswereincluded               in a new
              divergent requirements discrepancies,
                                      and                         as well as    edition of B31.1 published in 1955 with the designation
               tokeepingthecodeabreastofcurrentdevelopments                     ASAB31.1-1955.
               in weldingtechnique,stresscomputations,andrefer-                    A review by B31 Executive and Sectional Committees
              ences tonew dimensional and material standards. During            in 1955resulted in a decision to develop and publish
              thisperiod a newsectionwasaddedonrefrigeration                    industry sections as separatecodedocuments              of the
              piping,prepared      in cooperation The
                                                    with American               American Standard B31 Code for Pressure Piping. ASA
              Society of Refrigeration Engineers and complementing              B31.4-1959wasthefirstseparatecodedocument                  for
              the American Standard Code for Mechanical Refrigera-              Oil Transportation Piping Systems and superseded that
              tion. This work  culminated         in the American
                                                        1942                    part of Section 3 of the B3 l. 1- 1955 code covering Oil
              StandardCodeforPressurePiping.                                    Transportation  Piping Systems.                B31.4
                                                                                                                      In 1966 was
                  Supplements 1 and 2 of1942  the               code,
                                                                    which       revised to expand coverage on welding, inspection, and
                                  and
              appeared in 1944 1947,      respectively,  introduced             testing, and to add new chapters     covering construction
              new dimensional and material standards, a new formula             requirements and operation and maintenance procedures
              forpipewallthickness,andmorecomprehensivere-                      affecting the safety of the piping systems. This revision
              quirementsforinstrumentandcontrolpiping.Shortly                   was published with the designation USAS B31.4-1966,
              after the 1942 code was issued, procedures were estab-            Liquid Petroleum Transportation Piping Systems, since
              lishedforhandlinginquiriesthatrequireexplanation                  theAmericanStandardsAssociationwasreconstituted
              or interpretation of code requirements, and for publish-          as the United States of      AmericaStandards Institute
              ingsuchinquiriesandanswers             in Mechanical Engi-        in 1966.                                                         1


              neering fortheinformationofallconcerned.                             The United States       of AmericaStandardsInstitute,
                  Continuing increases in the severity of service condi-        Inc.,changeditsname,effectiveOctober             6, 1969,to
              tions, with concurrent developments ofnew materials               theAmerican  National  Standards        Institute, Inc., and
              and designs equal to meeting these higher requirements,           USASB31.4-1966wasredesignated              as ANSIB31.4-
              had pointedtotheneed         by 1948 formoreextensive              1966.TheB31SectionalCommittee            was redesignated
              changes in the code than could be provided by supple-             as American National Standards Committee B31 Code
              ments alone. The decision was reached by the American             forPressure        and,
                                                                                           Piping, because                      wide
                                                                                                                         of the field
              Standards              and sponsor
                        Association the                        to reorganize    involved, more than 40 different engineering societies,
              the Sectional Committee and its several subcommittees,            governmentbureaus,trade associations, institutes,and
              and to invitethevariousinterestedbodiestoreaffirm                 the like hadone or more representatives on Standards
              their representativesor to designate new ones. Following                      B31,
                                                                                Committee plus              a few“IndividualMembers”
              itsreorganization,SectionalCommitteeB31made                  an   to represent general          Code
                                                                                                     interests.             activities were

                                                                           xi



COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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       subdividedaccordingtothescope         of theseveralsec-          Following publication of the 1986 Edition, clarifying
                                    of
       tions, and general direction Code activities rested   with    and editorial revisions were made to improve the text.
       Standards  Committee B31 officers    and an Executive         Additionally, references to existing standards and mate-
       Committee whose membership consisted principally of              specifications revised,
                                                                     rial             were         and           new references
       Standards  Committee officers chairmen
                                   and                     the
                                                          of         wereadded.Theserevisionsledtothepublication                of
       SectionandTechnicalSpecialistsCommittees.                     an addenda toB3 1 4 which was approved and published
                                                                                          .,
          TheANSI B31.4-1966Code wasrevisedandpub-                   in 1987 as ASMWANSI B31.4a-1987.
       lished in 1971 with the designation ANSI B31.4-1971.             The 1989 Editionof B31.4 wasan inclusion of the
          TheANSI B31.4-1971 Codewasrevisedand               pub     previouslypublishedaddendaintothe            1986 Edition.
       lished in 1974 with the designation ANSI B31.4-1974.             Following publication of the 1989 Edition, clarifying
          In December 1978, American       National
                                                  Standards          revisions were made to improve the text. Additionally,
       Committee B31 was converted to an ASME Committee              references to existing standards and material specifica-
       with procedures accredited by ANSI. The 1979 revision         tions were revised and updated. These revisions        led to
       wasapproved by ASMEandsubsequently              byANSI        thepublication an
                                                                                    of addenda to           B31.4, which    was
       on November 1, 1979, with designation
                                       the                ANSV       approved and published in 1 9 9 1 as ASME B31.4a-1991.
       ASME B31.4-1979.                                                 The 1992 Editionof B31.4 was an inclusion of the
          Following publication of the 1979 Edition, the B3 1.4      previouslypublished         into
                                                                                         addenda the               1989 Edition
       Section Committee began work on expanding the scope           and a revision to valve maintenance. The       1992 Edition
       of the code to cover requirements for the transportation      wasapproved       by the American        Standards
                                                                                                       National
       of liquidalcohols.Referencestoexistingdimensional             Institute onDecember        15, 1992, and  designated as
       standards and material specifications were revised, and       ASME B31.4-1992 Edition.
       new references were added. Other clarifying and edito-           The 1998 Editionof B31.4 is an inclusion of the
       rial revisions were made in order to improve the text.        previouslypublished          into
                                                                                          addenda the              1992 Edition.
       These revisions led to the publication of two addenda         Also included in this Edition are other revisions (noted
       to B31.4. Addenda “b” to B31.4 was approvedand                by the (98) margin notes) and the addition of Chapter
       published in 1981 as ANSYASME B31.4b-1981.Ad-                 IX, Offshore Liquid Pipeline Systems. This     1998 Edition
       denda “c” to B31.4 wasapprovedandpublished              in    wasapproved       by the American        Standards
                                                                                                       National
       1986 as ANSYASME B31.4~-1986.                                 Institute onNovember        11, 1998, and  designated      as
          The 1986 Edition of B31.4 was an inclusion of the          ASME B31.4-1998 Edition.
       two previously published addenda into the1979 Edition.




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                                     ASME CODE FOR PRESSURE PIPING, B31



                                                                       OFFICERS
                                                                   ..
                                                                  L E Hayden, Jr, Chair
                                                                   .
                                                                  D R Frikken, Vice Chair
                                                                    J. Yarmush, Secretary


                            COMMITTEE PERSONNEL
                            P. A. Bouquin, Pleasantville, New Y r
                                                               ok
                                .
                            J. D Byers, Mobile E & P Technology, Dallas, Texas
                            P. .
                              D Flenner, Consumers Energy, Covert, Michigan
                             .
                            D M.Fox, TU Electric, Dallas, Texas
                             .
                            D R Frikken, Solutia Inc., St Louis, Missouri
                            P. H. Gardner, Wilmington, Delaware
                            R W. Haupt, Pressure Piping Engineering Associates. Inc., Foster City, California
                             ..
                            L E Hayden, Jr., Victaulic Company of America, Easton, Pennsylvania
                            R R HomOann, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Washington, District of Columbia
                            B. P. Hdbrodq D.B. Riley Inc., Worcester, Massachusetts
                            G. A. Jolly, Vogt Valve Co., Louisville, Kentucky
                            K. Kaye, West Vancouver. British Columbia, Canada
                            W.B. MrCebce, Houston, Texas
                             .
                            E Michalopoulos, Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance CO., Hartford. Connecticut
                            A. D Nance A.D. Nance Associates, Inc., Evans, Georgia
                                .
                            W.V. Richards, William V. Richards, Inc., Lincolnshire, Illinois
                             .
                            L J. Sh i , Phillips Pipe Line Co., Bartlesville, Oklahoma
                                   cm    z
                                         t
                            G. W. Spohn III, Coleman Spohn Corp.. Cleveland, Ohio
                            R B. West, S a e of Iowa, Des Moines, Iowa
                                          tt
                                                                     ok
                            J. Yatmush, ASME International. New Y r ,New Y r   ok


                            B31.411 LIQUID AND SLURRY PIPING TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS
                            SECTION COMMITTEE
                             .
                            L J. Sehmitz, Chair, Phillips Pipe Line Co., Bartlesville, Oklahoma
                            K. C. Bodenhamer, Vice Chair, Mid-America Pipeline Co., Tulsa, Oklahoma
                            P. Pertuit, UI, Vice Chair. Black Mesa Pipeline Inc., Flagstaff, Arizona
                             .
                            B P. Feder, Secretory, ASME International, New York,New York
                                .
                            R S BPrtield, Barfield Engineers Inc. Humble, Texas
                                .
                            J. P Barrett, Conoco Inc., Ponca City, Oklahoma
                             .
                            L C. Bennington Milepost Consulting Services. Inc., Mansfield, Texas
                               .
                            A. E Beyer, Bechtel Corp., Houston, Texas
                            R R Burnett, Tulsa, Oklahoma
                             ..
                            E E Cavanagh, Mustang, Engineering, Inc., Houston, Texas
                            J. A. Cox, Colonial Pipeline Co.. Atlanta, Georgia
                                .
                            R D Denver, Deatech Consulting Co., Houston, Texas
                                .
                            F. E Fiseher, Shell Oil Products Co., Houston, Texas
                             .
                            E P. Hagen, Teppco, Houston, Texas
                             .
                            E G. Jones, Bechtel, San Francisco, California
                             .
                            D B. Kadakia, TD Williamson Inc., Tulsa, Oklahoma


                                                                             xiii



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                      J. F. Kiefner, Kiefner & Associates Inc., Worthington, Ohio
                      A. I. MacDonald, Consulting Metallurgical Engr., Upland, California
                      M. H. Matheson, American Petroleum Institute. Washington, District of Columbia
                      T. J. O’Grady, II, Arco Alaska Inc., Anchorage, Alaska
                      W. M. Olson, Gulf Interstate Engineering Co., Houston, Texas
                      S. R Peterson, Lakehead Pipe Line Co., Duluth, Minnesota
                      J. T. Powers, Parsons Energy & Chemicals, Houston, Texas
                      E C. Schoenfeldt, Independence, Kansas
                       .
                      R. N. Tennille, Pipeline & Terminal Engineering Consultants, Houston, Texas
                      D. R Turner, Williams Energy Group, Tulsa, Oklahoma
                      L W. Ulrich, US Department of Transportation, Washington, District of Columbia
                       .
                          .
                      J. E Zimmerhanzel, Brown & Root Inc., Houston, Texas
                      C. Zimmernan, NTSB, Washington, District of Columbia


                      B31 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE
                       . .
                      L E Hayden, Jr., Chair, Victaulic Company of America, Easton, Pennsylvania
                      D. R Frikken, Vice Chair, Solutia, Inc.. St. Louis, Missouri
                      J. Yarmush, Secrerary, ASME International. New York, New York
                      P. D. Flenner, Consumers Energy, Covert, Michigan
                      A. D. Nance, A.D. Nana Associates, Inc., Evans, Georgia



                      B31 MATERIALS, FABRICATIONS, AND EXAMINATION TECHNICAL
                      COMMITTEE
                       .
                      P D. Flenner, Chair, Consumers Energy, Covert, Michigan
                      J. Yannush, Secretary, ASME International, New York, New York
                      E. Michalopoulos, Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Company, Hartford, Connecticut
                                    ~,
                      W.G. S c ~ g gE.I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Wilmington, Delaware
                      R I. Seals, Berkeley, California
                      R J. Silvia, Process Engineering & Constructors Inc., Warwick, Rhode Island
                      W.J. Sperko, Sperko Engineering Services, Inc., Greensboro, North Carolina
                      E. F. Summers, Jr., Babcock ¿ Barberton, Ohio
                                                       Wilcox,
                                                         I



                      B31 MECHANICAL DESIGN TECHNICAL COMMITTEE
                       .
                      R W.Haupt, Chair, Pressure Piping Engineering AssociatesInc., Foster City, California
                      J. Yannush, Secretary. ASME International. New York, New York
                      G. A. Antaki, Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, South Carolina
                      C. Becht IV,Becht Engineering Co., Liberty Corner, New Jersey
                      J. P Breen, Pressure Sciences Inc., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
                          .
                      J. P. Ellenberger, WFl International Inc., Houston, Texas
                      D. J. Fetzner, Arco Alaska Inc., Anchorage, Alaska
                      J. A. Graziano, Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, Tennessee
                      J. D. Hart, SSD Engmeering ConsultantslRebis, Walnut Creek, California
                       . .
                      B P Holbrook, D.B. Riley Inc., Worcester, Massachusetts
                      W.J. Koves, UOP LLC, Des Plaines, Illinois
                       .
                      P L. Lin, Wisconsin Public Service Corp., Kewaunee, Wisconsin
                      G. Mayen, Naval Sea Systems Comm., Arlington, Virginia
                      T Q. McCawley, Charlotte, North Carolina
                       .
                       .
                      E Michalopoulos, Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Co., Hartford, Connecticut
                      J. C. Minichiello, J. C. Minnichiello Consulting Inc., Lake Bluff, Illinois
                      A. D. Nance, A.D. Nance Associates, Inc., Evans, Georgia
                      T. J. O’Grady II, Arco Alaska Inc., Anchorage, Alaska
                      A. W. Paulin, Paulin Research Group, The Woodlands. Texas
                      P. S. Rampone, Hart Design Group, Greenville, Rhode Island
                      R A. Robleto, Brown & Root Inc., Houston, Texas
                      E. C. Rodabaugh, Dublin, Ohio
                      M. J. Rosenfeld, Kiefner & Associates Inc., Worthington, Ohio


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                      S T D * A S M E B 3 1 - 4 - E N G L L778 W 0759b70 Ob07L78 T7T W




                             G. Stevick, Berkeley Engineering & Research Inc., Berkeley, California
                                 .
                             Q. N Truong, M. W. Kellogg Co., Houston, Texas
                              .
                             E A. Wais, Wais and Associates Inc., Norcross, Georgia
                                 .
                             G. E Woads, Houston, Texas




                             B31 CONFERENCE GROUP
                              .
                             T A. Bell, Pipeline Safety Engineer, Olympia, Washington
                             M. L. Brunton, K m , Topeka, Kansas
                             G. Bynog, Texas Department of Labor and Standards, Austin, Texas
                             R A. Coomes, Department of HousinglBoiler Section, Frankfort, Kentucky
                             A. W. Diamond, Department of Labour & Manpower, Saint Johns, Newfoundland, Canada
                                  .
                             M. P Fitzpatrick, Department of Labour & Human Resources, Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada
                             J. W. Greenawalt, Jr., Oklahoma Department of Labor, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma
                              . .
                             D H Hanrath, North Carolina D.O.L., Raleigh, North Carolina
                             C. J. Harvey, Alabama Public Service Commission, Montgomery, Alabama
                              .
                             D T. Jagger, Ohio Department of Commerce, Reynoldsburg, Ohio
                             M. Kotb, Regie du Batiment du Quebec, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
                                  .
                             K. T Lau, Alberta Boiler Safety Assoc., Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
                             R G. Marini, New Hampshire. Public Utilities Commission, Concord, New Hampshire
                             1 W. Mault, Manitoba Department of Labour, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
                              .
                             A. W. Meiring, Fire and Building Boiler and Pressure Vessel Division, Indianapolis, Indiana
                             R F. Mullaney, Boiler and Pressure Vessel Safety Branch, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
                             W. A. Owen, North Dakota Public Service Commission, Bismarck, North Dakota
                             W. M. Picardo, Department of Consumer and Regulatory Affairs, Washington, District of Columbia
                              .
                             P Sher, State of Connecticut, New Britain, Connecticut
                              ..
                             H E Shutt, Illinois Commerce Commission, Springfield, Illinois
                             M. E Skarda, Department of Labour, Little Rock, Arkansas
                                  .
                             R L. Smith, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina
                              .
                             E L. Sparrow, Board of Public Utilities, Newark, New Jersey
                             D. A. Starr, Department of Labor, Lincoln, Nebraska
                             D. Stursma, Iowa State Department of Commerce, Des Moines, Iowa
                             R P Sullivan, National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors, Columbus, Ohio
                                 .
                                 .
                             J. E Troppman, Division of LaborIBoiler Inspections. Denver, Colorado
                             R W. Vindich, Department of Labor and Industry, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania
                             C. H Walten, National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors. Columbus, Ohio
                                  .
                             W. A. West, Department of Labour, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada
                              .
                             T F. Wickham, Department of Labor, Providence, Rhode Island




                             B31 NATIONAL INTEREST REVIEW GROUP
                             American Boiler Manufacturers Association - R. Fletcher
                             American Institute of Chemical Engineers - W. C. Carnell
                             American Pipe Fitting Association - H. Thielsch
                             American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers  - H. R. Komblum
                             Chemical Manufacturers Association - D. R. Frikken
                             Compressed Gas Association - M. F. Melchioris
                             Copper Development Association - A. Cohen
                             Ductile Iron pipe Research Association - T. F. Stroud
                             Edison Electric Institute - R. L. Williams
                             International District Heating Association - G . M. Von Bargen
                             Manufacturers Standardization Society of the Valve and Fittings Industry  - R. A. Schmidt
                             National Association of Plumbing-Heating-Cooling Contractors - R. E. White
                             National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners - D. W. Snyder
                             National Certified Pipe Welding Bureau - J. Hansmann


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                 S T D * A S f l E B 3 1 - 4 - E N G L 1798     m     0757b70 Ob09177 70b   m



                        National Fire Protection Association - T. C. Lemoff
                        National Fluid Power Association - H. G. Anderson
                        pipe Fabrication Institute - L. Katz
                        Slurry Transport Association - P. E. Snoek
                        Society of Ohio Safety Engineers - J. M. Holleran
                        Valve Manufacturers Association - R. A. Handschumacher




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COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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                                                           INTRODUCTION


                TheASMEB31Code            for PressurePiping consists             agreement   specifically between
                                                                                             is          made                      contracting
             of anumberofindividuallypublished           Sections, each           parties to use  another issue, or the regulatory body
             an American National Standard. Hereafter, in this Intro-             having jurisdiction imposestheuseofanother             issue,
             ductionandinthetextofthisCode              Section B31.4,            the latest Edition and Addenda issued at least 6 months
             where the word ‘‘Code” is used without specific identi-              prior to the original contract date for the firstphase
             fication, it means this CodeSection.                                 of activity coveringapipingsystem          or systems shall
                The Code sets forth engineering requirements deemed               bethegoverningdocument           for all design, materials,
             necessary for safe design and construction of pressure               fabrication, erection, examination,and testing for the
             piping. While safety is the    basic consideration, this             piping until the  completion of the and work initial
             factor alone will not necessarily govern the final specifi-          operation.
             cations for any piping system. The designer is cautioned                Users of this Code are cautioned against making use
             that the Code is not a designhandbook; it does not                   of Code revisions without               that
                                                                                                                assurance they              are
             do away with the need for the designer or for competent              acceptable to theproper authorities inthe jurisdiction
             engineering judgment.                                                wherethepiping is to be installed.
                To the greatest possible extent, Coderequirements                    Code       will that
                                                                                           users note paragraphs the in Code
             for design are stated in terms of basic design principles            are notnecessarilynumbered consecutively. Such dis-
             and formulas. These supplemented
                                    are                    as necessary           continuities resultfromfollowingacommon              outline,
             with specific requirements to assure uniform application             insofar as practicable, for all Code Sections. In this way,
             of principles and to guide selection and application of              corresponding material is correspondingly numbered in
             piping elements. The Code prohibits designs and prac-                most Code Sections, thus facilitating reference by those
             tices known to be unsafe and contains warnings where                 whohaveoccasion to usemorethanone                Section.
             caution, butnotprohibition,      is warranted.                          The Code is under the direction of ASME Committee
                ThisCodeSection includes:                                         B3 1, Code for Pressure Piping, which is organized and
                (u) references to acceptable material specifications              operates under procedures of The American Society of
             andcomponent        standards, includingdimensional re-              MechanicalEngineerswhichhavebeenaccredited                 by
             quirementsand pressure-temperature ratings;                          the American National StandardsInstitute. The Cornmit-
                (b) requirements for design ofcomponentsand          as-          teeisa     continuing oneandkeepsallCode            Sections
             semblies, including pipe supports;                                   current with new developments in        materials, construc-
                ( c ) requirements and data for evaluation and limita-            tion, and industrial practice. Addenda are issued periodi-
             tionof stresses, reactions, andmovementsassociated                   cally. New editions are published at intervals of 3 to
             with pressure, temperature changes, andother forces;                 5 years.
                                                                                     Whenno Section oftheASMECode                 for Pressure
                (d) guidance  and limitations on   the    selection and
                                                                                  Piping specifically covers a piping system, at his discre-
             application of materials, components, and joining
                                                                                  tion the user may select any Section determined to be
             methods;
                                                                                  generally applicable. However, it is      cautionedthat
                (e) requirements for the fabrication, assembly,and                supplementary requirements to the Section chosen may
             erection of piping;                                                  benecessarytoprovidefora            safe pipingsystem for
                 cfl requirements examination,
                                  for                  inspection, and            theintendedapplication.Technical          limitations of the
             testing of piping;                                                   various Sections, legal requirements, and possible appli-
                (g) proceduresforoperation       andmaintenance that              cability of other codes or standards are someofthe
             are essential topublic safety; and                                   factors to be considered by the user determining
                                                                                                                             in
                (h) provisions for protecting pipelines from external             the applicability ofany Section of this Code.
             corrosion andinternal corrosiotderosion.                                The Committee has established an orderly procedure
                It is intended that this Edition of Code Section B31.4            toconsider requests for interpretation andrevisionof
             and any subsequent Addenda not be retroactive. Unless                Code requirements. To receive consideration, inquiries

                                                                           xvii



COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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        must be in writingandmustgivefullparticulars           (see           ever, theprovisionsof      a Case maybeusedafter        its
        Mandatory Appendix coveting preparation of technical                  expiration or withdrawal, providing the Case was effec-
        inquiries).                                                           tive on the original contract date or was adopted before
           The approved reply to an inquiry will be sent directly                         of work,
                                                                              completion the       and          the contracting parties
        to the inquirer. In addition, the question and reply will             agree to its use.
        be published as part of    an Interpretation Supplement                  Materials are listedin the stress tables onlywhen
        issuedtothe applicable Code Section.                                  sufficient usage in piping within the scope of the Code
           A Case is the prescribed form of reply to an inquiry               has been shown. Materials may be covered by a Case.
        when indicates the wording
             study         that Code      needs                               Requests for listing shall include evidence of satisfactory
        clarification or when the reply modifies existing require-                 and
                                                                              usage specific         data to permit establishmentof
                                                                              allowable stresses, maximum and minimum temperature
        mentsoftheCode          or grants permission to use  new
                                                                              limits, and other restrictions. Additional criteria can be
        materials or alternative constructions. ProposedCases
                                                                              found in the guidelines foradditionofnewmaterials
        are published  in Mechanical   Engineering        public
                                                        for
                                                                              in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section
        review. In addition, the Case will be published     as part
                                                                              II andSection      VIU, Division 1, Appendix B. (To
        ofaCaseSupplementissuedtothe             applicable Code              developusageandgain         experience, unlistedmaterials
        Section.                                                              may be used in accordancewith para. 423.1.)
           A Case is normally issued for a limited period, after                 Requests for interpretation and suggestions for revi-
        which it may be renewed,incorporated in theCode,                      sion should be addressed to the Secretary, ASME B31
        or allowed to expire if there is no indication of further             Committee, Three Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016
        needfortherequirementscoveredbythe            Case. How-




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                                                     SUMMARY OF CHANGES


                    Changes given below are identified on the pages by a margin note,   (981, placed next to the affected area.
                    Page                  Location                          Change

                    iii, v-ix             Contents                          Updated to reflect 98 changes
                    xi¡                   Foreword                          (1) Next-to-last paragraph revised
                                                                            (2) New last paragraph added
                    xviii                 Introduction                      Last paragraph revised
                    2, 5,6                400.1.1                           New third paragraph added
                                          400.1.2                           Subparagraph (h) revised
                                          400.2                             (1) acciaéntal loads, breakaway coupling,
                                                                                buckle, cold springing, column buckling,
                                                                                connectors, design life, soil liquefaction,
                                                                                span, and weight coating added
                                                                            (2) nominal pipe size (NPS) revised
                                                                            (3) offshore deleted
                    9                     401.5.6                           Revised
                     10                   402.1                             Second paragraph revised
                    11                    402.3.2                           Subparagraph (e) deleted
                     14                   404.1.1                           Under subparagraph (b), nomenclature for r
                                                                             revised
                    16                    404.2.2                           Subparagraph (b) revised
                                          404.3.1                            Subparagraph (aX2) revised
                    24                    404.5.1                            Subparagraphs (b) and (d) revised
                                          404.6                              Subparagraph (a) revised
                    25                    406.1.1                            Subparagraphs (a) and (b) revised
                    26                    406.4. I                           Revised
                                          406.6.2                            Revised
                    27,28                 408.1.1                            Subparagraphs (b) and (d) revised
                                          408.3.1                            Revised
                                          408.4.2                            Subparagraphs (a), (d), and (e) revised
                                          408.5.1                            Subparagraph (b) revised
                                          408.5.2                            Revised


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            Page                Location              Change
            27, 28              414.1                 Revised
            3 1-33              Fig. 419.6.4(c)       (1) On p. 3 1 under Description, fourth entry
                                                          revised
                                                      (2) Extruded weld tee added
                                                      (3) Note (4) revised and Note (1 1) added
            36, 37              Table 423.1           (1) Under Fittings, Valves, and Flanges,
                                                          B 16.5 revised
                                                      (2) Under Structural Materials, ASTM A 537
                                                          added
            40                  Table 426.1           B36.10M, B36.19M, B163 through B16.28,
                                                        B1.l, B1.20.1, and B1.20.3 revised
            42                  434.6                 Subparagraph (c) revised
            43                  Table 434.qa)         Second and third column headings revised
            44                  434.8.5               Subparagraph (a)(4)(d) revised
            49,50               434.13.4              Subparagraph (c) revised
                                434.14                Revised
                                434.15.1              (1) Subparagraph (c) deleted
                                                      (2) Subparagraph (d) redesignated as new (c)
                                434.18                Revised
            51                  434.20.7              Revised
            52                  434.21.2              Subparagraph (b) revised
                                434.21.3              Subparagraphs (a) and (b) revised
                                434.21.5              Revised
                                434.22.1              Revised
            55                  436.5.1               Subparagraphs (b)(9) and(b)( 1 1) revised
            60-64               45 1.6.1              (1) First paragraph designated as
                                                          subparagraph (a)
                                                      (2) Subparagraph (b) added
                                45 1.6.2              (1) Subparagraphs (a)(7X (a)(8), and (b)(2)(b)
                                                          revised
                                                      (2) Subparagraphs (b)(7) and (c)(14) added
                                45 1.9                Subparagraph (a) revised
            65                  451.10                Title revised
                                452.4                 Revised
            67                  455                   Subparagraphs (c) and (e) revised
            69                  461.1.1               (1) Subparagraph (c) deleted
                                                      (2) Subparagraph (d) redesignated as new (c)
            70,71               461.1.3               Subparagraph (e) revised

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                   Page                 Location                          Change

                   70,71                461.1.5                           Subparagraph (a) revised
                                        461.3                            Subparagraph (a) revised
                   73                   465                              Subparagraph (b) revised
                   75-9 1               Chapter IX                       Added
                   93-95                Appendix A                       Revised in its entirety
                   98                   B-6                               Subparagraph (a) revised
                   102,103              Index                             (1) Existing offshore entry deleted
                                                                          (2) Offshore entries to reflect Chapter   IX
                                                                               added

                   NOTES:
                   (1) The Interpretations to ASME B31.4 issued between January 1, 1994, and December 31, 1997,
                       follow the last page of this Edition as a separate supplement, Interpretations No.5.
                   (2) After the Interpretations, a separate supplement, Cases No. 4, follows.




                                                                         xxi




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                        S T D - A S M E B31-4-ENGL 1748                              0757b70 Ob07205 T 3 T




             ASME B31.4-1998Edition                                                                                                   0-0..
                                                                                                                                     404011




                                                                     CHAPTER I

                                                       SCOPE AND DEFINITIONS


             400 GENERALSTATEMENTS                                                    the development of such designs and the evaluation of
                                                                                      complex or combined stresses. In suchcases the designer
                 (u) This Liquid Transportation Systems Code is one                                                        the
                                                                                      is responsible for demonstrating validity            his
                                                                                                                                          of
             ofseveral sections oftheASMECode                   for Pressure          approach.
              Piping, B31. This Section ispublished as a separate                         J
                                                                                          ( I This Code shall not be retroactive or construed
             document for convenience. This Code applies to hydro-                    as applying to piping systems installed before date of
             carbons, liquid   petroleum       gas, anhydrous   ammonia,                                             title
                                                                                      issuance shown on document page insofar as design,
              alcohols, and   carbon dioxide. Throughout Code    this                 materials, construction, assembly, inspection, and testing
              these         will referred
                   systems be                       to as Liquid    Pipeline          are concerned. It is intended, however, that the provi-
              Systems.                                                                sions of this Code shall be applicable within 6 months
                 (b) TherequirementsofthisCode             are adequate for           after date ofissuance to the relocation, replacement,
              safetyunder conditions normally                      in
                                                     encountered the                  anduprating      or otherwisechanging existing piping
              operation of liquid pipeline systems. Requirements for                  systems; and to the operation, maintenance, and corro-
              all abnormal or unusual conditions are not specifically                 sion control ofnew or existing piping systems. After
             provided for, nor are all details of       engineering   and             Code revisions are approved by ASME and ANSI, they
             construction prescribed. All work performed within the                   may be used by agreement between contracting parties
              Scope of this Code shall comply with the safety stan-                   beginning with the date of issuance. Revisions become
             dardsexpressed or implied.                                               mandatory or minimum requirements for new installa-
                 (c) The primary purpose of this Code is to establish                 tions 6 months after date of issuance except for piping
             requirements for safe design, construction, inspection,                  installations or components contracted for or under
             testing, operation, andmaintenanceof            liquid pipeline          construction prior to the endof the 6 month period.
             systemsforprotection         ofthegeneralpublicandop-                       (8) The users of this Code are advised that in some
             erating companypersonnel as well as forreasonable                        areas legislation may establish governmental jurisdiction
             protection of the piping system        against vandalism and             overthe subject mattercovered by this Code andare
             accidental damage by others and reasonable protection                    cautioned against making use of revisions that are less
             of the environment.                                                      restrictive than former  requirements        having
                                                                                                                             without
                 (d) ThisCodeisconcernedwithemployee                    safety        assurance thattheyhavebeenacceptedbytheproper
             to the extent that it is affected by basic design, quality               authorities in                           the
                                                                                                     the jurisdiction where piping to is
             ofmaterialsandworkmanship,andrequirementsfor                             be installed. The Department of Transportation, United
             construction, inspection, testing, operation, and mainte-                States ofAmerica, rules governing the transportation
                    of
             nance liquid          pipeline systems. Existing industrial              by pipeline in interstate and    foreigncommerceof
             safetyregulationspertainingtowork             areas, safe work           petroleum, petroleum products, and liquids such as
                        and
             practices, safety    devices         are not intended to be              anhydrousammonia or carbon dioxide are prescribed
             supplantedbythisCode.                                                    under Part 195 - Transportation of Hazardous Liquids
                 (e) The designer is cautionedthattheCode               isnot         by Pipeline, Title 49 - Transportation, Code of Federal
             adesignhandbook.TheCodedoesnotdoawaywith                                 Regulations.
             theneed for the      engineer or competent        engineering
             judgment. The specific design requirementsof the Code                    400.1 Scope
             usually revolve around simplified
                                    a         engineeringap-
             proach ato        subject. It is intended  that      a designer            400.1.1 This    Code prescribes requirements for the (98)
             capable of applying more complete and         rigorous analysis          design, materials, construction, assembly, inspection,
             tospecial or unusualproblems shall have latitude in                      and testing of piping transporting liquids such as crude

                                                                                 1



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          400.1.14003                                                                                               ASME B31.4-1998 E d i t h

          oil, condensate,  natural gasoline, natural liquids,
                                                          gas                   tanks, other producing facilities, and pipelines intercon-
          liquefied petroleum gas, carbon dioxide, liquid alcohol,              nectingthese facilities;
          liquid anhydrous ammonia, and liquid petroleum prod-                     ( e ) petroleum        natural
                                                                                                  refinery,           gasoline, gaspro-
          uctsbetween           lease
                       producers'               facilities, tank farms,         cessing, ammonia, carbon dioxide processing, and bulk
          natural gas processing plants, refineries, stations, ammo-            plant piping, except as covered under para. 400. l . 1 (c);
          nia plants, terminals (marine, rail, and truck), and other                (f) gas transmissionand distribution piping;
          deliveryandreceiving points. (SeeFig. 400.1.1.)                          ( g ) thedesignandfabrication     of proprietaryitems
             Piping consists of pipe, flanges,     bolting,gaskets,             of equipment, apparatus, or instruments, except as lim-
          valves,                            and pressure
                   relief devices, fittings, the           con-                 itedbypara.      423.2.4(b);
                                                            It
          taining parts of other piping components. also includes                  (h) ammoniarefrigeration piping systemsprovided
          hangers and supports, and other equipment items neces-                for in ASME B31.5, RefrigerationPipingCode;
               to
          sary prevent        overstressing the  pressure containing                ( i ) carbon dioxide gathering and field distribution
                It not
          parts. does include   support             structures such as          system.
          frames of buildings, stanchions, or foundations, or any
          equipmentsuch as defined in para. 400.1.2(b).                         400.2 Definitions                                                (98)
             Requirements   for     offshore pipelines are found    in
          Chapter IX.                                                              Some of the more common terms         relating to piping
             Alsoincluded within thescopeofthisCodeare:                         are definedbelow.'
             ( a ) primary and associated auxiliary liquid petroleum            accidental loads: anyunplannedload or combination
          and liquid anhydrous ammonia piping at pipeline termi-                ofunplannedloadscaused     by humanintervention or
          nals (marine, rail, and truck), tank farms, pump stations,            naturalphenomena.
          pressure reducing stations, and metering stations, includ-
          ingscrapertraps,      strainers, andproverloops;                      breakaway coupling: a component   installed   in the
             (6) storage andworkingtanks,includingpipe-type                                      the
                                                                                pipeline to allow pipeline      to separate when a
          storage fabricated pipe fittings, piping
                              from and            and                           predeterminedaxialloadis   applied to the coupling.
          interconnectingthese facilities;                                      buckle: a conditionwherethepipelinehasundergone
             (c) liquidpetroleumandliquidanhydrousammonia                       sufficient plastic deformation to cause permanent wrin-
          pipinglocatedonpropertywhichhasbeen                  set aside            in pipe
                                                                                klingthe wall                or excessive cross-sectional
          for such piping within petroleum refinery, natural gaso-              deformation caused by loads acting alone or in combina-
          line,gasprocessing,ammonia,andbulk               plants;              tionwithhydrostaticpressure.
             (d) those aspects ofoperationandmaintenanceof
          Liquid  Pipeline
                         Systems relating          to the and
                                                          safety                carbon dioxide: a fluid consisting predominantly  of
          protection  of   the general  public,
                                              operating company                 carbon dioxide compressedabove its critical pressure
          personnel,environment,property, andthepiping               sys-       and, for the purpose of this Code, shall be considered
          tems [see paras. 4 0 ( c ) and (d)].                                  tobe a liquid.
                                                                                cold springing: deliberate deflectionof piping, within
   (98)     400.1.2        Code
                         This does          apply
                                          not to:                               its yield strength, to compensate for anticipated thermal
             (a) auxiliary piping, such as water, air, steam, lubri-            expansion.
          cating oil, gas,and fuel;
             (6) pressure vessels, heat exchangers, pumps, meters,              columnbuckling: bucklingof a beam or pipeunder
          and such
             other equipment   includinginternal
                                               piping                           compressiveaxialload in whichloadscauseunstable
          and connectionsforpipingexcept         as limited by para.            lateral deflection, also referred to as upheaval buckling.
          423.2.4(b);                                                           connectors: component,  except
                                                                                                             flanges,
                                                                                                                    used      for the
             ( c ) pipingdesignedforinternalpressures:                          purpose of mechanically joining two sections of pipe.
                ( I ) at or below 15 psi (1 bar) pressure
                                                    gage
          regardlessof temperature;                                             defect: an           sufficient
                                                                                                     of
                                                                                          imperfection               to
                                                                                                             magnitude
                (2) above15psi(1       bar) gagepressure if design              warrantrejection.
                        is
          temperature below   minus20°F           (-30°C) or above
          250°F (1 20°C);
             (d) casing, tubing, or pipe used in oil wells, wellhead
                                                                                ' Weldingtermswhichagreewith      AWS Standard A3.0 are marked
                                                                                 withanasterisk(*). For weldingterms used in this Code but not
          assemblies, oil and gas separators, crude oil production               shownhere,definitionsinaccordancewithAWS       A3.0 apply.


                                                                            2



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             ASME B31.4-1998Edition                                                                                                           Fig. 400.1.1

                                                         ..............
                            Production
                             field                             r-i                r-1      '.
                                     00




                                                        ...............
                     Pipeline terminal "
                     Tank farm andlorpump station
                                                              ...
                                                               -
                                                            .-i 7'"
                                     Production field   ?-T                                       ryr
                                            mo                 e.   .*
                                                                              L                   r - 51
                                                                                                   "L-J
                                                                                                                    c=         Petroleum refinery
                                                                                                                               Gas processing plant
                                                                                                                               Ammonia plant
                                                                                                  L"F=                         Chemical plant

                                                                                                   Pipeline terminal
                                                                                                   Tank farm and/orpump station



              Pipe                                                                     r-7
                                                                                       I    I
                                                                                        r-1 -               B u l kp l a n t
                                                                                       IL12
                                                                                       L-1
                             Process area
                      Petroleum refinery
                     Gas processing plant                                         r-
                         Ammonia plant
                                                                          i        -- $
                                                                                  L*1 -                     Terminal"
                          Chemical plant
                                                    L    --               I
                                                                         &.I-
                                                                                  r-"l
                                                                                    " J

                                                                                           1
                                                                                                            Tank farm, terminal," or process area




                                                                          A . -
                                                                                       -        Pipeline terminal," tank farm, andlor pump station
                                                                    _I             L




                                o          Marine, rail, or truck (all loading or unloading)
                               O 0         Onshore or offshore
                                           Piping within 631.4 scope
                              Continuation of 831.4 scope through area
                                     I t
                              Start or end at B31.4 scope within plot                 area
                          .........
                          I '
                          "-
                           "
                              Limits of p r o d u c t i o n lease o r f i e l d
                              P l o t ( o r p l a t f o r m ) l i m i t s production, petroleum refinery, chemical plant, ammonia
                                                                        of
                              plant, bulk plant, or gas processing operating facilities
                          "-  Corridor within property of petroleum refinery, chemical plant, ammonia plant,                or
                              gas processing plant set aside f o r 831.4 p i p i n g
                          "   Property line of petroleum refinery, chemical plant, ammonia plant,gas processing
                              plant, or bulk p l a n t



                       FIG.400.1.1        DIAGRAM SHOWING SCOPEOF ASME 831.4 EXCLUDING CARBON DIOXIDE
                                                  PIPELINE SYSTEMS (SEE FIG. 400.1.2)

                                                                                   3



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        Fig. 400.1.2                                                                                                        ASME B31.4-199%Edition




                       Final processing facility                                                   dioxide                 Carbon
                        tor cahon dioxide before                                                                            production
                        Um carbon dioxide is                                                                                field [Note (1)l
                        transpotted outside the
                        production field.

                       Pipeline
                              terminal      --                               dioxide                                  Carbon
                        [Now (211and/or
                        pump station


                             Carbon dioxide
                              txoduction
                                                          .L-K
                                                          .I                             I




                                                                                                                      Pipeline terminal
                                                                                                                       [Note ( 3 1 and/or
                                                                                                                       pump station




                                                                                                               Hydrocarbon


                                                                                             .
                                                                                             ,
                                                                                              J
                                                                                              l
                                                                                              I.
                                                                                                               production
                                                                                                               field for
                                                                                                               carbon dioxide
                                                                                                               injection




                                                    piping within 831.4 Scope
                                            ,
                                            ,   1
                                                4
                                                    Continuation of 831.4 Scope through area
                                                    Startorendat 831.4 Scope within plot area
                                                    Limitsof productionleaseor field
                                 ""-                Plot (or platform) limits of production, petroleum refinery,
                                                                                                 or
                                                    chemicalplant, carbon dioxide processing plant, gas processing operating
                                                    faCilitieS


                                                    NOTES
                                                                  r
                                                    (1) Onshore o offshore.
                                                    (2) Marine, rail, or hudc (all loading or unloading).


                FIG. 400.1.2         DIAGRAM SHOWING SCOPE OF ASME 631.4 FORCARBON DIOXIDE PIPELINE
                                                         SYSTEMS




                                                                                   4




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                       S T D ASHE B31 4-ENGL




             ASME B31.4-1998 Edition                                                                                                 8.
                                                                                                                                    402

             design life: a periodoftimeused         in design calcula-       nominal pipesize    (NPS):    see ASME B36.10M p. 1
                  selected the
             tions,       for purpose             of        that
                                                    verifying         a       for definition.
             replaceable or permanent component is suitable for the
             anticipatedperiod service.
                              of       Designlife             does not        operating company: owner or agent currently responsi-
             pertaintothe     life ofthepipelinesystembecause         a         for
                                                                              ble the                           inspection,
                                                                                            design, construction,         testing,
             properly maintained and protected pipeline system can            operation, and maintenance ofthepipingsystem.
             provideliquidtransportationserviceindèfinitely.                  petroleum: crude oil, condensate, natural gasoline, nat-
                                                                                 gas      liquefied
                                                                              ural liquids,                gas. liquid
                                                                                                  petroleum and
             engineering design: detailed         developed
                                             design         from
                                                                              petroleumproducts.
                                                      to
             operating requirements and conforming Code require-
             ments, including all necessary drawings and specifica-           pipe: a tube, usually cylindrical, used for conveying a
             tions, governing a piping installation.                          fluid or transmitting fluid pressure, normally designated
                                                                              “pipe” in the applicable specification. It also includes
             general corrosion: uniform or graduallyvaryingloss               any similar   component designated        as “tubing” used
             of wall thickness over an area.                                  for the same purpose. Types of pipe, according         to the
                                                                              methodof manufacture, are defined as follows.
             girth weld: a complete circumferential butt weld join-              (a) electric resistance welded pipe: pipeproduced
             ing pipe or components.                                          in individual    lengths or in continuous           from
                                                                                                                            lengths
                                                                              coiled skelp, having a longitudinal or spiral butt joint
             imperfection: a discontinuity or irregularitywhich     is
                                                                              wherein coalescence is produced by the heat obtained
             detected by inspection.                                          from  resistance of the     pipe to the flow    of electric
                                                                              currentin a circuit ofwhich thepipeis             a part,and
             internal design pressure: internal         used
                                                 pressure           in
                                                                              by the application ofpressure.
             calculations or analysis for pressure design of a piping
             component (see para. 401.2.2).                                      (6) furnace &P welded pipe: pipe having a longitudi-
                                                                              nal lap joint made by the forge welding process wherein
             liquefied petroleum gas(es) (LPG): liquid   petroleum            coalescence is produced by heating the preformed tube
             composed predominantly of the following hydrocarbons,            to welding temperature and passing it over         a mandrel
             either by themselves or as mixtures:butane(normal                located between two welding rolls which compress and
             butane or isobutane), butylene (including isomers), pro-         weld the overlapping edges.
             pane,propylene,andethane.                                           (c) furnace butt welded pipe
                                                                                     ( I ) furnace butt welded pipe, bell welded: pipe
             liquid alcohol: any of a group of organic compounds              produced in individuallengthsfromcut-length            skelp,
             containing hydrogen,
                       only         carbon, one
                                            and             or more           having its longitudinal butt joint forgewelded by the
             hydroxyl radicals which will remain liquid in a moving           mechanical pressure developed in drawing the furnace
             stream in a pipeline.                                                    skelp
                                                                              heated through              a cone-shaped die (commonly
                                                                              known as the      “welding       bell”) which serves as a
             liquid anhydrous ammonia: a compound      formed by              combinedformingandweldingdie.
             the combination of the two gaseous elements, nitrogen                   (2) furnace butt welded pipe, continuous welded:
             and hydrogen, in the proportion of one part of nitrogen          pipe produced in continuous lengths from coiled skelp
             to three parts of hydrogen, by volume, compressed to             and subsequently    cut     into individuallengths,having
             a liquidstate.                                                   its longitudinal butt   joint forge weldedby the mechanical
                                                                              pressure   developed in rolling hot the formed          skelp
             maximum steady state operating pressure: maximum                 through a set ofroundpassweldingrolls.
             pressure (sum of static head pressure, pressure required            (d) electricfusion welded pipe: pipe having a longitu-
             to overcome friction losses, and any back pressure) at           dinal or spiral buttjoint wherein coalescenceis produced
                point
             any in         a piping       when system
                                     system the                     is        in the preformed tube by manual or automatic electric
             operatingundersteady state conditions.                           arcwelding.Theweld            may be single or double and
                                                                              may be made with orwithouttheuseoffillermetal.
             miter: twoormorestraightsections      of pipematched             Spiral welded pipe is also made by the electric fusion
             andjoinedon    a line bisectingtheangleof     junction           welded           with
                                                                                       process either              a lap joint or a lock-
             so as toproduce a change in direction.                           seam joint.


                                                                          5



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         0.
        402                                                                                                      ASME B31.4-1998 E i n
                                                                                                                                   i
                                                                                                                                   t
                                                                                                                                  do


            (e) electric f i s h welded pipe: pipe having a longitu-           should: “should” or “it is recommended” is used
        dinal buttjoint wherein coalescence is produced        simulta-        to indicate that a provision is not mandatory but recom-
        neouslyoverthe          entire area of abutting surfaces by            mended as good practice.
        the heat obtained from resistance to the flow of electric
        current between the two surfaces, and by the application               soil liquefaction: asoil condition, typicallycaused by
        of
         pressure      after heating   is    substantially completed.          dynamic cyclic loading (e.g., earthquake, waves) where
        Flashingandupsetting          are accompanied by expulsion             the effective shear strength of the soil is reduced such
        of metalfromthe joint.                                                 thatthesoil exhibits the properties ofa liquid.
            () double submerged arc wefded pipe: pipe having
             f                                                                 spun: asectionofpipethat         is unsupported
        a longitudinal or spiral butt joint produced by at least
        two passes, one of which is on the inside of          the pipe.        temperatures: are expressed in degrees Fahrenheit (“F)
        Coalescence produced
                     is                  by heating an
                                                   with         electric       unlessotherwise stated.
        arc or arcs between the bare metal      electrode or electrodes        weight coating: any coating applied to the pipeline
        andthework.Theweldingis                shielded by ablanket              the     of
                                                                               for purpose                     pipeline
                                                                                                  increasing the      specific
        ofgranular, fusible materialonthework.Pressure                is       gravity.
           used filler
        not and metal          for            the inside and outside
        weldsisobtainedfromthe             electrode or electrodes.            arc welding*: agroup ofweldingprocesseswherein
           (g) seamless pipe: pipe produced by piercing a billet                           is
                                                                               coalescence produced                 with
                                                                                                          by heating an         electric
        followed by rolling or drawing, or both.                               arc or arcs, with or without the application of pressure
           (h) electric induction welded pipe: pipe produced in                andwith or without the use of fillermetal.
        individual lengths or in continuous lengths from coiled
                                                                               automatic welding*: welding equipment
                                                                                                            with          which
        skelp having a longitudinal or spiral butt joint wherein
                                                                               performs the entire welding operation without constant
                    is
        coalescenceproduced                    heat
                                         by the obtained  from
                                                                               observation and adjustment of the controls by an opera-
        resistanceofthepipe          to induced electric current,and
                                                                               tor. The equipment may or may not perform the loading
        by applicationofpressure.
                                                                               andunloadingofthework.
        pipe nominal wall thickness: thewall thickness listed
                                                                               jìllet weld*: aweldofapproximately     triangular cross
        in applicablepipe specifications or dimensional stan-
                                                                                section joining two surfaces approximately at right
        dards included in thisCode by reference. Thelisted
                                                                                angles toeach    other in a lap joint, tee joint, or
        wallthickness
                    dimension     is subject to tolerances as
                                                                                corner joint.
        giveninthespecification   or standard.
                                                                               full jìlletweld*: afilletweldwhose       size isequal to
        pipe supporting   elements:     pipe supporting elements
                                                                                the thickness ofthethinnermember       joined.
        consist of fixtures and structural attachments as follows.
           (a) fixtures: fixtures include elements which transfer              gas welding*: agroupofweldingprocesseswherein
        the loadfromthe pipe or structural attachment to the                   coalescence is produced by heating withagasflame
        supporting structure or equipment. Theyinclude hanging                 or flames, with or without the application of pressure,
        typefixturessuch        as hanger rods, spring hangers,                andwith or withouttheuseoffillermetal.
        sway braces, counterweights,turnbuckles, struts, chains,
        guidesandanchors,andbearingtypefixturessuch              as            gas metal arc welding*:        an arc weldingprocess
        saddles, bases,rollers,brackets,and      sliding supports.             wherein            is
                                                                                       coalescence produced                  with
                                                                                                                   by heating an
           ( b ) structural attachments: structural attachments in-                                                          electrode
                                                                               electric arc between a filler metal (consumable)
        clude elementswhicharewelded,bolted,            or clamped             andthework. Shielding is obtained from a gas, a     gas
        to the pipe, such as clips, lugs, rings, clamps, clevises,             mixture (which may contain an inert gas), or a mixture
        straps, andskirts.                                                     of a gas and a flux. (This process has sometimes been
                                                                               calledMigwelding or CO2 welding.)
        pressure: unlessotherwisestated,pressure      is ex-
        pressed in pounds per square inch (bar) aboveatmo-                     gas tungsten arc welding*: an arc welding     process
        spheric pressure, ¡.e., gage
                                   pressure  as abbreviated                    whereincoalescence is           by
                                                                                                      produced heating  with        an
        psig (bar).                                                            electric arc between a single tungsten (nonconsumable)
                                                                               electrode andthework. Shielding is obtainedfroma
        shall: “shall” or “shall not”isused           to indicatethat          gas or gasmixture(whichmay        contain aninert gas).
        aprovisionismandatory.                                                 Pressure may or may not be used and filler metal may

                                                                           6



COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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             or may not be used. (This process has sometimes been                   electrode sometimes
                                                                                  the       and       from                a supplementary
             called Tig welding.)                                                 welding rod.

             semiautomatic arc welding*: arcweldingwith equip                     tack weld*: a weld made to hold parts of a weldment
             mentwhich       only filler
                      controls the metal   feed.The                               in properalignmentuntilsubsequentwelds     are made
             advanceofthewelding     is manually controlled.                      weld*: a localizedcoalescence of metalwhereinco-
                                                                                  alescence is produced by heating to suitable tempera-
             shielded metal arc welding*: anarcweldingprocess
                                                                                  tures, with or without the application of pressure, and
             whereincoalescence is produced by heatingwithan
                                                                                  with or without the use of filler metal. The filler metal
             electric arc between a covered metal electrode and the
                                                                                  shall have a meltingpointapproximatelythesame           as
             work. Shielding is obtained from decomposition of the
                                                                                  the base metal.
             electrode covering. Pressure is not used and filler metal
             isobtainedfromtheelectrode.                                          welder*: one who is capable of performing a manual
                                                                                  or semiautomaticweldingoperation.
             submergedarcwelding*:             an arcweldingprocess
             whereincoalescence is produced by heatingwithan                      welding operator*: one who operates machine or auto-
             electric arc or arcs between a bare metal electrode or               maticweldingequipment.
             electrodesandthework.Thewelding                 is shielded by       welding procedures*: thedetailedmethodsandprac-
             a blanketofgranular,fusiblematerialon                the work.       ticesincluding joint weldingproceduresinvolvedin
             Pressure is not used, and filler metal is obtained from              the production of a weldment.




                                                                              7



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            ASME B31.4-1998Edition                                                                                            401401.6




                                                               CHAPTER II
                                                                DESIGN


                             PART 1                                           to specifications approved for use under this Code may
                     CONDITIONS AND CRITERIA                                  nothave properties suitable for the lowerportionof
                                                                              the temperature band covered by this Code. Engineers
                                                                              are cautioned to give attention to the low temperature
            401 DESIGNCONDITIONS                                              properties of the materials used  for    facilities to be
                                                                                                    low
                                                                              exposed to unusually ground           temperatures, low
            401.1General                                                      atmospheric temperatures, or transient operating condi-
              Paragraph defines
                       401       the        pressures, temperatures,          tions.
            andvarious forces applicable to the designof piping
            systems within the scope of this Code. It also takes into         401.4AmbientInfluences
                                                      to
            account considerationsthat shall be given ambient and               401.4.2 Fluid Expansion Effects. Provision shall be
            mechanicalinfluencesandvariousloadings.                           madeinthedesign      either to withstand or to relieve
                                                                              increased pressure caused by the heating of static fluid
            401.2Pressure                                                     in apipingcomponent.
               401.2.2 Internal Design Pressure. The piping com-
            ponent at any in piping
                           point the     system               shall be        401.5DynamicEffects
            designed for an  internaldesignpressurewhich          shall         401.5.1 Impact. Impact forces caused by either exter-
            not be less than the maximumsteady state operating                nal or internal conditions shall beconsidered in  the
            pressure at that point, or less the
                                              than         static head
                                                                              designofpiping   systems.
            pressure at that point with the line in a static condition.
            The maximum steady state operating pressure shall be                401.5.2Wind. The effect ofwind loading shall be
            thesumofthe       static head pressure, pressurerequired          provided for inthedesignofsuspendedpiping.
                                                any
            to overcome friction losses, and required     back
            pressure. Credit may be given for hydrostatic external                    Earthquake. Consideration in the design
                                                                                401.5.3
            pressure, in the appropriate manner, in modifyingthe              shall be given to pipingsystems located in regions
            internal design pressure for use in calculations involving        whereearthquakes are known to occur.
            thepressuredesignofpipingcomponents             (see para.                Vibration. Stress resulting from
                                                                                401.5.4                                 vibration
            404.1.3). Pressure rise  abovemaximum   steady        state       or resonance shall be consideredandprovided for in
            operating pressuredueto       surges and other variations         accordancewithsoundengineering     practice.
            fromnormal operations isallowed in accordancewith
            para.402.2.4.                                                       401.5.5 Subsidence. Consideration in the designshall
                                                                              be given to piping systems located in regions where
              401.2.3 External Design Pressure. The piping com-               subsidenceisknown    to occur.
            ponent shall be designed to withstandthemaximum
            possible differential between external and internal pres-           401.5.6WavesandCurrents.         The effects of waves 198)
            sures towhichthecomponentwill         be exposed.                 and currents shall beprovided     for in the designof
                                                                              pipelines across waterways.
            401.3Temperature
                                                                              401.6WeightEffects
               401.3.1DesignTemperature. Thedesigntempera-
            ture is the metal temperature expected in normal opera-              Thefollowingweight     effects combinedwith loads
            tion. It isnotnecessary     to varythedesign  stress for          and forces from other causes shall be taken into account
            metal temperatures between -20°F (-30°C)     and 250°F            in the design of piping that is exposed, suspended, or
            (120°C).However,some of thematerialsconforming                    notsupportedcontinuously.

                                                                          9




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         401.6.1402.2.5                                                                                          ASME 631.4-1998 Edition


            401.6.1LiveLoads. Liveloadsincludetheweight                       conform to thosestated for 100°F (40°C) in material
          the transported any
         of liquid        and                other extraneous                 standardslisted in Table 423.1. Thenonmetallictrim,
         materialssuch as ice or snowthatadheretothepipe.                     packing, seals, and gaskets shallbemadeofmaterials
         The      of waves,
            impactwind,     and             currents are also                 whicharenotinjuriouslyaffected        by thefluid in the
         considered live loads.                                               piping system and shall be capable of withstanding the
           401.6.2 Dead Loads. Dead loads include the weight                  pressuresandtemperaturestowhichtheywill           be sub-
         of the pipe, components, coating, backfill,andunsup-                 jected in service. Low   temperaturesdue      to pressure
         portedattachments to thepiping.                                      reduction situations, such as blow        and
                                                                                                                  downs other
                                                                                           be         when
                                                                              events, shallconsidered designing   carbon
         401.7ThermalExpansionandContractionLoads                             dioxide pipelines.
           Provisionsshall be madeforthe effects ofthermal
         expansion andcontraction in allpipingsystems.                           402.2.2Ratings - ComponentsNotHavingSpe-
                                                                              cific Ratings. Piping components not having established
         401.8 Relative Movement of Connected Components                      pressureratings may be qualified for use as specified
                                                                              in paras.404.7and423.1(b).
           The effect of relative movement of connected compo-
         nentsshall betakenintoaccount      in designofpiping
         andpipe supporting elements.                                            402.2.3 Normal Operating Conditions. For normal
                                                                              operation the maximum steady state operating pressure
         402 DESIGNCRITERIA                                                   shall not exceed theinternal design pressure and pressure
                                                                              ratingsforthecomponentsused.
  (98)      General
         402.1
            Paragraph  402    pertains to ratings, stress criteria,              402.2.4 Ratings -Allowance for Variations From
         design allowances, minimum
                            and         designvalues, and                     Normal Operations.Surge pressures in a liquid pipeline
         formulates permissible
                     the          variations         to these factors         are produced by a change in the velocity of the moving
         used in thedesignofpipingsystemswithin            the scope                 that
                                                                              stream results   from            shutting down a pump
                                                                                                                              of
         ofthisCode.                                                          station or pumping unit, closing of a valve, or blockage
            ThedesignrequirementsofthisCodeareadequate                        of themoving stream.
         for public safety under conditions usually encountered                  Surgepressure attenuates (decreases in intensity) as
         in piping systems within the scope of this Code, includ-             itmovesawayfromitspointoforigin.
         ing lines withinvillages,towns,       cities, and industrial            Surge calculations shall be made, and adequate con-
         areas. However, the design engineer       shall provide rea-         trols protective
                                                                                   and            equipment be
                                                                                                             shall provided,            so
         sonableprotection to preventdamage to the pipeline                   that the level of pressure rise due      to surges and other
         from unusual external conditions which may be encoun-                variations from normal operations shall not exceed the
         tered in river crossings, inland coastal water areas,                internaldesign pressure               point the
                                                                                                              at any in piping
         bridges, areas of heavy traffic, longself-supportedspans,
                                                                              systemandequipment by morethan 10%.
         unstable ground,         weight special
                         vibration,     of                     attach-
         ments, or forces resulting from abnormal thermal condi-
         tions. Some of the protective measures which the design                 402.2.5 Ratings - Considerations for Different
         engineer may provideareencasingwithsteelpipeof                       PressureConditions. Whentwolinesthat            operate at
         larger diameter, adding concrete protective coating,                 differentpressure conditions are connected, thevalve
                    the thickness,
         increasing wall            lowering the            line to a         segregatingthetwo lines shallberated         for themore
         greater depth, or indicating presence the
                                       the          of            line        severe service condition. When a lineisconnected to
         withadditionalmarkers.                                               a piece of equipment whichoperates at a higher pressure
                                                                              conditionthanthatoftheline,thevalve            segregating
         402.2Pressure-TemperatureRatings               forPiping             the line from the equipment shall be rated     for at least
               Components                                                     the operating conditionoftheequipment.Thepiping
            402.2.1ComponentsHaving             Specific Ratings.             between the more severe conditions and the valve shall
         Within the metal temperature limits of    -20°F (-30°C)              be designedtowithstandthe          operating conditions of
         to 250°F (120"C), pressure ratings for components shall              theequipment or piping to which it is connected.

                                                                         10



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             ASME B31.4-1998 Edition                                                                                           402340233

             402.3AllowableStressesand          Other StressLimits               the applicable allowable stress value as determined by
                                                                                 para.402.3.1(a),(b), or (c).
               4023.1 Allowable Stress Values
               (a) The allowable stress value S to be used   for                    (e) Allowable stress values in shear shall not exceed
             designcalculations in para.404.1.2fornewpipe        of              45%ofthespecifiedminimumyieldstrengthofthe
             knownspecificationshall  be established as follows:                 pipe,andallowablestressvalues        in bearingshallnot
                                                                                 exceed 90% ofthespecified        minimum yieldstrength
                                                                                 of the pipe.
                      S = 0.72 x E x specified minimum
                          yield strensh of the pipe, psi (MPa)                          Allowable tensile and compressive stress values
                                                                                 for materials used in structural supports and restraints
             where                                                               shallnotexceed 66% of thespecifiedminimumyield
                0.72 = designfactorbasedonnominalwallthick-                      strength.Allowable stress values in shear and bearing
                          ness. In setting design factor, due consider-          shall not exceed 45% and0 of the specified minimum
                                                                                                            9%
                          ationhasbeengiventoandallowance             has        yield strength, respectively. Steel materials of unknown
                          been made for the underthickness tolerance             specifications may be usedforstructural supports and
                          and maximum allowable depth of imperfec-               restraints, provided a yield strength of 24,000 psi (165
                          tionsprovidedfor in the specifications a p             MPa) or lessisused.
                          proved by theCode.                                        (g) In no case where the Code refers to the specified
                   E = weld joint factor para.
                                             (see 402.4.3   and                  minimumvalueof       a physicalpropertyshall a higher
                          Table402.4.3)                                          value of the property be used in establishing the allow-
                Table 402.3.l(a) is a tabulationexamples
                                                    of                 of        ablestressvalue.
             allowable         for
                       stresses reference        usein     transportation
             pipingsystemswithinthescopeof            this Code.                    402.3.2Limits of CalculatedStressesDue                to   (98)

                (b) The allowable stress value S to be used for                  SustainedLoads and ThermalExpansion
             design calculations in para. 404.1.2 for used (reclaimed)              (a) Internal Pressure Stresses. The calculated stresses
             pipe of known specification shall be in accordance with             due to internal pressure shall not exceed the applicable
             (a) aboveandlimitations inpara. 405.2.l(b).                         allowablestressvalue S determined by para.402.3.1
                (c) The allowable stress
                                       value        S to be used   for           (a), (b), (c), or (d) except as permitted by other subpara-
             designcalculations in para.404.1.2fornew            or used         graphs of para. 402.3.
             (reclaimed) pipeof unknown or ASTM A 120 specifica-                    (6) External Pressure Stresses. Stresses due to exter-
             tion shall be established in accordance with the follow-            nal pressureshall be considered when wall
                                                                                                                     safe     the
             ingandlimitations in para.405.2.1(c).                               thickness of the piping components meets the require-
                                                                                 mentsofparas. 403 and 404.
               S = 0.72 x E x minimum yield strength of the pipe,                   (c) AllowableExpansionStresses.          The allowable
                   psi (MPa) [24,000 psi (165 MPa)] or yield strength            stress values for theequivalenttensile stress in para.
                   determined in accordance with paras. 437.6.6 and              419.6.4(b)forrestrainedlinesshall         notexceed 90%
                   437.6.71                                                      ofthespecifiedminimumyieldstrength             of thepipe.
                                                                                 Theallowable stress range SA in para.419.6.4(c)for
             where                                                               unrestrained lines shall not exceed 72% of the specified
               0.72 = designfactorbased on nominalwallthick-                     minimumyieldstrength of thepipe.
                         ness. In setting design factor, due consider-              (d) Additive Longitudinal Stresses. Thesum ofthe
                         ationhasbeengiven         to and allowance has          longitudinal stresses due to pressure, weight, and other
                         been made for the underthickness tolerance              sustainedexternalloadings[seepara.419.6.4(c)]shall
                         and maximum allowable depth of imperfec-                not exceed 75% of the allowable stress value specified
                         tionsprovidedfor in the specifications ap-              for SA in (c) above.
                         proved by theCode.
                  E = weld joint factor(seeTable402.4.3)                           402.3.3Limits of CalculatedStressesDueto
               (d) Theallowable stress value S to be used     '   for            OccasionalLoads
             design calculations in para. 404.1.2 for pipe which has               (a) Operation. Thesumofthelongitudinalstresses
             been cold worked in order to meet the specified      mini-          produced by pressure, live anddeadloads,andthose
             mum yield strength and is subsequently heated to 60F 0'             produced by occasionalloads,such as windorearth-
             (300°C)or higher (welding expected) shall be       75% of           quake, shall not exceed 80% of the specified minimum

                                                                            11



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                                                                     I
                                    S T D - A S M E B3La't-ENGL L998 I 0759b70 Ob09215 9 8 9 H



       Table 402.3.1(a)                                                                                        ASME B31.4-1998 E d i t h

                                            TABLE 402.3.Ua)
               TABULATION OF EXAMPLES OF ALLOWABLE STRESSES FOR REFERENCE USE IN PIPING
                                 SYSTEMS WITHIN THE SCOPE OF THIS CODE
                                                               Specified Min.                                 Value
                                                                                                            Allowable Stress      S,
                                                               Yield Strength,                          -20°F to 250°F (-30°C to 120"C),
                   psi Specification
                        Grade                                        (MPa)        Weld Joint Factor €               psi (MPa)

       Seamless

       A P I 5L                                  A25             25,000 (172)            1.00                     18,000 (124)
       A P I 5L, A S T M A 53, A S T M A 106     A               30,000 (207)            1.00                     21,600 (149)
       A P I 5L, A S T M A 53, A S T M A 106     B               35,000 (241)            1.00                     25,200 (174)

       A P I 5LU                                 U80            80,000 (551)             1.00                    57,600 (397)
       A P I 5LU                                 u 100         100,000 (689)             1.00                    72,000 (496)

       A P I 5L                                  X42            42,000 (289)             1.00                     30,250 (208)
       A P I 5L                                  X46            46,000 (317)             1.00                     33,100 (228)

       A P I 5L                                  X52             52,000 (358)            1.00                    37,450 (258)
       A P I 5L                                  X56             56,000 (386)            1.00                    40,300 (278)
       A P I 5L                                  X60             60,000 (413)            1.00                    43,200 (298)

       A P I 5L                                  X65             65,000 (448)            1.00                     46,800 (323)
       A P I 5L                                  X70             70,000 (482)            1.00                     50,400 (347)

       ASTM       A   106                        C               40,000   (278)          1.00                     28,800   (199)
       ASTM       A   333                        6               35,000   (241)          1.00                     25,000   (174)
       ASTM       A   524                        I               35,000   (241)          1.00                     25,200   (174)
       ASTM       A   524                        H               30,000   (207)          1.00                     21,600   (149)


        Furnace Butt Welded, Continuous Welded

        A S T M A 53                             ...             25,000 (172)            0.60                     10,800 (74)
        A P I 5L Classes I and II                A25             25,000 (172)            0.60                     10,800 (74)


        Electric Resistance Welded and Electric Flash Welded

        A P I 5L                                 A25             25,000 (172)            1.00                     18,000 (124)
        A P I 5L, ASTM A 53, A S T M A 135       A               30,000 (207)            1.00                     21,600 (149)
        A P I 5L, ASTM A 53, A S T M A 135       B               35,000 (241)            1.00                     25,200 (174)

        A P I 5L                                 X42             42,000 (289)            1.00                     30,250 (208)
        A P I 5L                                 X46             46,000 (317)            1.00                     33,100 (228)

        A P I 5L                                 X52             52,000 (358)            1.00                     37,450 (258)
        A P I 5L                                 X56             56,000 (386)            1.00                     40,300 (279)
        A P I 5L                                 X60             60,000 (413)            1.00                     43,200 (297)

        A P I 5L                                 X65             65,000 (448)            1.00                     46,800 (323)
        A P I 5L                                 X70             70,000 (482)            1.00                     50,400 (347)

        A P I 5LU                                U80             80,000 (551)            1.00                     57,600 (397)
        A P I 5LU                                u100           100,000 (689)            1.00                     72,000 (496)


        A S T M A 333                            6               35,000 (241)            1.00                     25,000 (174)




                                                                             12



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            ASME B31.4-1!398 Edition                                                                                                       TaMe 4023.I(a)

                                            TABLE 402.3.Ua) (CONT'D)
                   TABULATION OF EXAMPLES OF ALLOWABLE STRESSES FOR REFERENCE USE I N PIPING
                                     SYSTEMS WITHIN THE SCOPE OF THIS CODE
                                                                    Specified Min.                                          Allowable Stress Value S,
                                                                    Yield Strength,                                     -20°F to 250°F (-30°Cto 120"C),
                        Specification                  Grade          pi (MPa) Joint Weld
                                                                        s     Factor                           E                   psi (MPa)

            Electric Fusion Welded

            ASTM A 134                                  ...                ...                      0.80                              ...
            ASTM A 139                                  A              30,000 (207)                 0.80                         17,300 (119)
            ASTM A 139                                  B              35,000 (241)                 0.80                         20,150 (139)

            ASTM   A   671                              ...             Note (1)           1.00 [Notes (21, (313                      ...
            ASTM   A   671                              ...             Note (1)              0.70 [Note (413                         ...
            ASTM   A   672                              ...             Note (1)           1.00 [Notes (21, (313
            ASTM   A   672                              ...             Note (1)              0.80 [Note ( 4 ) l


            Submerged Arc Welded

            API 5L                                      A              30,000 (207)                 1.00                          21,600 (149)
            API 5L                                      B              35,000 (241)                 1.00                          25,200 (174)

            API 5L                                      X42           42,000 (289)
                                                                     1.00                                                         30,250 (208)
            API 5L                                      X46          1.00
                                                                      46,000 (317)                                                33,100 (228)

            API 5L                                      X52           52,000 (358)
                                                                     1.00                                                        37,450 (258)
            API 5L                                      X56          1.00
                                                                      56,000 (386)                                               40,300 (278)
            API 5L                                      X60          1.00
                                                                      60,000 (413)                                               43,200 (298)

            API 5L                                      X65          1.00
                                                                       65,000 (448)                                               46,800 (323)
            API 5L                                      X70           70,000 (482)
                                                                     1.00                                                         50,400 (347)

            API 5LU                                     U80           80,000 (551)                  1.00                          57,600 (397)
            API 5LU                                     u 100        100,000 (689)
                                                                          1.00                                                    72,000 (496)

            ASTM   A   381                              Y35          1.00
                                                                       35,000    (241)                                            25,200   (174)
            ASTM   A   381                              Y42           42,000
                                                                     1.00        (290)                                            30,250   (209)
            ASTM   A   381                              Y46          1.00
                                                                       46,000    (317)                                            33,100   (228)
            ASTM   A   381                              Y48          1.00
                                                                       48,000    (331)                                            34,550   (238)

            ASTM   A   381                              Y50            50,000    (345)              1.00                          36,000   (248)
            ASTM   A   381                              Y52            52,000    (358)              1.00                          37,450   (258)
            ASTM   A   381                              Y60            60,000    (413)              1.00                          43,200   (298)
            ASTM   A   381                              Y65            65,000    (448)              1.00                          46,800   (323)

            GENERAL NOTES:
            (a) Allowable stress values S shown in this Table are equal to 0.72 E (weld joint factor) x specified minimum yield strength of the pipe.
            (b) Allowable stress values shown are for new pipe of known specification. Allowble stress values for new pipe of unknown specification, ASTM
                A 120 specification, or used (reclaimed) pipe shall be determined in accordance with para. 402.3.1.
            (c) For some Code computations, particularly with regard to branch connections[see para. 404.3.1(d)(3)1 and expansion, flexibility, structural
                attachments, supports, and restraints (Chapter I ,Part S), the weld joint factor E need not be considered.
                                                                   I
            Cd) For specified minimum yield strength of other grades in approved specifications, refer to that particular specification.
            (e) Allowable stress value for cold worked pipe subsequently heated to 600°F (300°C)or higher (welding excepted) shall be 75% of the value
                 listed in Table.
            (f) Definitions for the various types of pipe are given in para. 400.2.
            (g) Metric stresslevels are given in MPa (1megapascal = 1million pascals).

            NOTES:
            (1) See applicable plate specification for yield point and refer to para. 402.3.1 for calculation of   S.
            (2) Factor applies for Classes 12, 22, 32,42, and 52 only.
            (3) Radiography must be performed after heat treatment.
            (4) Factor applies for Classes13,23,33,43,       and 53 only.


                                                                                    13



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        4023.3404.1.1                                                                                            ASME B31.4-1998Edition

        yield strength of the pipe. It is not necessary to consider         operating temperature, and the decompressioncharacter-
        windandearthquake as occurring concurrently.                        isticsofcarbon dioxide anditsassociated impurities.
           (6) Test. Stresses due to test conditions are not
        subject to the limitations of   para.     402.3. It is not
        necessaryto consider other occasional loads, such as                                PART 2
        wind and earthquake, as occurring concurrently with                        PRESSURE DESIGN OF PIPING
        the live, dead, and test loads existing at the time of test.                     COMPONENTS
        402.4Allowances
                                                                            403CRITERIA FORPRESSUREDESIGNOF
          402.4.1Corrosion. Awall thickness allowance for                       PIPINGCOMPONENTS
        corrosionisnotrequired    if pipeandcomponents are
                against
        protected     corrosion       in accordance the
                                                   with                        The       of
                                                                                   design pipingcomponents,consideringthe
        requirements and procedures prescribed in Chapter VIII.             effects of pressure, shall beinaccordancewith      para.
                                                                            404. In addition, the design shall provide for dynamic
           402.4.2 Threading and Grooving. An allowance for                 andweight effects included  in para. 401 anddesign
        thread or groove depth in inches (mm) shall be included             criteria in para. 402.
        in A of the equation under para. 404. l . 1 when threaded
        or grooved pipe is allowed by this Code (see para. 414).
                                                                            404PRESSUREDESIGNOFCOMPONENTS
          402.4.3 Weld Joint Factors. Longitudinal or spiral
        weld joint factors E for various types of pipe are listed           404.1StraightPipe
        in Table 402.4.3.
                                          General                              404.1.1                                                    (98)
                                    and
          402.4.5 Wall Thickness Defect      Tolerances.                       (a) The nominal wallthicknessofstraight    sections
        Wall thickness tolerances and defect tolerances for pipe            of pipe
                                                                             steel         shall be equal to or greater than    rn
        shall be as specified in applicable pipe specifications             determined in accordance with the following equation.
                                           in Code
        or dimensional standards includedthis by
        reference inAppendixA.                                                                     t,, = t + A

        402.5FracturePropagationinCarbonDioxide                               (b) Thenotationsdescribedbelow        are usedinthe
              Pipelines                                                     equations for thepressuredesign for straight pipe.
                                                                               tn = nominal wall thickness satisfying requirements
           402.5.1DesignConsiderations.        Thepossibilityof                      for pressure andallowances
        brittle and ductile propagating fractures shall be consid-              t = pressuredesignwallthickness        as calculated
            in design carbon
        ered the        of          pipelines.
                              dioxide        The                                     in inches(mm) in accordance with para.
        design engineer shall provide reasonable protection to                       404.1.2 for internalpressure.Asnotedunder
        limit the Occurrence and the length of fractures through-                    para. 402.3.1 or para. A402.3.5, as applicable,
        out the          with
                 pipeline special          consideration at river                    in setting design factor, due consideration has
        crossings, road crossings, and other appropriate areas                       beengiventoandallowancehasbeenmade
        or intervals.                                                                for the underthickness tolerance and maximum
                                                                                     allowable depth of imperfections provided for
           402.5.2BrittleFractures. Brittle fracture propaga-
                                                                                     in thespecificationsapproved bytheCode.
        tion shall be                            ofpipe
                     prevented by selection a steel
                                                                               A = sum of allowances for threading and grooving
        which fractures in a ductile manner at operating tempera-
        tures.API 5L supplementaryrequirements or similar                            as requiredunderpara. 402.4.2, corrosion as
                                                                                     requiredunderpara. 402.4.1, andincreasein
        specifications shall be used for testing requirements to
                                                                                     wallthickness if used as protectivemeasure
        ensuretheproperpipesteel       selection.
                                                                                     underpara. 402.1.
           402.5.3 Ductile Fractures. Ductile fracture propaga-               p. = internaldesigngagepressure(seepara.
        tionshall be minimized by the    selection a
                                                 ofpipe                              401.2.2), psi (bar)
        steel with appropriate fracture toughness andor by                    D = outside diameterofpipe, in. (mm)
        theinstallation
                      of    suitable fracture arrestors.
                                                       Design                  S = applicable allowable stress value, psi(MPa),
        considerationshall include pipediameter, wall thickness,                     in accordancewith para. 402.3.1(a), (b), (c),
        fracture toughness,yield strength, operating pressure,                       or ( 4

                                                                       14



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             ASME B31.4-1998 Edition                                                                                                          Table 402.43




                                                                    TABLE 402.4.3
                                                                 WELD JOINT FACTOR €
                           Specification No.                         Pipe Type [Note     (111              Factor Weld
                                                                                                               Joint                    E
                             ASTM A 53                      Seamless                                               1.00
                                                            welded
                                                            Electric resistance                                    1.00
                                                            Furnace butt welded                                    0.60

                             ASTM A 106                     Seamless                                               1.00

                             ASTM A 134                     Electric fusion (arc) welded                           0.80
                             ASTM A 135                     Electric resistance welded                             1.00
                             ASTM A 139                     Electric fusion (arc) welded                           0.80

                             ASTM A 333                     Seamless                                                1.00
                                                            Electric resistance weld                                1.00

                             ASTM A 381                    Double
                                                       submerged               arc welded                           1.00

                             ASTM A 671                     Electric fusion welded                                 1.00 [Notes (21, ( 3 ) l
                                                                                                                   0.80 [Note (4)l

                             ASTM A 672                     Electric fusion welded                                 1.00 [Notes (21, ( 3 ) l
                                                                                                                   0.80[Note ( 4 ) l

                             API 5L                        Seamless                                                 1.00
                                                           welded
                                                           Electric resistance                                      1.00
                                                 induction Electric            welded                               1.00
                                                           Submerged arc welded                                     1.00
                                                           Furnace butt welded, continuous welded                   0.60

                             API 5LU                        Seamless                                                1.00
                                                            Electric resistance welded                              1.00
                                                            Electric induction welded                               1.00
                                                            Submerged arc welded                                    1.00

                             Known                          Known                                                   Note (5)

                             Unknown                        Seamless                                                1.00 [Note   (6)l
                             Unknown                             welded
                                                            Electric resistance                                     1.00 [Note   (613
                             Unknown                        Electric fusion welded                                  0.80 [Note   (6)l
                             Unknown                        Over NPS 4                                              0.80 [Note   (7)l
                             Unknown                        N PS 4 and smaller                                      0.60 [Note   (8)l

                            NOTES:
                            ( 1 ) Definitions for the various pipe types (weld joints) are given in Para. 400.2.
                            ( 2 ) Factor applies for Classes 12, 22, 32, 42, and 52 only.
                            (31 Radiography must be performed after heat treatment.
                            ( 4 ) Factor applies for Classes 13, 23, 33, 43, and 53 only.
                            ( 5 ) Factors shown above apply for new or used (reclaimed) pipe if pipe specification and pipe type are known.
                            (6) Factor applies for new or used pipe ofunknown specification and ASTM A 120 if type of weld joint is known.
                            (7) Factor applies for new or used pipe of unknown specification and ASTM A 120 or for pipe over NPS
                                  4 if type of jont is unknown.
                            ( 8 ) Factor applies for new or used pipe of unknown specification and ASTM A 120 or for pipe NPS 4 and
                                  smaller if type of joint is unknown.




                                                                                  15




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          404.1.2404.3.1                                                                                           ASME B31.4-1998 Edition


            404.1.2 Straight Under
                             Pipe    Internal
                                            Pressure.                         for
                                                                                the pressures and     temperatures the
                                                                                                                   in         applicable
          Theinternalpressuredesignwall     thickness t ofsteel               AmericanNationalStandard or the MSS Standard
          pipeshall be calculatedbythefollowing     equation.                 Practice.
                                                                                    (2) Steel butt welding tees and crosses shall com-
                                                                              ply withASMEB16.9 or MSS SP-75 andshallhave
                                                                                       and
                                                                              pressure temperature          ratings based on the same
                                                                              stress values as wereused in establishing the pressure
                                                                              and temperature limitations for of same
                                                                                                                 pipe the             or
            404.1.3 Straight Under
                             Pipe       External Pressure.                    equivalent material.
          Pipelines within the scope of this Code may be subject
                                                                                    (3) Steelbuttweldingteesand         crosses may be
          to conditions duringconstructionand operation where
                                                                              used for all ratios of branch diameter to header diameter
          the external pressure exceeds the internal pressure (vac-
                                                                              and all ratios of design hoopstress to specified minimum
          uum the
             within pipe           or pressure outside the pipe
                                                                              yield strength of the adjoining header and branch pipe,
          when submerged). The pipe wall selected shall provide
                                                                              providedtheycomplywith          (2) above.
          adequate strength to preventcollapse, taking into consid-
          eration mechanical properties, variations inwallthick-                 (b) Integrally Reinforced Extruded Outlet Headers
          ness permitted by material specifications, ellipticity (out-              ( 1 ) Integrallyreinforced extruded       outlet headers
          of-roundness), bending stresses, and external loads (see            may be used for all ratios of branch diameter to header
          para. 401.2.2).                                                     diameter and all ratios of design hoop stress to specified
                                                                              minimum     yield     strength of the     joining header  and
          404.2 CurvedSegments of Pipe                                                                   they
                                                                              branch pipe, provided comply            with       (2) through
                                                                              (8) immediately following.
            Changes in direction may be madebybendingthe
                                                                                    (2) When design
                                                                                                the     meets            the limitations on
                            with
          pipe in accordance para.         406.2.1 or installing
                                                                              geometry    contained herein,the         rules established are
          factory made bends or elbows, in accordance with para.
                                                                                   and the
                                                                              valid meet intent     of               the Code. These rules
          406.2.3.
                                                                              cover minimum requirements and are selected to assure
             404.2.1 PipeBends.      Thewall   thickness of
                                                          pipe                satisfactory performance of extruded headers subjected
          before bending shall be determined as for straight pipe             to pressure.In addition, however, forces and moments
          in accordancewith para. 404.1. Bends shall meetthe                  are usuallyapplied to thebranchby             such agencies as
          flattening limitations ofpara. 434.7.1.                             thermal  expansion  and        contraction, by vibration, by
                                                                              dead         of
                                                                                  weight piping,         and
                                                                                                   valves fittings, covering
   198)     404.2.2 Elbows                                                    and contents, and by earth settlement. Consideration
             (a) Theminimum metal         thickness offlanged     or          shall be given to the      design of extruded      header to
          threaded elbows shall not be less than specified for the            withstand these forces andmoments.
          pressures and temperatures in the applicable American                     (3) Definition
          NationalStandard or the MSS Standard Practice.                                ( a ) An extruded outlet header is defined as a
             (6) Steel welding
                     butt      elbows           shall comply with             header in whichtheextrudedlip              at theoutlethasa
          ASME B16.9, ASME B16.28, or MSS SP-75 and shall                     height above the surface oftheheaderwhichisequal
          have        and
              pressure temperature  ratings     on
                                           based the                          to or greater than the radius of curvature of the external
          same stress values as were in used       establishing the           contoured   portionthe
                                                                                                 of             outlet, i.e., h, 2 r,. See
          pressure temperature
                  and                  limitations for pipe of the            nomenclatureand Fig. 404.3.1(b)(3).
          same or equivalent materials.
                                                                                        (b) These rules do notapply to anynozzle in
                                                                              which additional nonintegralmaterialisapplied             in the
          404.3 Intersections
                                                                              formof rings, pads, or saddles.
   (98)      404.3.1 Branch   Connections.          connections
                                               Branch                                   (c) These rules applyonlyto cases wherethe
          may be made      by         of
                                 means tees,     crosses, integrally          axis of the outlet intersects and is perpendicular to the
          reinforcedextrudedoutlet headers, or weldedconnec-                  axis of theheader.
          tions,and shall be    designed in accordance with   the                   (4) Notation. The notation used herein is illustrated
          followingrequirements.                                              in Fig. 404.3.1(b)(3). All                 areinches
                                                                                                              dimensions in
             ( a ) Tees and Crosses                                           (mm).
                 ( I ) Theminimummetalthicknessofflanged          or               d = outside diameterofbranchpipe
          threaded tees and crosses shall not be less than specified              d, = internaldiameterofbranchpipe

                                                                         16



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             ASME B31.4-1998Edition                                                                                     031)3
                                                                                                                  Fig. 4 4 . @ ( )


                                                                of          Limits                               t
                                                                             reinforcement zone



                                                                                                     diameter (if required)
                                                                                                     to match branch pipa
                                                                                                     1:3 maximum taper.

                                                Sketch to show method
                                                 of establishing To when
                                                 the taper encroaches
                                                 on the crotch radius



                                                                           Reinforcement




                                                                                           Sketch is drawn for
                                                                                                                 = 1.00




                                                                                              Reinforcement




                 Sketch ir drawn for
                  condition where K = 1.W




                                        FIG. 404.3.1(b)(3) REINFORCED EXTRUDED OUTLETS



                                                                     17



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        44.
         031                                                                                                         ASME B31.4-1998Edition

            D = outside diameterofheader                                       shall bethesumof       areas A , + A2 + AD as defined
           D, = internaldiameterofheader                                       below.
           D, = internal diameter of extruded outlet measured                          (a) Area A,. The area lying within the reinforce-
                at the level of the outside surface of header                  ment zone resulting from any excess thickness available
           h, = height of the extruded lip. This must be equal                 intheheaderwall,     i.e.,
                to or greater than r, except as shown     in
                (4)(b) below.                                                                       A I = Do (Th    - th)
           L = height ofthe reinforcementzone
                                                                                      (6) Area AZ. The area lying within the reinforce-
                                                                               ment zone resulting from any excess thickness available
                 = 0.7   fi                                                    in thebranchpipewall,     ¡.e.,

            tb  = required            of branch
                             thickness the       pipe               ac-
                            to wall
                    cordingthe thickness    equation in
                                                                                                    A2   = 2L (Tb   - tb)
                    para.404.1.2                                                       (c) Area A3.The area lying within the reinforce-
           Tb = actual     nominalwallthickness          of branch             ment zone resulting from excess thickness available in
            th = required thickness of headerthe       according               theextruded outlet lip, i.e.,
                    to the wall thickness equation in para. 404.1.2
           Th = actual nominalwallthicknessofheader
           T, = finished thickness of extruded outlet measured                                     A3 = 2r0 (T,     - Tb)
                    at a height  equal to       r, above  the outside               (7) ReinforcementofMultiple Openings. There-
                    surface oftheheader                                        quirements   outlined in para. 404.3.1(e) shall be fol-
           ri = half-width of reinforcement zone (equal to D,)                 lowed, except that the required area and reinforcement
           r, = radius    of      curvature of  externalcontoured              shall be as given in (5) and (6) above.
                    portion of outlet measured in the plane con-                    (8) The manufacturer shall be responsible for es-
                    taining the axes oftheheaderandbranch.                     tablishing andmarkingonthesection            containing ex-
                    This is subject to the following limitations.              truded outlets, the  design       and
                                                                                                          pressure temperature,
                       (a) Minimum Radius. This dimension shall                “EstablishedunderprovisionsofASMEB31.4,”and
                    not be less than 0.05d, except that on branch              the manufacturer’sname or trademark.
                    diameters larger than NPS 30 it not     need                  (c) Welded Branch Connections. Welded branch con-
                    exceed1.50 in. (38 mm).                                    nectionsshall be as shown i n Figs. 404.3.1(~)(1),
                       (6) Maximum Radius. For outlet pipe sizes               404.3.1(~)(2),and 404.3.1(~)(3).Design shall meet the
                    NPS 8 and larger, this dimensionshallnot                   minimumrequirementslisted in Table404.3.1(c)and
                    exceed 0.1Od + 0.50 in. (13 mm). For outlet                described by items (I), (2), (3), and (4). Where reinforce-
                    pipe sizes less than NPS 8, thisdimension                  ment is required,items ( 5 ) and (6) shallapply.
                    shall notbegreaterthan1.25in.             (32 mm).              ( I ) Smoothlycontouredwrought         tees or crosses
                       (c) When   the     external contour contains            of proven design or integrally reinforced extruded head-
                    morethanoneradius,theradiusofany                arc        ers arepreferred.Whensuchtees,         crosses, or headers
                    sector ofapproximately45deg.             shall meet                used, reinforcing
                                                                               are not the                     shall
                                                                                                        member extend
                    therequirements of (a) and (b) above.                      completely around the circumference of the header [see
                        (d) Machining shall not     be employed in             Fig. 404.3.1(c)(l) for typical constructions]. The inside
                    order to meettheaboverequirements.                         edges of the finished opening whenever         possible shall
             (5) Required Area. Therequiredareaisdefined                       be rounded to a ‘/S in. (3 mm) radius. If the encircling
        as A = K(thDo),where K shallbetaken                 as follows:        member is thicker than the header and        its ends are to
                ( a ) for &D greaterthan 0.60, K = 1.00;                       bewelded to theheader,theendsshallbechamfered
                (b) for &D greater than 0.15 and not exceeding                 (at approximately 45 deg.) down to a thickness notin
        0.60, K = 0.6 + 2 / d D ;                                                         the
                                                                               excess of header             and
                                                                                                   thickness, continuous  fillet
                (c) for d D equal to or less than 0.15, K = 0.70.              welds shall be made. Pads, partial saddles, or other
          The design must meet the criteria that the reinforce-                types oflocalizedreinforcements are prohibited.
        ment area defined in (6) below not thanis less the                          (2) The  reinforcement member may            be ofthe
        required area.                                                         complete  encirclement type      [see Fig. 404.3.l(c)(l)],
              (6) Reinforcement Area. Thereinforcement area                    pad or saddle type [see Fig. 404.3.1(~)(2)],or welding

                                                                          18



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             ASME B31.4-1998 Edition                                                                                        Fig. 4043.1(~)(1)




                                                                                               I   around circumference




                           GENERAL NOTE:                                                  GENERAL NOTE:
                           Since fluid pressure is exerted                                Provide hole in reinforcementto reveal
                           on both sidesof pipe metalunder tee,                           leakage in buried welds  and to provide
                           the pipe metal does not provide                                venting during welding and heat
                           reinforcement.                                                 treatment [see para. 404.3.l(d)(B)].
                                        Tee    Type                                       Not required for tee type.
                                                                                                       Sleeve Type




                                                                                          I=    " "
                                                                                               " "




                         l i                                  ' I
                                                              I


                                   Saddle and Sleeve Type                                          Saddle Type

                GENERAL NOTE:
                                                        or
                If the encircling member for tee, sleeve, saddle type is thicker than the header andits ends are to be welded to the
                header, the ends shall be chamfered (at approximately 45 deg.) down to a thickness not in excess ofthe header thickness.


               FIG. 404.3.1(~)(1)WELDING DETAILS FOR OPENINGS WITH COMPLETE ENCIRCLEMENT TYPES
                                                OF REINFORCEMENT


                                                                           19



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       Fig. WJ.l(cM2)                                                                                                ASME B31.4-199% Edition




                                                                         or




                                                                        P d




                                                                          or




                                                                       Sddk



                                  of
          M = nominal wall thickness pad reinforcement                              Th =     nominal wall thickness of heeder
               member                                                         Wl (min.) =    the smaller of Tb , M , 3/8 in. (10 mm)
                                                                                                                   or
         M,, = nominal wall thickness of saddle at branch end                 W2 (max.) =    approx. Th
         Mh = nominal wall thickness of saddle at headerend                   W2 (min.) =    the smaller of 0.7 Th, 0.7 M, or 1/2 in. (13 mm)
          N = 1/16 in. (1.5 mm) (min.), 118 in. (3 mm) (max.)(unless          w3 (max.1 =    apClrox. rh
               bnck w l e or backing strip is used)
                     ed d                                                      W3 (min.) = the smaller of 0.7 Th, 0.7 Mh, or 112 in. (13 mm)
         Tb = nominal wall thickness of branch
                                                                               W4 (min.) = the smaller of Tb, M& or 3/8 in. (10 mm)


                        GENERAL NOTES:
                        (a) All welds are to have equalleg dimensions anda minimum throat equal 0.707 x l e g dimension.
                                                                                                to
                                                                at
                        (b) If the reinforcing member is thicker its edge than the header, the edge shall be chamfered   [at
                            approximately 45 deg.) down to a thickness such that leg dimensions of the fillet weld shall be
                            within the minimum and maximum dimensions specified above.
                        (c)A hole shallbe provided in reinforcement to reveal leakage in buried
                                                                                              welds and to provide venting
                            during welding and heat treatment  [see para. 404.3.l(d)(8)].


         FIG. 404.3.1(~)(2)WELDING DETAILS FOR OPENINGS WITH LOCALIZED TYPE REINFORCEMENT




                                                                         20



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              M
             M E 831.41998 Edition                                                                                                   4043.1




                                             GENERAL NOTE:
                                             When a welding saddle is used, it shall be inserted over this type
                                             of connection. See Fig. 404.3.1 (cl (2).


                                                         T,, = nominal wall thickness of header

                                                            -
                                                         Tb = nominalwall thickness of branch
                                                  W , (min.)   the smaller of T h Tb or 3/8in. (10 mm)
                                                          N = 1/16 in. (1.5 mm) (min.), 118 in. (3 mm) (max.)
                                                               unless back welded or backing strip is used


               FIG. 404.3.1(~)(3) WELDING DETAILS FOR OPENINGS WITHOUT REINFORCEMENT OTHER THAN
                                           THAT I N HEADER AND BRANCH WALLS

                                                        TABLE 404.3.1k)
                                       DESIGN CRITERIA FOR WELDED BRANCH CONNECTIONS
                                                                Ratio of Diameter of Hole Cut for Branch Connection to Nominal
                           Ratio of Design Hoop                                        Header Diameter
                            Stress to Specfied
                            Min. Yield Strength                                      More than 25%
                               of the
                            Header                           25%
                                                        Through or
                                                            less                               50%                More Than 50%



                             More than 20%
                              through 50%

                             More than 50% (2)                  (2)(3)                                                (1)



             outlet fittingtype.Where     attached to theheader by                be taken to provide suitable protection against vibrations
             fillet welding, the edges of the reinforcement member                and other external forces to which these small branch
             shall bechamfered(atapproximately        45 deg.) down               connectionsare frequently subjected.
             to a thickness notin excess oftheheaderthickness.                         (4) Reinforcementofopening        is notmandatory;
             The diameter of the hole cut in the header pipe   for a              however,reinforcementmay be required for cases in-
             branch connection shall not exceed theoutside diameter               volvingpressureover 100 psi (7 bar),thinwallpipe,
             of the branch connection by more than '/4 in. (6 mm).                or severe externalloads.
                    (3) Reinforcement branch
                                      for   connectionswith                            (5) If areinforcementmember         is required, and
             hole cut NPS 2 or smaller is notrequired [see Fig.                   thebranchdiameter     is suchthata      localized type of
             404.3.1(~)(3) fortypical details]; however, care shall               reinforcement member would extend around more than

                                                                             21



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                        S T D - A S M E B 3 L - 4 - E N G L L718 m 0759b70 0b07225 8 2 8 m



        4043.1                                                                                                   M M E B31.4-1998 Edition

        half the circumference of the header, then a complete                          branch does intersect the longitudinal or spiral
        encirclementtypeofreinforcementmembershall               be                    weld of the header, the allowable stress value
        used, regardless of the design hoopstress, or a smoothly                       S of the header shall be used in the calculation.
        contoured wrought steel tee or cross of proven design                          The allowable stress value S of branchthe
        or extrudedheadermay beused.                                                   shall beusedincalculating        tb.
              (6) The reinforcement shall be designed in accord-                 (4) The area available for the reinforcement shall
        ancewith para. 404.3.1(d).                                         bethesum of:
           (d) Reinforcement of Single Openings                                     (a) the cross-sectional area resultingfromany
              (I) When welded branch connections are made to               excess thickness available in the header thickness (over
        pipe in the form of a single connection, or in a header            theminimum     required the
                                                                                                 for header                 as defined in
        or manifold as a series of connections, the design shall           para. 404.1.2) and which lies within the reinforcement
        be adequate to control the stress levels in the pipe within        area as defined in para. 404.3.1(d)(5)below;
        safe limits. The construction shall take cognizance of                      (6) the cross-sectional area resultingfromany
                                                     to
        the stresses in the remaining pipe wall due the opening            excess thickness available in the branch wall thickness
        in thepipe or header, the shear stresses produced by               overtheminimum           thickness requiredforthebranch
        the pressure acting on the area of the branch opening,             and which lies within the reinforcement area as defined
        andany external loading due to thermal        movement,            in para. 404.3.1(d)(5) below;
        weight,                       shall the
                vibration, etc., and meet minimum                                   ( c ) the cross-sectional area of all added reinforc-
        requirementslistedinTable       404.3.1(c). Thefollowing           ingmetal, including weldmetal,whichiswelded                    to
        paragraphs  providedesign                 on
                                       rules based the       stress        the header wall and lies within       the reinforcement area
        intensification created by the existence of a hole in an           as defined in para. 404.3.1(d)(5)below.
        otherwise symmetrical section. External loadings, such                   (5) Thereinforcementareaisshown                   in Fig.
                                            or
        as those due to thermal expansion unsupported weight               404.3.l(d)(2) and is defined as a rectangle whose length
        of           pipe, not
          connecting have been                   evaluated. These          shall extend a distance d [see para.404.3.1(d)(3)]on
                        be
        factors should given                   unusual designs
                                    attention in                           each side ofthe transverse centerline of the finished
        or under conditions of cyclic loading.                             openingandwhosewidthshallextenda                    distance of
           When pipe which has been cold worked to meet the                2v2timestheheaderwallthicknessfromtheoutside
        specifiedminimumyield strength isused as a header                  surface of the header wall, except that       in no case shall
        containing single or multiple welded branch connections,            extend than
                                                                           it      more               272 times the thickness of      the
        stresses shall be in accordancewithpara.402.3.1(d).                branchwallfromtheoutside           surface oftheheader or
           (2) The reinforcement required in the crotch section            ofthereinforcement if any.
        of a welded branch connection shall be determined by                    (6) The material of any added reinforcement shall
        the rule that the metal area available for reinforcement           have an allowable working stress        at least equal to that
        shallbe equal to or greater thantherequiredcross-                  of the header wall, except that material of lower allow-
        sectional area as defined  in     (3) below and    in Fig.
                                                                           able stress may be used if the is     area increased           in
        404.3.1(d)(2).                                                     direct ratio of the allowable stresses forheaderand
           (3) Therequired cross-sectional area AR isdefined               reinforcementmaterialrespectively.
        as theproductof d times r,,:
                                                                                (7) The material used for ring or saddle reinforce-
                                                                           mentmay be of specifications differing from those of
                                                                           thepipe,providedthecross-sectional            area ismade in
                                                                           correct proportions to the relative strength of the pipe
        where                                                              andreinforcementmaterialsattheoperatingtempera-
           d = lengthofthefinishedopening       in theheader               tures, and provided it has welding qualities comparable
               wall measured parallel to theaxis of the header             to thoseofthepipe.         No credit shall be takenforthe
          th = design header wall thickness required by para.              additional strength of material having a higher strength
               404.1.2. For welded pipe, when branch
                                                 the                       thanthatofthe        part to be reinforced.
               does not intersect the longitudinal or spiral                    (8) Whenrings or saddles areusedwhichcover
               weld of the header, the allowable stress value              the weld between branch and header, a vent hole shall
               for seamlesspipeofcomparablegrade          may              be provided in thering or saddle torevealleakage in
               be in
                 used determining         th for the purpose               the weldbetweenbranchandheaderandtoprovide
               of reinforcement calculations only. When the                venting during         and treating
                                                                                           welding heat                        operations.

                                                                      22



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              S
             A " 831.41998 Edition                                                                                                  031
                                                                                                                                   44.




                                                                                      -
                                              "Area of reinforcement" enclosed by - - -lines
                                              Reinforcement area requiredA,, = d,t
                                              Area available as reinforcement = A, + 4 + 4
                                                       -
                                              A, = (T, r,,) d
                                              4 = 2 ( ~ , - r ~ ~
                                              4 = summation of area ofall   added reinforcement, including
                                                   weld areas thatlie within the "area of reinforcement"
                                              A, + 4 + 4 must be equal to or greater than A,,
                                              where
                                                  T, = nominal wall thickness of header
                                                  Tb = nominal wall thickness of branch
                                                  tb = design branch wall thickness required by para. 404.1.2
                                                  th = design header wall thickness required by para. 404.1.2
                                                  d = length of the finished openingin the header wall
                                                                                      of
                                                       (measured parallel to the axis the header)
                                                  M = actual (by measurement) or nominal
                                                       thickness of added reinforcement

                                   FIG. 404.3.1(d)(2) REINFORCEMENT OF BRANCH CONNECTIONS

             Vent holes shall be plugged during service to prevent             Fig. 404.3.1(~)(2).If the reinforcing member is thicker
             crevice corrosion between pipe and reinforcing member,            at its edge than the header, the edge shall be chamfered
             butnopluggingmaterial       shall beusedthatwouldbe               (at approximately 45 deg.) down to a thickness so leg
             capableof sustaining pressurewithinthe crevice.                   dimensions of the fillet weld shall    be within the mini-
                    (9) The use of ribs or gussets shall not be consid-        mum andmaximumdimensions                specified in Fig.
             ered as contributing to  reinforcement to the    branch           404.3.1(~)(2).
             connection.Thisdoesnot        prohibit theuseof    ribs or             ( 1 1 ) Reinforcement rings and saddles shall be accu-
             gussets for purposes other than reinforcement, such as            rately       to parts
                                                                                      fitted the             to whichthey are attached.
             stiffening.                                                       Figures 404.3.1(~)(1)and 404.3.1(~)(2)illustrate some
                  (10) Thebranchshallbe       attached by aweld for            acceptable formsof reinforcement.
             the full thickness of the branch or headerwallplusa                  Branchconnections attached at an angle less than
                  weld
             fillet        W1 as shown in Figs. 404.3.1(~)(2) and              90 deg. to the header become progressively weaker as
             404.3.1(~)(3).The useof concave fillet welds is to be             the angle becomes less. Any such design shall be given
             preferred to minimize corner stress concentration. Ring           individual study, and sufficient reinforcement shall be
             or saddle reinforcement shall be attached as shown by             providedtocompensate         for the inherent weakness of

                                                                          23



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                         S T D * A S M E B31.4-ENGL           L978              0759b7D Ob01227 bTO                   m


        4043.1404.7                                                                                            ASME B31.4-199% Edition

        suchconstruction.The use ofencirclingribs to support               404.5PressureDesign        of Flanges
        theflat or reentering surfaces ispermissibleandmay
                                                                              404.5.1General
        be included in the strength considerations.The designer
                                                                              ( a ) The design of flanges manufactured in accordance
        is cautioned that stress concentrations near the ends of
                                                                           with para. 408.1 and the standards listed in Table 426.1
        partial ribs, straps, or gussets may defeat their reinforc-
                                                                           shall be   considered suitable for    use at the  pressure-
        ingvalue,andtheiruse        is notrecommended.
                                                                           temperatureratings as set forth in para.402.2.1.
          (e) Reinforcement of Multiple Openings                              (b) It is permissible to inside taper borethehubs
             ( I ) Two adjacent branchesshouldpreferably         be        on welding neck flanges having dimensions complying
       spaced at such a distance that their individual effective           with ASME    B16.5when they           are tobe attached to
       areas ofreinforcement do notoverlap.Whentwo               or        thinwallpipe.Itisrecommendedthat              the taper shall
       more adjacent branches are spaced at less two    than               not be more abrupt thana ratio of 1:3. MSS SP-44,
       times their average   diameter (so that their effective             NPS 26, larger
                                                                                      and     “pipeline” flanges           are designed
       areas of reinforcement overlap), the group of openings              for attachment to thin wall pipe and        are preferred for
       shall be reinforced in accordance with para. 404.3.1(d).            this service.
       Thereinforcingmetalshallbeadded              as acombined              (c) Where conditions require the use of flanges other
       reinforcement, strength which
                      the        of     shall             equal the        than those covered in para. 408.1, the flanges shall be
       combined strengths ofthereinforcementsthatwould                     designed in               with
                                                                                         accordance Appendix              II ofSection
       be required for the separate openings. Inno case shall              VIII,                   the
                                                                                 Division 1, of ASME         Boilerand          Pressure
       anyportionofa       cross section be considered to apply            VesselCode.
       tomorethanoneopening,          or be evaluatedmorethan                 (d) Slip-on flanges of rectangular cross section shall
       once in a combinedarea.                                             be designed so that     flange thickness is   increased to
             (2) When       than
                        more two           adjacent openings are           provide  strength equal to that     of the corresponding
       to be         with
            provided a   combined               reinforcement, the         hubbed         flange
                                                                                    slip-on     covered           by ASME   B16.5, as
                                                                           determined by calculations made in accordance          with
       minimum distance between centers of any two of these
                                                                           theASMEBoilerandPressureVesselCode,                   Section
       openingsshallpreferably                   1’/2
                                     be at least times    their
                                                                           VIII.Division 1.
       average diameter, and the area of reinforcement between
       them shall be at least equal to 50% of the total required
                                     Reducers                              404.6                                                           (98)
       for these two           on
                      openings the            cross section being
       considered.                                                            (a) Reducer fittings manufactured in accordance with
             ( 3 ) Whentwo adjacent openings as considered                 ASME B 16.5, ASME B 16.9, or MSS SP-75 shall have
             para.
       under 404.3.1(e)(2) the have              distance between          pressure-temperatureratingsbasedonthesame             stress
       centers lessthan 173 timestheiraverage diameter, no                 values as were used in establishingthe pressure-tempera-
       credit for reinforcementshallbegiven          for anyof the                                    of same
                                                                           ture limitations for pipe the                 or equivalent
       metalbetween these two openings.                                    material.
             (4) When which
                       pipe      has        been cold  worked to
                                                                              (b) Smoothly  contouredreducers  fabricated       to the
                                                                           samenominalwallthicknessandofthesame                type of
       meet the specifiedminimumyieldstrengthisused              as
                                                                           steel as the adjoining pipe shall be considered     suitable
       aheader containing single or multipleweldedbranch
                                                                           for use at the pressure-temperature ratings of the adjoin-
       connections, stresses shall be in accordancewithpara.
                                                                           ing pipe. Seamweldsoffabricated           reducers shall be
       402.3.1(d).
                                                                           inspected by radiography or other accepted nondestruc-
             (5) Any number of closely spaced        adjacent open-        tive methods(visualinspection        excepted).
       ings, in anyarrangement, may bereinforced as ifthe                     (c) Where appropriate, changes in diameter may be
       group were treated one assumed opening of a diameter
                            as                                             accomplished by elbows, reducing outlet tees, or valves.
       enclosing allsuchopenings.
                                                                           404.7 Pressure Design of Other Pressure Containing
          404.3.4Attachments. Externalandinternal          attach-               Components
       ments to piping  shall be designed so they not will                    Pressure containing componentswhich are not cov-
       cause flattening of the pipe, excessive localized bending           ered by the standards listed in Tables 423.1 or 426.1
       stresses, or harmful thermal gradients in the pipe wall.            andforwhichdesign      equations or proceduresarenot
       See para. 421.1 for design of pipe supporting elements.             given herein may be used where the design of similarly

                                                                      24



COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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             ASME B31.4-1998 Edition                                                                                        404.7406.2.1


             shaped, proportioned,andsizedcomponentshasbeen                      ( e ) Coated or Lined Pipe. External or internal coat-
             provensatisfactory by successful performance      under          ings or linings of cement, plastics,or other materials may
             comparable service conditions. (Interpolation may    be          be used on steel pipe conforming to the requirements of
             made between similarly shaped proved components with             this Code. These coatings or linings shall not be consid-
             small differences in size or proportion.) In the absence         ered to add strength.
             of suchservice experience, thepressuredesignshall
                      on
             be based an                                the
                                analysis consistent with general
             design philosophy embodied in this Code, and substanti-          406 FITTINGS,ELBOWS,BENDS,AND
             ated by at least oneof the following:                                INTERSECTIONS
                (u) proof tests ( sare described in UG-101of Section
                                 a
             VIII, Division 1, of the ASME           and
                                               Boiler Pressure                406.1Fittings
             VesselCode);
                (b) experimental stress analysis (such as described              406.1.1General
              Appendixof
             in         6          Section VIII, Division of
                                                          2,       the           (a) Steel Butt Welding Fittings. When butt steel
             ASMEBoilerand Pressure VesselCode);                              welding  fittings [see paras.           404.3.1(a)(2),
                                                                                                            404.2.2(b),
                (c) engineering calculations.                                 and 404.3.1(a)(3)] are used,   they    shall comply with
                                                                              ASMEB16.9,ASMEB16.28,              or MSSSP-75.
                                                                                 (b) Steel Flanged Fittings. When steel flanged fittings
                            PART 3                                            [see paras. 404.3.1(a)(l) and   404.5.11 are used,  they
                                                                              shall complywithASMEB16.5.
                 DESIGNAPPLICATIONS OF PIPING
                                                                                 ( c ) Fittings Exceeding Scope of Standard Sizes. Fit-
                  COMPONENTS SELECTION AND
                                                                              tings exceedingscope of standard sizes or otherwise
                         LIMITATIONS                                          departing fromdimensions listed in the standards re-
                                                                              ferred to in para. 406.1.l(a) or 406.1.l(b) may be used,
             405 PIPE                                                         providedthedesignsmeettherequirementsof              paras.
                                                                              403and404.
             405.2MetallicPipe
                                                                              406.2Bends, Miters, andElbows
                405.2.1FerrousPipe
                (a) New ofpipe the        specifications listed in Table        406.2.1BendsMade        From Pipe
             423.1may       be usedaccordance the
                                   in          with design                       (a) Bendsmaybemadebybendingthepipewhen
             equation of para. 404.1.2 subject to the testing require-        they are designed in accordance with para. 404.2.1 and
             ments of paras. 437.1.4, 437.4.1, and 437.4.3.                   made in accordancewith para. 434.7.1.
                (b) Used pipe of known specification listed in Table             (6) Except as permittedunderpara.   406.2.1(c), the
             423.1may       be usedaccordance the
                                   in          with design                    minimum radius of field cold bends shall be as follows:
             equation of para. 404.1.2 subject to the testing require-                                        MinimumRadius of
             ments of paras. 437.4.1, 437.6.1, 437.6.3, and 437.6.4.                 Nominal Pipe Size       Bendin Pipe Diameters
                ( c ) New or used pipe of unknown or ASTM A 120
                                                                                    NPS 12 and smaller                18D
             specification may be used in accordance with the design                          14                      21
             equation in para. 404.1.2 with an allowable stress value                         16                      24
             as specified in para. 402.3.1(c) and subject to the testing                    18                        21
             requirements of paras. 437.4.1,437.4.3,437.6.1,437.6.3,                 NPS 20 and larger                30
             437.6.4,and 437.6.5, if 24,000psi(165MPa)yield
             strength is used to establish an allowable stress value;         Insome cases, thinwallpipewillrequiretheuseof
             or para.  437.4.1, paras.
                              and      437.6.1through 437.6.7                 aninternalmandrelwhenbeingbent         to theminimum
             inclusive, if a yield strength above24,000psi(165                radiitabulatedabove.
             MPa)isusedto        establish anallowable stress value.                       may made bending pipe
                                                                                 ( c ) Bends be by         the in
                (d) Pipe  which been worked order
                               has cold          in                     to    sizes NPS 14 and larger to a minimum radius of 18D;
                 the
             meet specified minimum yield               strength and is       however,bendingpipe      to radii approaching18Dthat
             subsequently heated to 600°F (300°C) or higher (weld-               meet
                                                                              will requirements                                 be
                                                                                                         in para. 434.7.1(b) will
             ing excepted) shall be limited to a stress value as noted        dependent upon wall thickness, ductility, ratio of pipe
             inpara.402.3.1(d).                                               diameter to wall thickness, use of  bending mandrel,

                                                                         25



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                                S T D - A S M E B31.4-ENGL          1778         m     0 7 5 7 b 7 0 Ob07227 473            m


           406.2.1404.6.4                                                                                           ASME B31.4-1998 Edition

             skillbending Test shall made
           and of         crew. bends be                                             Intersections
                                                                                 406.5
                        that field
           to determine the bending                 used
                                            procedure
                                                                                    Intersectionfittingsandweldedbranchconnections
           produces bends meeting the requirements of para.
                                                                                 are permitted within the limitations listed in para. 406.1
           434.7.1(b) and that the wall thickness     after bending is
                                                                                 (see para. 404.3for design).
                         the
           not less than minimum              by
                                    permittedthe                  pipe
                                                                  _ .
           specification.
                                                                                 406.6Closures
              406.2.2 Mitered Bends. In systems intended to oper-                   406.6.1 Quick Opening Closures. A quick opening
           ate at a hoop stress of more than 20% of the specified                closure isapressure containing component (see para.
           minimumyield strength ofthepipe,miterbends                are         404.7) used for repeated access to the           of
                                                                                                                           interior      a
           prohibited.Miterbendsnotexceeding12v2               deg. may          piping system. is
                                                                                               It not        the intentof this Code to
           be used in systemsoperatedat a hoop stress of 20%                     imposetherequirementsofaspecificdesignmethod
           or less of the specified minimum yield strength        of the         onthe designer or manufacturer of aquickopening
           pipe,andtheminimum           distance betweenmitersmea-               closure.
           sured at the crotch shall     not be less than pipe
                                                             one                    Quick opening closures  used for pressure containment
           diameter. When the system is to be operated at a hoop                 underthisCodeshallhave         pressure andtemperature
                    less 10%the
           stress of than of specified    minimum                                ratings equal to or in excess of the design requirements
           yieldstrengthofthepipe,         the restriction to 12!4 deg.          ofthepipingsystem       to which they are attached. See
           maximummiterand           distance betweenmiterswillnot               paras. 401.2.2 and 402.2.
           apply. Deflections caused by misalignment up to 3 deg.                   Quick opening closures shall be equipped with safety
           arenotconsideredmiterbends.                                           locking devices in compliance with Section VIII, Divi-
                                                                                     1,          of ASME
                                                                                 sion UG-35(b) the                    Boiler and Pressure
              406.2.3FactoryMadeBendsandElbows                                   VesselCode.
              (a) Factorymadebendsandfactorymadewrought                                  end
                                                                                    Weld preparation        shall be in accordance with
           steel elbows may be used provided they meet the design                para.434.8.6.
                        of
           requirements paras.       and      and
                              404.2.1 404.2.2 the
           construction requirements of para. 434.7.3. Such fittings                406.6.2ClosureFittings. Closure fittings commonly (98)
           shall have approximately the same mechanical properties                      to
                                                                                 referred             caps”
                                                                                             as “weld shall         bedesignedand
           andchemicalcomposition       as thepipe to whichthey                  manufactured in accordance with ASME B16.9 or MSS
           arewelded.                                                            SP-75.
              (b) If factory made elbows are used in cross-country                  406.6.3 Closure Heads. Closure heads such as flat,
           lines, care           be taken to          for passage    Of                                       406.6.2
                                                                                 ellipsoidal (other than in para.         above), spherical,
           pipe-linescrapers.                                                    or conical heads are allowed for use under this Code.
                                                                                                                i
                                                                                 Such items shall be designed : accordance with Section
             406.2.4 Wrinkle Bends. Wrinkle          bends          not          VIII,     1,
                                                                                    Division          of the Boiler
                                                                                                          ASME and                 Pressure
           be used.
                                                                                       Code. maximum
                                                                                 Vessel The                         allowable stresses for
                                                                                 materials used inthese closure heads shall be established
           406.3Couplings
                                                                                 undertheprovisions      of para. 402.3.
                                        iron     couplings
              Cast, malleable, or wrought threaded                                  If welds are used in the             of heads,
                                                                                                             construction these
      they are
shallprohibited.                                                                            be 100%
                                                                                                  inspected
                                                                                           radiographically                      in accord-
                                                                                 ance withtheprovisionsofSectionVIII,Division1.
        406.4
    Reductions                                                                      Closure and shall have
                                                                                heads temperaturepressure
                                                                                 ratingsequal to or in excess of requirement
                                                                                                                     the                 of
    (981           Reducers. Reductions in line size may
             406.4.1                                       be                    para. 401.2.2. It is not the intent of this code to
           made by theuse of smoothlycontoured reducers selected                 necessarilyextendthedesignrequirementsof           Section
           in accordance with ASME           ASME B16.9* Or                      VIII, Division 1, to other components in which closure
           MSS SP-75, or designed as provided in para.404.6.                     heads are part of a complete assembly.
              406.4.2OrangePeelSwages.        Orangepeelswages                      406.6.4 Fabricated Closures. Orange peel bull plugs
           are prohibited in systems operating at hoop stresses of               are prohibitedonsystems     operating at a hoop stress
           more than 20% of the specified minimum yield strength                 more than 20% of the specified minimum yield strength
           ofthepipe.                                                             the pipe. Fishtailsandflat
                                                                                 of                              closures are permitted

                                                                           26



 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers
 Licensed by Information Handling Services
              ASME B31.4-1998 Edition                                                                                       406.6.4-408.4.2


              for NPS 3 pipe and smaller, operating at less than 100          pressure-temperatureratingsshown           in para.402.2. l.
              psi
                (7 bar).Fishtails on pipe largerthan NPS 3 are                Theboreofweldingneckflangesshouldcorrespond
              prohibited.                                                     to the inside diameter of the pipe     with which they are
                                                                              to beused.Seepara.404.5.1fordesign.
                 406.6.5 Bolted Blind Flange Closures. Bolted blind
              flangeclosuresshallconformtopara.408.                               (c) Cast Iron Flanges  WithinScope          o Standard
                                                                                                                               f
                                                                              Sizes. Cast iron         are
                                                                                                flanges prohibited,  exceptthose
                                                                              which are an integral part of cast iron valves, pressure
              407
                VALVES                                                        vessels, and other equipment and proprietary items [see
                                                                              para. 407.l(b) and423.2.4(b)].
              407.1General                                                       (d) Flanges Exceeding Scope of Standard Sizes.
                                                                              Flanges exceeding scope of standard sizes or otherwise
                 (a) Steel valves conforming to standards and specifi-
                                                                              departingfromdimensionslisted           inASMEB16.5       or
              cations listed in Tables 423.1 and 426.1 may be used.
                                                                              MSS SP-44 may be used providedtheyaredesigned
              Thesevalves may containcertain cast, malleable, or
                                                                              in accordancewithpara.404.5.1.
              wroughtironparts as providedfor inAPI6D.
                 (b) Cast valves
                          iron      conforming standards
                                                 to         and                   (e) Flanges of Rectangular Cross Section. Slip-on
              specifications listed in Tables 423.1 and 426.1 may be          flanges of rectangular cross section may be usedpro-
              used for pressures not to exceed 250 psi (17 bar). Care         videdtheyaredesigned            in accordance with para.
              shall be exercisedprevent
                                    to        excessivemechanical             404.5.1 (d).
              loadings(seepara.408.5.4).
                 (c) Workingpressureratings           ofthesteelpartsof        408.3FlangeFacings
              steel valves are applicable within the temperature limita-
                                                     General                      408.3.1                                                (981
              tionsof-20°F(-30°C)to250°F(120°C)(seepara.
              401.3.1). Where resilient, rubberlike, or plastic materials         (a) Standard Facings. Steel or cast iron flanges shall
              are used for sealing, they shall be capable of withstand-        havecontactfaces     in accordance with ASMEB16.5
              ing the fluid, pressures, and temperatures specified for         or MSS SP-6.
              thepipingsystem.                                                    (b) Special Facings. Special facings are permissible
                                                                                        they capable withstanding same
                                                                               provided are          of           the
              407.8 SpecialValves                                              tests as those inASMEB16.5.Seepara.408.5.4for
                                                                               boltingsteelto cast ironflanges.
                 Special valves not listed in Tables 423.1 and 426.1
              shall be permitted,providedthattheirdesign              is of at 408.4 Gaskets
              least equal strength and tightness and they are capable
              of withstanding the same test requirements          as covered      408.4.1 General. Gaskets shall be made of materials
              in thesestandards,andstructuralfeaturessatisfythe                whicharenotinjuriouslyaffected       by thefluidinthe
              material specification and test procedures ofvalves in           pipingsystem,andshall      be capable of withstanding
              similarservicesetforth         in thelistedstandards.            thepressuresandtemperaturestowhichtheywill             be
                                                                               subjected in service.
              408 FLANGES,FACINGS,GASKETS,AND
                  BOLTING                                                       408.4.2 Standard
                                                                                 Gaskets                                                      (981
                                                                                 (a) Gasketsconforming       to ASME    B16.20     or to
              408.1Flanges                                                    ASME B 16.21may be used.
       (981      408.1.1
                    General                                                      (b) Metallic gaskets other than ring type    or spirally
                 (a) Flanged connections shall conform to the require-        wound  metal       shall
                                                                                          asbestos not             be used ANSI
                                                                                                                           with
              ments of paras.408.1,408.3,408.4,and408.5.                      Class150 or lighterflanges.
                 (b) SteelFlangesWithinScope       o StandardSizes.
                                                    f                            (c) The use metal
                                                                                             of           or metal  jacketedasbestos
              Welding neck, slip-on, threaded, and lapped companion           (eitherplain or corrugated) is notlimited[except         as
              flanges,reducing
                             flanges, flanges, flanges
                                     blind     and                            provided in para.408.4.2(b)] as to pressure,provided
              cast or forgedintegral with pipe,fittings, or valves,              the
                                                                              that gasket       is      for service
                                                                                         materialsuitable the
              conforming to ASME B 16.5 or MSS SP-44, are permit-             temperature. These types of gaskets are recommended
              tedinthe    sizes listed in thesestandardsandforthe             forusewiththesmallmaleandfemale               or thesmall

                                                                         27



COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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         4842441
          0..-1.                                                                                              ASME B31.4-1998 EditiOO

                 and
         tongue groove         facings. They  may also be used              409 USEDPIPINGCOMPONENTSAND
         withsteel flanges withanyofthefollowing            facings:            EQUIPMENT
         lapped, large male and female, large tongue and groove,
                                                                               Used pipingcomponents, such                   elbows,
                                                                                                                  as fittings,
         or raised face.
                                                                            bends,intersections,couplings,reducers,closures,
            (d) Asbestoscompositiongaskets        may be used as            flanges, valves, and equipment, may be reused. [Reuse
         permittedinASMEB16.5.Thistypeof                gasket may          of pipe covered
                                                                                   is               by para. 405.2.l(b).] However,
         be usedwithanyofthevariousflange           facings except          such components and equipment shall be cleaned and
         smallmaleand female, or smalltongueand groove.                     examined;  reconditioned, if necessary, to insure that
            ( e ) Rings ring
                      for          joints shall be of dimensions                meet requirements
                                                                            they all                              intended service;
                                                                                                            for the
         established in ASMEB16.20.Thematerials           for these         andsoundandfreeof         defects.
         rings shall be suitable for the service conditions encoun-            In addition, reuse shall be contingent on identification
         teredand shall be softer thantheflanges.                           of the specification under which the item was originally
                                                                            produced. Where the specification cannot be identified,
           408.4.3SpecialGaskets. Special gaskets,including
                                                                            use shall be restricted to a maximum allowable   operating
                            mayused
         insulating gaskets, be provided   they                 are
                                                                            pressurebasedon a yieldstrengthof24,000psi(165
         suitable for the temperatures, pressures, fluids, andother
                                                                            MPa) or less.
         conditions towhichtheymay        be subjected.

         408.5Bolting
                                                                                            PART 4
  198)         General
            408.5.1                                                              SELECTIONANDLIMITATION                      OF
            (a) Bolts or studboltsshallextendcompletely                                 PIPINGJOINTS
         throughthenuts.
            (6) Nuts shall conform with ASTM A 194 or A 325,
         exceptthat   A 307       B
                             Gradenuts       may be usedon                  411 WELDEDJOINTS
         ASMEClass150andASMEClass300flanges.
                                                                            411.2ButtWelds
  (98)          Bolting
           408.5.2              Flanges.
                         for Steel                   Bolting shall
         conformtoASMEB16.5.                                                   Butt welded joints shall be in accordance with Chap-
                                                                            ter V.
            408.5.3 Bolting for Insulating Flanges. For insulat-
         ing
           flanges,     v8 in. (3 mm) undersize        may
                                                 bolting
                                                                            412 FLANGEDJOINTS
           used        that steel
         be provided alloy bolting            in
                                       material
         accordancewithASTM A 193 or A354isused.
                                                                            412.1General
            408.5.4Bolting Steel to Cast IronFlanges. When
                                                                              Flanged joints shall meet the requirements            of
         boltingClass 150 steelflanges to Class125 cast iron
                                                                            para.408.
         flanges, heat treated carbon steel  or alloy steel bolting
         (ASTM A 193) maybeusedonlywhenboth                 flanges
         areflat face andthegasketisfull       face; otherwise,the          414THREADEDJOINTS
         bolting shall have a maximum tensile strength no greater
         thanthemaximumtensilestrengthofASTMA307
                                     General                                414.1                                                         (98)
         Grade B. When bolting Class 300 steel flanges to Class
         250 cast iron flanges, the bolting shall have a maximum               All external pipe threads on piping components shall
         tensilestrengthnogreaterthanthemaximumtensile                      be taperpipethreads.They       shall be line pipethreads
         strength ASTM307
                 of       A Grade Good
                                   B. practice                              in accordance with API 5B, or NPT threads in accord-
         indicates thattheflangeshouldbeflat         faced.                 ance with ASME B1.20.1. All internal pipe threads on
                                                                            piping components shall be taperpipethreads,except
           408.5.5Bolting for Special    Flanges. For flanges               for sizes N P S 2 and smaller with design gage pressures
         designedinaccordancewithpara.        404.5.1 [seeparas.            not exceeding 150 psi (10 bar),inwhichcase        straight
         408.1.l(d) and 408.1.l(e)], bolting shall conform to the           threads may be used.
         applicable section ofSectionVIII,Division1,ofthe                      Least nominal wall thickness for threaded pipe shall
         ASMEBoilerandPressureVesselCode.                                   be standard wall(seeASMEB36.10M).

                                                                       28



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                       S T D = A S M E B31.4-ENGL           1778            0 7 5 7 b 7 0 Ob07232 Tb8



            M E B31.4-1998 Edition
             M                                                                                                                   418419.6.4

            418SLEEVE,COUPLED,ANDOTHER                                           ( d ) Expansion aboveground may pre-
                                                                                                of           lines be
                PATENTEDJOINTS                                                 vented by anchoring them so that longitudinal expansion,
                                                                               or contraction, due to thermal and pressure changes is
            418.1General                                                       absorbed by direct axial compression or tension of the
                                                                               pipe in the same way as for buried piping. In addition,
               Steelconnectorsandswivelscomplyingwith             API          however,beambendingstressesshall        be includedand
            6D maybe used.Sleeve,coupled,andotherpatented                        possible
                                                                               the                                     pipe,
                                                                                              elastic instability of the and         its
            joints, except as limited in                    be
                                        para. 423.2.4(b), may                  supports,due to longitudinalcompressiveforcesshall
             usedprovided:                                                     be considered.
                (u) a prototype joint has been subject to proof tests
             to determinethesafety ofthe joints undersimulated                 419.5Flexibility
             service conditions. When vibration, fatigue, cyclic con-
             ditions, low temperature,thermalexpansion, or other                  419.5.1Means of ProvidingFlexibility. If expan-
             severe conditions are anticipated, the applicable condi-          sion is notabsorbed by directaxialcompression              of
             tionsshall be incorporated in thetests.                           thepipe,flexibilityshall       beprovided by the use    of
                (b) adequate provision is made to prevent separation           bends, loops, or offsets; or provision shall be made to
             of
              the             to
                      joint andpreventlongitudinal           or lateral        absorb thermal strains by expansion joints or couplings
             movement beyond the limits provided for in the joining            of the slip joint, ball joint, or bellows type. If expansion
             member.                                                           joints are used,anchors or ties of sufficientstrength
                                                                               and rigidity shall be installed to provide for end forces
                                                                               due tofluidpressureandothercauses.
                              PART 5                                           419.6Properties
                      EXPANSION,FLEXIBILITY,
                    STRUCTURALATTACHMENTS,                                       419.6.1 Coefficient of Thermal Expansion. The lin-
                    SUPPORTS, AND RESTRAINTS                                   ear coefficient of thermalexpansionforcarbonand
                                                                                  alloy tensile
                                                                               low high         steel           be
                                                                                                             may taken      as 6.5 x
                                                                               10" in./in./"Ffortemperatures   upto 250°F (1 1.7 x
            419EXPANSIONANDFLEXIBILITY                                         10" mm/mm/"c fortemperatures upto 1 2 0 " ~ ) .
                                                                                 419.6.2 Moduli of Elasticity. Flexibility calculations
            419.1General                                                       shall be based on the modulus of elasticity at ambient
               (a) This Code applicable both
                             is         to aboveground                         temperature.
            andburiedpipingandcoversallclasses              of materials                Poisson's Ratio. Poisson's shall
                                                                                  419.6.3                        ratio                   be
            permitted by thisCode.Formalcalculationsshall             be       taken as 0.3forsteel.
            requiredwherereasonabledoubt         exists as totheade-
            quateflexibility of thepiping.                                        419.6.4StressValues
               (b) Piping shall be designed to have sufficient flexi-             (a) General. There fundamental
                                                                                                       are           differences      in
            bility to prevent expansion or contraction from causing            loading conditions for the buried, or similarly restrained,
            excessive stresses     in thepiping
                                              material,
                                                     excessive                 portions of thepipingandtheabovegroundportions
            bending  moments       at joints, or excessive  forces     or      not      to
                                                                                  subjectsubstantial restraint.
                                                                                                   axial     Therefore,
            momentsatpoints         of connection to equipment or at           different limits on allowable   longitudinalexpansion
            anchorage or guidepoints.Allowableforcesandmo-                     stresses are necessary.
            ments on equipment may be less than for the connected                 (6) RestrainedLines. The net longitudinal compres-
            piping.                                                            sive stress due to the combined effects of temperature
               (c) Expansioncalculationsarenecessaryforburied                           fluid
                                                                               rise and pressure be               from
                                                                                                    shall computed the
            lines if significanttemperaturechanges are expected,               equation:
            such as when the line is to carry a heated oil. Thermal
            expansion of        lines
                           buried            may cause  movement  at
            points where the line terminates, changes       in direction,
            or changes in size. Unless such movements are restrained           where
            by suitableanchors,thenecessaryflexibilityshall            be        S, = longitudinalcompressive stress, psi(MPa)
            provided.                                                            s h = hoop stress duetofluidpressure,psi(MPa)



                                                                          29



COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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        419.6.4419.73                                                                                           ASME B31.4-1998 Edition

          T, = temperature at timeof installation, "F ("C)                  100% of the expansion, with modulus of elasticity for
          T2 = maximum or minimum operating temperature,                    thecoldcondition       - shallnotexceedtheallowable
               "F ("C)                                                      stress range SA, where SA = 0.72 of specified minimum
          E = modulusofelasticityof       steel, psi (MPa)                  yield strength of the pipe    as noted in para. 402.3.2(c).
          o! = linear coefficientofthermal expansion, inJin./                  The sum of the longitudinal stresses due to pressure,
                 F
               O (mm/mm/"C)                                                 weight, and other sustained external loadings shall not
           v = Poisson's ratio = 0.30 steel
                                       for                                  exceed 0.75SA in accordancewithpara.402.3.2(d).
                                                                               The sum of the     longitudinal stresses produced by
        Note that the net longitudinal stress becomes compres-              pressure,liveanddeadloads,andthoseproduced                 by
        sive formoderateincreasesof            T2 andthataccording          occasional loads, such as wind or earthquake, shall not
        to the commonly used maximum shear theory of failure,               exceed 80% ofthespecifiedminimumyieldstrength
        this compressive stress adds directly to the hoop stress            ofthepipe,inaccordancewithpara.402.3.3(a).               It is
        to increase the equivalent tensile stress available to                necessary
                                                                            not                to consider wind and       earthquake as
        cause yielding. As specified in para. 402.3.2(c), this
                                                                            occurring concurrently.
        equivalent tensile stress shall not be allowed to exceed
        90% ofthespecifiedminimumyield                strength ofthe           As noted in para.    402.3.3(b), stresses due to test
        pipe, calculated for nominal pipe wall thickness. Beam              conditions are not subject to the limitations ofpara.
        bending stresses shall be included in the longitudinal              402.3. It is not necessary to consider other occasional
        stress for thoseportions of therestrainedlinewhich                  loads, such as wind and earthquake, as occurring concur-
        are supportedaboveground.                                           rentlywith the live, dead, andtestloads           existing at
           (c) Unrestrained Lines. Stresses to   due expansion              thetimeoftest.
          those
        for portions            of the piping   without substantial
        axial restraint shall be  combined in accordance       with         419.7Analysis
        thefollowing equation:
                                                                              419.7.3BasicAssumptions          and Requirements
                                                                              (a) The effect of restraints, such as support friction,
                                                                            branch connections, lateral interferences, etc.,shall be
                                                                            considered inthe stress calculations.
                   stress duetoexpansion
                                                                               (b) Calculations shall take into account stress intensi-
                                                                            fication factors found to exist in components other than
                                                                            plain
                                                                                straight      pipe. Credit may be   taken     for extra
                            Z                                               flexibility of such components. In the absence of more
                                                                            directly applicable data, the flexibility factors and stress
                  equivalent bending stress, psi(MPa)
                                                                            intensification factors shown in Fig. 419.6.4(c) may
                  M,/2Z = torsional stress, psi     (MPa)
                                                                            beused.
                  bending moment in plane memberof              (for
                  members having significant orientation, such                ( c ) Nominal           of and       shall
                                                                                            dimensions pipe fittings
                  as elbows or tees; for the latter the moments             beusedinflexibility    calculations.
                  intheheaderandbranch          portions are tobe              (d) Calculations of pipe stresses in loops, bends, and
                  considered separately), in.-lb (N.m)                      offsets shall be based on the total range from minimum
                  bending moment  out        of, or transverse to,          to maximum temperature normally expected, regardless
                  planeofmember,        in.-lb (N.m)                        ofwhetherpipingiscoldsprung             or not.Inaddition
                  torsionalmoment, in.-lb (N.m)                             to expansionoftheline       itself, thelinearandangular
                  stress intensification factor under bending in
                                                                            movementsoftheequipment            to whichitisattached
                  planeofmember[fromFig.             419.6.4(c)]
                                                                            shall beconsidered.
                  stress intensification factor under bending out
                  of, or transverse to, plane of member [from                  (e) Calculationsofthermal      forces andmomentson
                  Fig.419.6.4(c)]                                           anchors and equipment     such as pumps,      meters,and
                  sectionmodulus of pipe, in.3 (cm3)                                               be
                                                                            heat exchangers shall based on thedifference between
          Themaximumcomputedexpansion              stress range -                      temperature minimum
                                                                            installation          and                     or maximum
        SE withoutregardforfluidpressure          stress, basedon           anticipated operating temperature, whichever is greater.

                                                                       30



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             ASME B31.4-1998 Edition                                                                                             Fig. 419.6.q~)

                                                                  Stress Intensification
                                                                          Factor
                                                   Flexibility                                   Flexibility
                      Factor
                       Description                          k        ii (1)            io(2)   Characteristic h        Sketch



             Welding elbow,"     41 3
                                    '    ' 1   '     -
                                                     1.65             -
                                                                      0.9              -
                                                                                       0.75               -
                                                                                                          tR
              or pipe bend                             h              hz3               hlB                  ?




             Closely spaced
               miter bend,', 4, ',   '
                                                     1.52
                                                     -                -.
                                                                      09
                                                      P 6             "
                                                                      h
                5 < r(1 + t a n e)




             Widely spaced
              miter bend,', 4, ' *
                               ,
                                                     -
                                                     1.52              .
                                                                      09
                                                                      -
                                                      "
                                                      h               ha3
               5 2 r(1+ t a n e)




             Welding tee"                                                              0.9                       t
              per ASME 816.9
                                                       1         0.75i0 + 0.25         -
                                                                                       h2/3
                                                                                                         4.4     -

             ~~                                                                    ~




             Reinforced tee', 4*                                                        .
                                                                                       09
              with pad or saddle
                                                       1         0.75i0 + 0.25         -
                                                                                       h2/3
                                                                                                (t   +   l 2
                                                                                                          i      fi*
                                                                                                         t
                                                                                                         "       r
                                                                                                                                Saddle




             Unreinforced                                                               0.9                  t
                                                                                                             -
              fabricated tee',
                                                       1         0.754,   + 0.25        -                    r
                                                                                        hu3




                            FIG. 419.6.4(c) FLEXIBILITY FACTOR k AND STRESS INTENSIFICATION FACTOR i




                                                                                       31



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                                   S T D - A S M E BIL.4-ENGL L778 m 0 7 5 9 b 7 0 Ob07235 7 7 7



        F g 419.6.q~)
         i.                                                                                                                     ASME B 1 4 1 2 8 Edition
                                                                                                                                      3.-!9


                                                                  Stress Intensification
                                                                          Factor
                                                 Flexibility                                               Flexibility
                             Description          Factor k           ii   (1)            i,, (2)         Characteristic h           Sketch
             ~   ~~    ~~~    ~~




        Butt welded joint, reducer,
          or welding neck flange
                                                     1                                                           ...                  ...

        Double welded slip-on
          flange
                                                     1                          12
                                                                                 .                               ...                  ...

        Fillet welded joint (single
          welded), or single welded                  1                          1.3                              ...                  ...
          slip-on flange

        Lapped flange (with
                                                     1                          16
                                                                                 .                               ...                  ...
          ANSI 816.9 lap-joint stub)

        Threaded pipe joint,
          or threaded flange
                                                     1                        2.3                                ...                  ...

        Corrugated straight pipe, or
          corrugated or creased bend'"
                                                     5                        2.5                                ...                  ...

        NOTES:
         (1) ln-plane.
         (2) Out-of-plane.
         (3) For fittings and miter bends, the flexibility factors k and stress intensification factors i in the Table apply to bending in any plane and
               shall not be less than unity; factors for torsion equal unity. Both factors apply over the effective arc length (shown by heavy center lines
               in the sketches) for curved and miter elbows, and to the intersection point for tees.
         (4) The values of k and i can be read directly from Chart A by entering with the characteristic h computed from the equations given, where
                   R = bend radius of welding elbow or pipe bend, in. (mm)
                   T = pad or saddle thickness, in. (mm)
                   d = outside diameter of branch
                    r = mean radius of matching pipe, in. (mm)
                  r, = see Note (11)
                    S = miter spacing at center line
                    t = nominal wall thickness of: part itself, for elbows and curved or mited bends; matching pipe, for welding tees; run or header, for
                        fabricated tees (provided that if thickness is greater than that of matching pipe, increased thickness must be maintained for at
                        least one run O.D. to each side of the branch O.D.).
                   tc = the crotch thickness of tees
                   B = one-half angle between adjacent miter axes, deg.
         ( 5 ) Where flanges are attached to one or both ends, the values of k and i in the Table shall be corrected by the factors C given below, which
                                                                                                                                       ,
               can be read directly from Chart B, entering with the computed h: oneendflanged, hu6 1 1 both endsflanged,
                                                                                                              ;                        L 1.
         (6) The engineer is cautioned that cast butt welding elbows may have considerably heavier walls than that of the pipe with which they are
               used. Large errors may be introduced unless the effect of these greater thicknesses is considered.
         (7)I n large diameter thin wall elbows and bends, pressure can significantly affect the magnitude of flexibility and stress intensification factors.
               To correct values obained from Table for the pressure effect, divide:


                                                                     factor
                                                           Flexibility           k by         1
                                                                                                            r
                                                                                                   + 6 r, (7)      (+)
                                                                                                                 7/3   I/3




                                                                         factor
                                                    Stress intensification            i by          1   + 3.25         (+)
                                                                                                                 -g(;) m
                                                                                                                  P r*


               where
               EC = cold modulus of elasticity
               P = gagepressure
         ( 8 ) Also includes single miter joint.
         (9) When T > lv2t, use h = 4.05 Vr.
        (10) Factors shown apply to bending; flexibility factor for torsion equals 0.9.


                      FIG. 419.6.4k) FLEXIBILITY FACTOR k AND STRESS INTENSIFICATION FACTOR i (CONT'D)


                                                                                        32



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             ASME B31.4-1998 Edition                                                                                                          420-422.6.2

                                                                                                                     of
             (11) Radius of curvature of external contoured portionof outlet measured in the plane containing the axes the run and branch. This is subject
                  to the following limitations:
                   (a) minimum radius r,,: thelesser of 0.05dor 38 mm (1.5 in.);
                   (b) maximum radius r,, shall not exceed:
                       (1) for branches DN200 (NPS 8) and larger, 0.10d+ 13 mm (0.50 in);
                       (2) for brancheslessthan DN200 (NPS 8), 32 mm (1.25 in.);
                   (c) whentheexternalcontourcontainsmorethanoneradius,theradiusonany                arc sector of approximately 45 deg.shallmeetthe
                       requirements of (a) and (b) above;
                   (d) machiningshallnotbeemployedinorder       to meet the above requirements.


                    FIG. 419.6.4k) FLEXIBILITY FACTOR k AND STRESS INTENSIFICATION FACTOR i (CONT’D)


            420 LOADSONPIPESUPPORTING                                                  MSS SP-69 for their selection and application may
                ELEMENTS                                                               be used.

            420.1General
              The forces and momentstransmitted    to connected
                                                                                                      PART 6
            equipment,                                pressure
                      such as valves, strainers, tanks,
            vessels,andpumpingmachinery,shallbekeptwithin                                  AUXILIARY AND OTHER SPECIFIC
            safe limits.                                                                              PIPING

            421DESIGNOFPIPESUPPORTING                                                  422 DESIGNREQUIREMENTS
                ELEMENTS
                                                                                       422.3InstrumentandOtherAuxiliaryLiquid
            421.1Supports,Braces,andAnchors                                                  Petroleum or Liquid        Ammonia
                                                                                                                Anhydrous
                                                                                             Piping
               (u) Supportsshall bedesigned to support the pipe
            without  causing excessive local stresses in the   pipe                       All instrument and other auxiliary piping connected
            and without imposing excessive axial or lateral friction                   to primary piping and which operates at a gage pressure
            forcesthatmightpreventthedesiredfreedom                of                  exceeding 15 psi (1 bar) shall be constructed in accord-
            movement.                                                                  ancewiththe provisions ofthisCode.
               (b) Bracesanddamping        devices may occasionally
                                                                                       422.6PressureDisposalPiping
            berequired to preventvibrationofpiping.
               (c) All attachments to the pipe shall be designed to                      Pressure disposal or reliefpipingbetweenpressure
            minimizetheadded stresses inthepipewallbecause                             origin pointandreliefdevice     shall beinaccordance
            of the attachment. Nonintegral attachments, such as                        with this Code.
            pipe clamps and ring girders, are preferred where they
                                                                                         422.6.1 A full area stop valve may be installed
            willfulfillthe   supporting or anchoring functions.
                                                                                       between origin pointandreliefdeviceprovidingsuch
               (d) Ifpipeis designedto operate at or close to its
                                                                                       valvecan be locked or sealed in the openposition.
            allowable stress, all connections   welded to the  pipe
            shallbemade to a separate cylindrical member which                           422.6.2 Disposalpipingfromreliefdevice         shall be
            completely encircles the pipe, and this encircling mem-                    connected to a proper disposal facility, whichmay be
            ber shall be welded to the pipe by continuous circumfer-                   a flare stack, suitable pit, sump, or tank. This disposal
            ential welds.                                                              piping shall havenovalvebetweenreliefdeviceand
               ( e ) The applicable sections of MSS SP-S8 for materi-                  disposal facility     such
                                                                                                        unless valve becan locked             or
            als anddesignofpipehangersand            supports and of                   sealed in theopenposition.




                                                                                  33



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        i.
       F g 419.6.q~)                                                                        ASME B31.4-1998 Edition




                                                     Characteristic h
                                                        Chart A

                       1 .o0


                        0.75
                 G
                 ô
                 5
                 c
                 c
                        0.50
                 L.

                       0.375                                   \ 1
                                                           flanged End           C1 = h’”
                                                                  2 Ends flanged C1 = h’’
                       0.25




            FIG. 419.6.4W FLEXIBILITY FACTOR k AND STRESS INTENSIFICATION FACTOR i (CONT‘D)




                                                      34



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             ASME B31.4-1998 Edition




                                                               CHAPTER III
                                                               MATERIALS


             423 MATERIALS - GENERAL                                             423.2.4Cast,Malleable,andWroughtIron
                 REQUIREMENTS                                                    (a) Cast,malleable,andwroughtironshallnot              be
                                                                              used forpressurecontainingpartsexcept           as provided
                                                                              in paras. 407.l(a), 407.l(b), and423.2.4(b).
             423.1AcceptableMaterialsandSpecifications                           (6) Cast, malleable, and wrought iron are acceptable
                                                                              in pressure vessels and other equipment noted        in para.
                 (a) The materials used shall conform to the specifica-       400.1.2(b) and       in proprietary        [see
                                                                                                                   items para.
             tions listed in Table 423.1 or shall meet the requirements       400.1.2(g)], except that pressure containing parts shall
             of this Code for materials not listed. Specific editions         be limited to pressures not exceeding 250 psi (17 bar).
             of standardsincorporated in thisCode by reference,                  423.25 Materials for Liquid Anhydrous Ammonia
             and the names and addresses of the sponsoring organiza-          Pipeline Systems. Only steel conforming to specifica-
             tions, are shown in Appendix A, since it is not practical        tions listed in Appendix A shall be used for pressure
             to refer to a specific edition of each standard in Table         containing piping components and equipment in liquid
             423.1andthroughouttheCode            text. Appendix A will       anhydrous ammonia pipeline systems. However, internal
             be revised at intervals,as needed, and issuedin Addenda          parts of suchpipingcomponentsandequipmentmay
             to the Code. Materials and components conforming to              be madeofothermaterialssuitablefortheservice.
             a specification or standardpreviouslylisted           in Table      The longitudinal or spiral weld of electric resistance
             423.1. or to a superseded edition ofa listed specification               and
                                                                              welded electric           welded shall
                                                                                                induction     pipe                     be
             or standard, maybeused.                                          normalized.
                 (b) Except as otherwiseprovidedfor in thisCode,                 Cold formed fittings shall be normalized after fabri-
             materials which do not conform to a listed specification         cation.
             or standardshall be qualifiedforuse            by petitioning       Except for the quantities permitted in steels by indi-
             the Code Committee for approval. Complete information            vidualspecificationsfor steels listed in AppendixA,
             shall supplied
                  be               to the Committee the
                                         Code             and                 the useof copper,zinc, or alloys of thesemetalsis
                                                                              prohibited for allpressurepipingcomponentssubject
             Code Committee approval shall be obtained before the
                                                                              to a liquidanhydrousammoniaenvironment.
             material maybeused.
                                                                                423.2.6 Materials for Carbon Dioxide Piping Sys-
             423.2LimitationsonMaterials                                      tems. Use for blow down and bypass piping in carbon
                                                                              dioxidepipelinesshall be of materialsconformingto
                423.2.1General                                                ASTM A 333andASTM A 420.
                (u) The         shall considerationthe
                       designer give                  to
             significance of temperature on the performance      of lhe
             material.
                (b) Selection of          to
                                 material resist deterioration        in
             service isnotwithinthescopeofthisCode.It             is the
                                                                              425MATERIALSAPPLIEDTO
                                                                                  MISCELLANEOUSPARTS
             designer’s responsibility to select materials suitable for
             the fluid service under the intended operating conditions.       425.3Gaskets
             An exampleof a source of information on materials
             performance in corrosive environments is the Corrosion             Limitations on gasket materials     are covered in para.
             Datu Survey published by theNationalAssociation of               408.4.
             CorrosionEngineers.
                                                                              425.4Bolting
               423.23 Steel. Steels for pipeareshown          in Table          Limitations on bolting materials are covered in para.
             423.1(except as noted in para.423.2.5).                          408.5.

                                                                         35



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         Table 423.1                                                                                                      ASME B31.4-1998 Edition

  (98)                                                             TABLE 423.1
                                                                MATERIAL STANDARDS
                                                           Standard or Specification                                                  Designation

         Pipe

         Pipe.Steel. Black & Hot.Dipped. Zinc-Coated Welded & Seamless .............................................                  ASTM A 5 3
         SeamlessCarbonSteelPipe for High-Temperature Service ....................................................                   ASTM A 106
         Pipe.Steel. Electric-Fusion (Arc)-Welded (Sizes NPS 16 and Over) ............................................               ASTM A 134
         Electric-Resistance-Welded Steel Pipe ....................................................................                  ASTM A 135
         Electric-Fusion (Arc)-Welded Steel Pipe (NPS 4 andOver) ...................................................                 ASTM A 139
         Seamless and Welded Steel Pipe for Low Temperature Service .................................................                ASTM A 333
         Metal-Arc-Welded Steel Pipe for Use with High-pressure Transmission Systems ...................................             ASTM A 381

         SeamlessCarbon Steel Pipe for Atmospheric and Lower Temperatures ..........................................                 ASTM A 524
         GeneralRequirements for Specialized Carbon and Alloy Steel Pipe .............................................               ASTM A 530
         Electric-Fusion-Welded SteelPipe for Atmospheric and Lower Temperatures .....................................               ASTM A 671
         Electric-Fusion-Welded Steel Pipe for High-Pressure Service at Moderate Temperatures ............................           ASTM A 672
         Line Pipe ...........................................................................................                           A P I 51
         Ultra-High Test Heat Treated Line Pipe ...................................................................                     API 51u


         Fittings. Valves. and Flanges

         Pipe Flangesand Flanged Fittings ..............................................             .........................       ASME 816.5
         Forgings.Carbon Steel. for Piping Components ....................................           .........................       ASTM A 105
         Gray Iron Castings for Valves.Flanges.andPipe   Fittings ............................       .........................       ASTM A 126
         Forgings. Carbon Steel. for General-Purpose Piping ...............................           ..........................     ASTM A 181
         Forged or Rolled Alloy-Steel Pipe Flanges. Forged Fittings. and Valves and Parts for High-.Temperature Service .........    ASTM A 182
         SteelCastings.Carbon. Suitable for Fusion Welding. for High Temperature Service ...... ..........................           ASTM A 216

         Steel Castings. Martensitic Stainless and Alloy. for Pressure Containing Parts. Suitable for High-Temperature
           Service ...........................................................................................                       ASTM A   217
         Piping Fittings of Wrought Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel for Moderate and Elevated Temperatures     ....................     ASTM A   234
         Forgings, Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel, Requiring Notch Toughness Testing for Piping Components ....................          ASTM A   350
         Ferritic Ductile Iron Pressure-Retaining Castings for Use at Elevated Temperatures ................................         ASTM A   395
         Piping Fittings of Wrought Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel for Low Temperature Service [Note (111 ....................         ASTM A   420
         SteelCastings Suitable for PressureService ...............................................................                  ASTM A   487
         Forgings, Carbon and Alloy Steel, for Pipe Flanges, Fittings, Valves, and Parts for High-pressure Transmission
           Service ...........................................................................................                       ASTM A 694

         Wellhead Equipment ..................................................................................                            API 6A
         Pipeline Valves,EndClosures,Connectorsand    Swivels .......................................................                     API 6D
         SteelGateValves, Flanged and Buttwelding Ends ...........................................................                       API 600
         Compact Carbon Steel Gate Valves .......................................................................                        API 602
         Class 150, Corrosion Resistant Gate Valves ................................................................                     A P I 603

         Quality Standard for Steel Castings for Valves. Flanges and Fittings and Other Piping Components ....................        MSS 5p-55
         Specification For High Test Wrought Welding Fittings .......................................................                 MSS 5p-75


         Bolting

         Alloy-Steel and Stainless Steel Bolting Materials for High-Temperature Service ...................................          ASTM A   193
         Carbon and Alloy Steel Nuts for Bolts for High-pressure and High-Temperature Service ............................           ASTM A   194
         CarbonSteel Externally Threaded Standard Fasteners .......................................................                  ASTM A   307
         Alloy Steel Bolting Materials for Low-Temperature Service ...................................................               ASTM A   320

         High-Strength Bolts for Structural Steel Joints   .............................................................             ASTM A 325
         Quenched and Tempered Alloy Steel Bolts. Studs.    and Other Externally Threaded Fasteners   ..........................     ASTM A 354
         QuenchedandTemperedSteel       Bolts andStuds     .............................................................             ASTM A 449



                                                                              36



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              ASME B31.4-1998Edition

                                                                    TABLE 423.1 (CONT’D)
                                                                    MATERIAL STANDARDS
                                                               Standard or Specification
                                                      Designation

              Bolting (Cont‘d)

              Heat Treated Steel Structural Bolts. 150 ksi (1035 MPa) Minimum Tensile Strength       ..............................           ASTM A 490

              Structural Materials

              GeneralRequirements for Rolled SteelPlates.Shapes.Sheet    Piling. and Bars for Structural Use     .....................          ASTM A 6
              GeneralRequirements for Steel Plates for PressureVessels ...................................................                     ASTM A 20
              General Requirements for Steel Bars. Carbon and Alloy. Hot-Wrought and Cold-Finished      ............................           ASTM A 29
              Structural Steel ......................................................................................                          ASTM A 36
              PressureVesselPlates. Alloy Steel. Manganese-Vanadium ....................................................                      ASTM A 225

              High-StrengthLow-AlloyStructural Steel     .................................................................                    ASTM    A 242
              Low and Intermediate Tensile Strength Carbon Steel Plates. and Bars...........................................                  ASTM    A 283
              PressureVesselPlates. Carbon Steel. Low- and Intermediate-Tensile Strength ....................................                 ASTM    A 285
              High-StrengthLow-AlloyStructural Manganese Vanadium Steel     ...............................................                   ASTM    A 441
              PressureVesselPlates. Carbon Steel. Improved Transition Properties ...........................................                  ASTM    A 442

              General Requirements for Steel Sheet and Strip. Alloy. Hot-Rolled and Cold-Rolled ................................              ASTM    A   505
              Steel Sheet and Strip. Alloy.   Hot-Rolled and Cold.Rolled. Regular Quality ........................................            ASTM    A   506
              Steel Sheet and Strip. Alloy.   Hot-Rolled and Cold.Rolled. Drawing Quality .......................................             ASTM    A   507
              High.Yield.Strength.     Quenched and Tempered Alloy SteelPlate. Suitable for Welding ..............................            ASTM    A   514
              PressureVesselPlates. Carbon Steel. for Intermediate- and Higher-Temperature Service     ............................           ASTM    A   515
              Pressure Vessel Plates. Carbon Steel. for Moderate- and Lower-Temperature Service     ...............................           ASTM    A   516

              PressureVesselPlates. Alloy Steel.High.Strength.Quenched    and Tempered    ......................................              ASTM    A   517
              PressureVesselPlates. Heat Treated.Carbon-Manganese-SiliconSteel        ..........................................              ASTM    A   537
              High-Strength Low-Alloy Columbium-Vanadium Steels of Structural Quality ......................................                  ASTM    A   572
              Structural Carbon Steel Plates of Improved Toughness .......................................................                    ASTM    A   573
              SteelBars.Carbon.    Merchant Quality. M-Grades ............................................................                    ASTM    A   575
              SteelBars.Carbon.Hot.Wrought.      Special Quality ...........................................................                  ASTM    A   576

              Normalized High-Strength Low-Alloy Structural Steel    ........................................................                  ASTM A 633
              SteelBars.Carbon.   Merchant Quality. Mechanical Properties ..................................................                   ASTM A 663
              SteelBars.Carbon.Hot.Wrought.Special      Quality. Mechanical Properties ........................................                ASTM A 675




              Miscellaneous

              Pipe Hangers and Support Materials. Design and Manufacture     .................................................                  MSS SP-58

              GENERAL NOTE:
              Specific editions of standards incorporated in this Code by reference. and the names and addresses of the sponsoring organizations. are shown
              in Appendix A. since it is not practical to refer to a specific edition of each standard in Table 423.1 and throughout the Code text . Appendix
              A will be revised at intervals as needed. and issued in Addenda to the Code.

              NOTE:
              (1) A 420 Grade WPL9 is not recommended for anhydrous ammonia due to copper content.




                                                                                    37



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              ASME B31.4-1998 Edition                                                                                         4264263




                                                     CHAPTER IV
                                             DIMENSIONAL REQUIREMENTS


              426 DIMENSIONALREQUIREMENTS FOR                                 426.2 Nonstandard Piping Components
                  STANDARDANDNONSTANDARDPIPING                                  The dimensions for nonstandard piping components
                  COMPONENTS                                                  shall be such as to providestrengthandperformance
                                                                              equivalent to standard components oras provided under
                                                                              para. 404. Whereverpractical,thesedimensionsshall
              426.1 Standard piping Components                                conform to those of comparable standard components.
                 Dimensional          for
                              standards piping         are
                                              components
              listed in Table 426.1. Also, certain material specifica-        426.3 Threads
              tions listed in Table 423.1 contain dimensional require-          The dimensions of all piping connection threads, not
              ments which are requirements of para. 426. Dimensions           otherwise covered by a governing component standard
              of piping components shall comply with thesestandards           or specification,shallconformtotherequirements         of
              and specifications unless the provisions of para. 426.2         the applicable standards listed in Table 426.1 (see para.
              are met.                                                        414.1).




                                                                         39



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        Table 426.1                                                                                                           ASME B31.4-1998 Editioo

                                                                  TABLE 426.1
                                                             DIMENSIONAL STANDARDS
          Designation            Specification          Standard or

        Pipe

        Welded                          Pipe ..............................................................
               and Seamless Wrought Steel                                                                                               ASME636.10M
        StainlessSteel Pipe ................................................................................                               636.19M
                                                                                                                                        ASME

        Line Pipe (Combination of former API Spec. 5L. SLS. and5LX) ............................................                              API 51
        Ultra-High Test
                    Heat    Treated
                                  Line    Pipe ................................................................                              API 51u


        Fittings. Valves. and Flanges

        Pipe Flanges
                   and Flanged  Fittings    ....................................................................                          ASME 616.5
        Factory-MadeWrought Steel Buttwelding  Fittings   ........................................................                        ASME 616.9
        Face-to-face and
                       End-to-End Dimensions     of Valves .......................................................                       ASME 616.10
        Metallic Gaskets for Pipe Flanges - Ring Joint. Spiral.Wound. and Jacketed .................................                     ASME 616.20
        Nonmetallic Flat Gaskets for PipeFlanges ..............................................................                          ASME616.21
        Buttwelding Ends ..................................................................................                              ASME 616.25
        Wrought Steel Buttwelding Short Radius Elbows Returns
                                                      and            ...............................................                     ASME 816.28

        Wellhead
          Equipment           ...............................................................................                                  API 6A
        Pipeline Valves, End Closures, Connectors
                                                and
                                                 Swivels      ....................................................                               6
                                                                                                                                               A P I0
        Steel
          Gate Flanged
            Valves, and                 Buttwelding Ends ........................................................                               600
                                                                                                                                              API
        Compact Steel
              CarbonValves
                   Gate                     ....................................................................                              API 602
        Class 150, Corrosion Resistant Gate
                                         Valves      .............................................................                            API 603

        Standard Finishes for Contact Faces of Pipe Flanges and Connecting-End Flanges of Valves and Fittings . . . . . . . . . . . .       MSS 5p-6
        Standard Marking System for Valves. Fittings. Flanges and Unions ..........................................                        MSS 5p-25
        Steel PipeLine Flanges ............................................................................                                MSS 5p-44
        Pressure Testing of Steel Valves ......................................................................                            MSS 5p-61
        Butterfly Valves ...................................................................................                               MSS   5p-67
        Cast Iron GateValves, Flanged and Threaded Ends .......................................................                            MSS 5p-70
        Cast Iron Swing CheckValves, Flanged and Threaded Ends ................................................                            MSS   5p-71
        Specification for High Test Wrought Welding Fittings .....................................................                         MSS 5p-75
        Cast Iron Plug Valves, Flanged and Threaded Ends .......................................................                           MSS 5p-78


        Miscellaneous

        Unified
             Inch    ScrewThreads(UN and UNRThread  Form)    .................................................                            ASME b1.1
                           Purpose (Inch) .................................................................
        Pipe Threads, General                                                                                                           ASME 81.20.1
        Dry Seal Pipe Threads (Inch) ........................................................................                           ASME 61.20.3

        Threading.
                Gaging.
                     and                       of
                                 Thread
                                      Inspection       Casing.
                                                            Tubing.    and Line Pipe
                                                                                   Threads       ............................                  API 5 6

        Pipe
          Hangers
               and         Supports-Selection and Application     ....................................................                     MSS   5p-69


        GENERAL NOTE:
        Specific editions of standards incorporated in this Code by reference. and the names and addresses of the sponsoring organizations. are shown
        in Appendix A. since it is not practical to refer to a specific edition of each standard in Table 426.1 and throughout the Cade text . Appendix
        A will be revised at intervals as needed. and issued in Addenda to the Code.




                                                                               40



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              ASME B31.4-1998 Edition




                                              CHAPTER V
                                  CONSTRUCTION, WELDING, AND ASSEMBLY


              434 CONSTRUCTION                                                 lines,undergroundstructures,andanyotherproperty
                                                                               in theproximityoftheblasting.
              434.1General                                                        (b) In gradingtheright     of way,everyeffortshall
                                                                               be made to minimize damage to the land and prevent
                 New construction and replacements of existing sys-            abnormal drainage and erosive conditions. The land        is
              temsshall be in accordance withtherequirementsof                 to be restored  to as nearly  original condition       as is
              this Chapter. Where written specifications are required,         practical.
              theyshall be in sufficient         to     that
                                            detail insure the                     (c) In constructingpipelinecrossings        of railroads,
              requirements of this Code shall be met. Such specifica-          highways, streams, lakes, rivers, etc., safety precautions
              tions shall include specific details on handling of pipe,                                                     he
                                                                               such as signs, lights, guard rails, etc., shall maintained
              equipment, materials, welding, and all construction fac-         in the        of     safety. crossings
                                                                                      interest public     The           shall
              tors whichcontributetosafetyandsoundengineering                  complywiththeapplicablerules,regulations,andre-
              practice. It is notintendedhereinthatallconstruction             strictions ofregulatorybodieshaving        jurisdiction.
              items be covered in full detail, since the specification
              should be all-inclusive.Whethercoveredspecifically                 434.3.3 Survey and Staking or Marking. The route
              or not, all construction and materials shallbe in accord-        shall be surveyed staked, such
                                                                                                  and      and staking               or
              ance with good engineering, safety, and proven pipeline          marking should be maintained during construction, ex-
              practice.                                                        ceptroute of pipelineoffshoreshall be surveyedand
                                                                               the pipeline shall be properlylocatedwithintheright
              434.2Inspection                                                  of by
                                                                                way           maintaining
                                                                                                        surveyroute
                                                                                                                  markers         or by
                The operating        shall
                             company make    provision             for         surveying during construction.
              suitable
                     inspection    of pipeline related
                                             and      facilities
              by qualifiedinspectors to assurecompliancewiththe                434.4Handling,Hauling,Stringing,andStoring
              constructionspecifications.Qualificationofinspection                Careshall be exercised in thehandling or storing
              personnelandthetypeandextentofinspectionshall                    of pipe, casing, coating materials, valves, fittings, and
              be in accordancewiththerequirementsofpara.          436.         othermaterialstopreventdamage.           When applicable,
              Repairsrequiredduring     new constructionshall be in            railroadtransportation of pipeshallmeettherequire-
              accordance with paras. 434.5, 434.8, and 461.1.2.                ments of API RP 5L1.In the event pipe is yard coated
                                                                               or mill coated,adequateprecautionsshall           be taken to
              434.3 Right of Way                                               preventdamageto       the coating whenhauling, lifting,
                434.3.1Location. Right of wayshould be selected                and        on right way. shall be
                                                                                   placing the of Pipe not
              so as to minimize the possibility of hazard from future          allowedto drop andstrikeobjectswhich              will distort,
              industrial or urbandevelopment or encroachment on                dent, flatten,gouge, or notchthepipe or damagethe
              theright of way.                                                 coating, but shall be lifted or lowered by suitable and
                                                                               safe equipment.
                 434.3.2 Construction Requirements. Inconvenience
              tothelandownershould        be a minimumandsafety of             434.5Damage to FabricatedItemsand                Pipe
              thepublicshall be givenprimeconsideration.
                 (u) All blasting shall be in accordance with governing          (u) Fabricated items such as scraper traps, manifolds,
              regulationsandshall be performed by competentand                 volume chambers, etc., shall be inspected before assem-
              qualified           and
                       personnel, performed            so as toprovide         bly into the mainline  or manifolding and defects shall
              adequate protection the
                                 to general       livestock,
                                            public,                            be repaired in accordance with provisions the standard
                                                                                                                        of
              wildlife,
                      buildings,
                               telephone,telegraph,          and
                                                               power           or specificationapplicable to theirmanufacture.


                                                                          41




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                         S T D - A S M E B I l * q - E N G L L778 D 0759670 Ob072'.Iq 7 B T



         4345-434.7.2                                                                                              ASME B31.4-1998 Edition

            (b) Pipe shall be inspected before coating and before              withstandanticipated external loadsand to minimize
         assembly into the mainline or manifolding. Distortion,                damage to the pipe by external forces.
         buckling,denting,flattening,gouging,grooves,                or           (6) Width and grade of ditch shall provide for low-
         notches, and alldefects of this nature, shall be prevented,           ering ofthepipe     into the ditch to minimizedamage
         repaired, or eliminated as specified herein.                          to the coating and to facilitate fitting the pipe the ditch.
                                                                                                                                 to
              ( I ) Injurious gouges, grooves, or notches shall be                (c) Locationofunderground           structures intersecting
         removed.These defects may be         repaired by the    use           the ditch route shall                      in
                                                                                                         be determinedadvance     of
         of welding procedures prescribed in API 5L or removed                 construction activities to prevent damage to such struc-
         by grinding, provided   the resulting wall     thicknessis            tures. A minimum clearance of in. m) 12 (0.3             shall
         not less than that permitted by the material specification.           be providedbetweenthe         outside of anyburiedpipe
              (2) When conditions outlined in para. 434S(b)(l)                 or component andtheextremityofany                other under-
         cannot bemet,thedamagedportionshallberemoved                          ground structures, except for drainagetilewhichshall
         as a cylinder. Insertpatching is notpermitted.Weld-                   haveaminimum clearance of 2 in. (50 mm),and as
         onpatching, other thancomplete encirclement, isnot                    permitted under para. 461.1.1 (c).
         permitted in pipelines intendedto operate at ahoop                       (d) Ditching operations shall followgood pipeline
         stress of      than of specified
                   more 20% the              minimum                           practiceand consideration of      public safety. API     RP
         yieldstrengthofthepipe.                                               1102willprovideadditionalguidance.
              ( 3 ) Notches or laminations on pipe ends shall not
         be repaired. Thedamagedend shall be removed as a
                                                                               434.7Bends,Miters,and          Elbows
         cylinder and the pipeendproperlyrebeveled.
              (4) Distorted or flattened   lengths be
                                                  shall            dis-          Changes in direction, including sags oroverbends
         carded.                                                               required to conform to thecontour ofthe ditch, may
              (5) Adent (as opposed to a scratch, gouge, or                    be made by bending the pipe or usingmiters,factory
         groove) maybedefined        as a gross disturbance in the             made bends, or elbows. [See limitations in para. 406.2.1
         curvature ofthepipewall.Adent           containing a stress
         concentrator, such as a scratch, gouge, groove, or arc                   434.7.1BendsMade From Pipe
         bum, shall be removed                        the
                                   by cutting out damaged                                                    from having
                                                                                  ( a ) Bends shall be made pipe          wall
         portionof the pipe as a cylinder.                                     thicknesses determined in accordance with para. 404.2.1.
              (6) All dents which affect the curvature of the                  When hot bends are made in pipe which has been cold
         pipe at the seam or at any girth weld shall be removed                worked in order to meetthespecifiedminimumyield
         as in para. 434.5(b)(5).  All      dents which   exceed
                                                               a               strength, wall thicknesses shall be determined by using
         maximumdepthof !L4 in. (6 mm)inpipeNPS4and                            thelowerstressvalues        i n accordancewithpara.
         smaller, or 6%ofthenominalpipediameterin                 sizes        402.3.1(d).
         greater than NPS 4, shall not be permitted in pipelines                  (b) Bendsshallbemade                a
                                                                                                               in such manner      as to
         intended to operate at a hoop stress of more than 20%                 preserve the cross-sectional shape of the pipe, and shall
         of the specifiedminimumyield strength of the pipe.                    be free from  buckling, cracks, or other evidence of
         Insert patching, overlay, or pounding out of dents shall              mechanical         The diameter
                                                                                           damage. pipe                    shall notbe
         notbepermittedinpipelinesintendedto              operate at a         reduced at any point by more than 2'/2% of the nominal
         hoop stress of more than 20% of the specified minimum                 diameter, and the completed bend shall pass the specified
         yieldstrengthofthepipe.                                               sizing pig.
              (7) Buckledpipe shall bereplaced as a cylinder.                     (c) Theminimumradiusoffieldcoldbends              shall
                                                                               be as specifiedinpara.406.2.1(b).
  198)   434.6 Ditching                                                           (d) Tangents approximately 6 ft (2 m) inlength are
            (a) Depth of ditch shall be appropriate for the route
                                                                               preferredonbothendsofcoldbends.
         location, surface useofthe land, terrain features, and
         loadsimposed by roadwaysandrailroads.Allburied                           434.7.2MiteredBends
         pipelines shall beinstalledbelowthenormallevelof                         (a) Mitered bends are permitted subject to limitations
         cultivation and with a minimum cover not less than that               in para.406.2.2.
         shown in Table 434.6(a). Where the coverprovisions of                    (b) Careshall be taken in makingmitered joints to
         Table434.6(a)cannotbemet,pipemaybeinstalled                           provide proper spacing and alignment and full penetra-
         withlesscover if additional protection is provided to                 tionwelds.


                                                                          42



COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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              ASME B31.4-1998 Edition                                                                                                       434.7343483

                                                               TABLE 434.6(a)                                                                (98)
                                                     MINIMUM COVER FOR BURIED PIPELINES
                                                                                  For Normal            For Rock    Requiring
                                                                                                             Excavation
                                                                                       in.
                                                                               Excavation,   (m)           Blasting
                                                                                                                Removal
                                                                                                                 or              by
                                                Location                          [Note (I)]              Equivalent
                                                                                                                Means,
                                                                                                                    in.          (m)
                                                           ~~                      ~~




                                                  and
                                                   residential
                              Industrial, commercial,      areas                  36 ( 0 . 9 )
                    streamand River           crossings                     (1.2) 48
                                    ditches at roadways
                              Drainage                  and    railroads          36 ( 0 . 9 )
                other         Any        area                                     30 (0.75)

                              NOTE:
                              (1) Minimun cover for pipelines transporting carbon dioxide, LPG, or liquid anhydrous ammonia shall be:
                                  48 in. (1.2 m) for normal excavation in industrial, commercial, and residential areas, river and stream
                                  crossings,anddrainageditches at roadwaysandrailroads;and 36 in. (0.9 m) for normal excavation
                                  in any other area.



                 434.7.3FactoryMadeBendsand               Elbows                        gas mixture or flammableliquid.Cuttingandwelding
                 (u) Factorymadewroughtsteelweldingbendsand                             shallbeginonlywhensafeconditions                are indicated.
              factory made elbows may be used subject to limitations
              in para. 406.2.3,and transverse segments cut therefrom                       434.8.2 Welding Processes and Filler Metal. Weld-
              may be used for changes in direction provided the arc                       shall
                                                                                        ing         be done by shielded metal    arc welding,
              distance measured along crotch
                                     the                is at least 2 in.               submerged arc welding, gas tungsten arc welding, gas
              (50 mm)on pipesize NPS 4 andlarger.                                            arc
                                                                                        metal welding,      or oxyacetylene welding process
                 (b) If theinternaldiameterofsuchfittingsdiffers                        using a manual,semiautomatic, or automaticwelding
              by more in.
                       than             (5 mm) thatthe
                                               from of pipe,                            technique or combinationofthesetechniques.Filler
              the fitting shallbe treated as indicated in Fig. 434.8.qa)-               metal shall comply with the requirements of API 1104.
              (2) or use a transitionnipplenotless          than one-half
                                                                                           434.8.3WeldingQualifications
              pipediameter in length with acceptable joint designs
              as illustrated in Fig.434.8.6(a)-(2).                                        (u) Prior to anyweldingcovered         by thisCode, a
                                                                                        weldingprocedureshall                      and
                                                                                                                   be established qualified
              434.8Welding                                                              by testingtodemonstratethatweldshavingsuitable
                                                                                        mechanicalpropertiesandsoundnesscan            be continu-
                 434.8.1General                                                         ouslyproduced.Weldingproceduresandeachwelder
                  (u) Scope. Welding  hereinapplies            arc
                                                         to the and                     or welding operator shallbe qualified under API 1104,or
              gas         of in wrought
                  welding pipe both         and                cast steel               SectionIXoftheASMEBoilerandPressureVessel
              materials as applied in pipelinesandconnections           to              Code, whichever is appropriate for the type of welding
              apparatus or equipment.Thisincludesbutt           joints in               to be performed. The qualified welding procedure shall
              the installationof pipe, valves, flanges, fittings, and other             specifythepreheatingandinterpasstemperature,and
              equipment, and fillet welded  joints in pipe branches,slip-               postweld heat treatment followed when materials, weld-
              on flanges,etc. It does notapply to thewelding of                         ing consumables, mechanical restraints, or weather con-
              longitudinal or spiral joints in the manufacture of pipe,                 ditions make any or all of them necessary. The welding
              fittings, and valves, or to pressure vessels or assemblies                procedure shall be adhered to during welding performed
              manufactured in accordance with the ASME Boiler and                       underthisCode.
              PressureVesselCode,SectionVIII,Division             1 or 2.                  (6) API1104andSection          X
                                                                                                                         I of the ASME Boiler
                 (6) Welding Terms. Definitions pertaining to welding                   andPressure     Code
                                                                                                   Vessel contain   sectionsentitled
              as used in this Code conform to the standard definitions                  “Essential Variables” applicable to welding procedures
              established by the American Welding Society and con-                      and also to welders.Theseshall        be followedexcept
              tainedinANSVAWSA3.0andAPI1104.                                            that for thepurposes of thisCode,allcarbon          steels
                  (c) Safe Practices in Cutting und Welding. Prior to                   which have a carbon content not exceeding 0.32% (heat
              cutting welding
                     and              in areas in which the    possible                 analysis)and a carbonequivalent (C +                v4
                                                                                                                                          Mn)not
              leakage or presence of vapor or flammable liquid consti-                  exceeding 0.65% (heat analysis) are considered to come
              tutes a hazard of fire or explosion, a thoroughcheck                      withinthelimitsofmaterialslisted         as Pl, in Section
              shall be made to determine the presenceaof     combustible                    Division
                                                                                        VIII,            1 or 2, or Section JX. Alloy steels


                                                                                 43



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         44834486
          3..-3..                                                                                                M M E B31.4-1998E d i t h

         havingweldability characteristics demonstrated to be                stress of morethan 20% of the specified minimum
         similar to these carbonsteels shall be welded, preheated,           yield strength of the pipe, certain      girth welds shall be
         and postweld heat treated as prescribed for such carbon             inspected. A minimum of 10% of the welds completed
         steels.                                                             eachdayshall be randomly selected bythe operating
            Otheralloy steels shall be welded, preheated, and                          and          The
                                                                             company inspected. inspection                    shall be by
         given a postweld heat treatment as prescribed in Section            radiographic or other accepted nondestructive methods
         VIII, Division 1 or 2, unless it can be demonstrated                (visual inspection excepted). Each weld inspected shall
         by procedure  qualification, hardness
                                     and             per
                                               testing                       be inspectedcompletelyaround           its circumference. In
         NACE   MR-01-75 when          applicable, that
                                                      preheat      or        thefollowing locations or conditions, all girthwelds
         postweldheattreatment, or both, are notnecessary.                   in the pipeshall be completelyinspected. If someof
            (c) Welderrequalificationtestsshall      be required if          the girthwelds are inaccessible, aminimum of 90%
         there is somespecificreason        to question awelder’s            of the welds are to be inspected.
         ability or the welder is not engaged in a given process                      (a) within  populated areas such as residential
         of welding (¡.e., arc or gas) for a period o 6 months
                                                        f                    subdivisions, shopping centers, and designated commer-
         or more.                                                            cial andindustrial areas;
            (d) Qualification Records. The    weldingprocedure                        (6) river, lake, and stream crossings within the
         followedduring the qualifying testsshallberecorded                                to
                                                                             area subject frequent           inundation; and river, lake,
         in detail. Records of thetests that establish the qualifica-        andstream crossings on bridges;
         tionofaweldingprocedure         shall be retained as long                    (c) railroad or publichighway rights ofway,
         as thatprocedureis      in use. Arecordofthewelders                 including tunnels,bridges,andoverhead            railroad and
         qualified,showingthe       date and results of the tests,           road crossings;
         shall be retained during the construction involved and                       (d) inland coastal waters;
         for 6 monthsthereafter.                                                      (e) old girth weldsinused         pipe;
            (e) Theoperatingcompanyshall         be responsible for                    fl tie-ingirthweldsnot hydrostatically tested
         qualificationsofproceduresandwelders.                               in accordancewith para, 437.4.1.
                                                                                (6) Standards o Acceptability. Standards of accept-
                                                                                                   f
           434.8.4WeldingStandards.      Alltheweldingdone                   ability for inadequate penetration and incompletefusion,
         under this Code shallbe performed under a specification             burn-through, slag inclusions, porosity or gaspockets,
             embodies minimum
         which        the        requirements           of this              cracks, accumulation of discontinuities,and undercutting
             and encompass requirements API
         Code shall            the            of                             as set forth under “Standards o Acceptability - Non-
                                                                                                                 f
         1104except as provided in paras.434.8.3(a)and (b).                  destructive Testing” in API 1104 are applicable to the
                                                                             determinationofthesizeandtypeof                discontinuities
  (98)           Welding
            434.8.5 Quality
                                                                             located by inspection,
                                                                                         visual                   radiography, or other
            (a) Inspection Methods
                                                                             nondestructivemethods.These          standards shall not be
              ( I ) Thequalityofweldingshall       be checked by
                                                                             used to determine the quality of which  welds      are
         nondestructivemethods or by removingcompleted
                                                                             subjectedto destructive testing.
         welds as selectedand designated by the inspector for
         destructive testing.                                                   434.8.6Types of Welds,JointDesigns,and
              (2) Nondestructiveinspectionshall consist ofra-                TransitionNipples
         diographic examination or other acceptable nondestruc-                 ( a ) Butt Welds. Buttwelded joints maybe of the
         tive methods. The method usedshall produce indications              single vee, double vee, or other suitable type of groove.
         of potential defects which can be accurately interpreted            Joint designs shown in Fig. 434.8.6(a)-(l) or applicable
         and evaluated. Radiographic               when
                                        examination,   em-                   combinationsofthese joint design details are recom-
                              the           under
         ployed, shall meet requirements “Radio-                             mended for ends of equal                The
                                                                                                            thickness. transition
         graphic Procedure” in API1104.Thewelds           shall be           between ends of unequal thickness may be accomplished
         evaluated onthebasisofpara.434.8.5(b).                              by taper or welding as shown in Fig. 434.8.6(a)-(2),
              (3) To be acceptable, completed welds which have               or by meansofaprefabricatedtransitionnipplenot
         beenremovedfor        destructive examination shall meet            less than one-half pipe diameter in length with accept-
         the requirements of API 1104 for Welder Qualification               able joint designs as illustrated in Fig. 434.8.6(a)-(2).
         by Destructive Testing. Trepanning methods of testing                  (b) Fillet Welds. Fillet welds may be concave     to
         shall not be used.                                                  slightly convex.The size of afilletweld is stated as
              (4) When the pipeline is to be operated at a hoop              leg       of largest
                                                                             a length the               right
                                                                                                inscribed isosceles

                                                                        44



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              ASME B31.4-1998 E d i t h                                                                                               434.8.&l34.8.7

                                          1/16 in. t 1/32 in. (1.5 mm t 0.75 mm)
                                                                                       1/16 in. f 1/32 in. (1.5 mm f 0.75 mm)
                                                          37-1/2 dw.
                                                          f 2-112 deg.


                                                     7/0 in.
                                                    mm) n u x .




                                                                                                                                       t-
                                                                                                         1/16 in t 1/32 in. (1.5 mm f 0.75 mm)

                                                                                                     (c) Suggostod End Propamtion,
                                                                                                           Pip. and Fitting. Over
                                                                                                         7/8 in. (22 mm) Thickrmr




                                                                                                              O
                                                                                                              u
                                                                                                                         l0deg.   f   1 deg.




                                                                                                                  (f)
                                                  Aemptabk Combinations of Pipe End Prepantiom


               FIG. 434.8.6(a)-(l) ACCEPTABLE BUTT WELDED JOINT DESIGN FOR EQUAL WALL THICKNESSES


              triangle as shown in Fig. 434.8.qb) coveringrecom-                   grinding,swabthegroundareawith            a 20% solution
              mended attachment details of flanges.                                of ammonium persulfate. A blackened spot is evidence
                 (c) Tack We/&. Tack   welding  shall     be done by               of a metallurgicalnotchandindicatesthatadditional
              qualifiedwelders,thesame       as allotherwelds.                     grinding is necessary. If theresultingwallthickness
                                                                                   after grinding is less than that permitted by the material
                 434.8.7 Removal or Repair of Defects                              specification,theportion      of pipecontainingthe      arc
                 (a) Arc Burns. Arcbumscancauseserious          stress             burnshallberemoved         as a cylinder.Insertpatching
              concentrations in pipelinesandshallbeprevented        or             is prohibited.
              eliminated. The metallurgical notch causedby arc bums
              shall be removed by grinding,providedthegrinding                       (b) Weld Defects. Authorization for repair of welds,
              does not reduce the remaining wall thickness to less than            removal and repair of weld defects, and testing of weld
              theminimumpermitted by the material specifications.                  repairsshall be in accordancewith API 1104.
              Completeremoval of themetallurgicalnotchcreated                        (c) Pipe Defects. Laminations, split ends, or other
              by an arc burn be
                             can       determined as follows.After                           the shall
                                                                                   defects in pipe          be repaired or removed in
              visible evidence of the arc bum has been removed by                  accordancewithpara. 434.5(b).

                                                                              45




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        448l3..
         3..w489                                                                                              M M E B31.4-1998 Edition




                                                                               30




                                        +
        30 d g mex. to 14 deg. min. (1 :4)
            e.




                                                                            30 deg. max. to 14 deg.min. ( .

                30 dag. max. to 14 dg min. (1:
                                    e.
                                                                                30




                                                                   30 d g mex. to
                                                                       e.




                                                                                               Notes to follow on next page.




           434.8.8Preheating and Interpass Temperature                  the use of temperature indicating crayons, thermocouple
           (a) Carbon steels having a specified carbon content          pyrometers, or other suitable method to assure that the
       in excess of 0.32% (heat analysis) a carbon equivalent
                                             or                         required temperature is obtained prior to and maintained
       (C +                                  (heat
                  Mn) in excess of 0.65% analysis)       shall          duringtheweldingoperation.
       be preheated. Preheating       may also be required   for
       steels having lower carbon or carbon equivalent when                434.8.9 Stress Relieving
       conditions exist that either limit the welding technique            (u) Welds shall be stress relieved when the effective
       that can be used, or tend to adversely affect the quality        weld throat [see Fig.434.8.6(a)-(2)]exceeds           1Y4 in.
       of the weld. Interpass temperature control may also be           (32 mm),  unless can
                                                                                       it             be demonstrated by welding
       required.                                                        procedurequalificationtests,usingmaterialswith             an
           (b) When welding dissimilar materials having differ-         effective weld throat that is equal to or greater than the
       ent preheating requirements, the material requiring the          production weld, that stress relieving     is not necessary.
       higherpreheatshallgovern.                                           Welds in carbon         with        weld
                                                                                             steels effective throat
           (c) Preheating may be accomplished by any suitable           above 1v4 in. (32 mm)uptoandincluding                  '
                                                                                                                              1V in.
       method, provided that itis uniform and that the tempera-         (38 nun) may be exemptedfromstressrelieving              if a
       ture does not fall below the prescribed minimum during           minimumpreheatingtemperatureof200°F(93°C)                   is
       theactualweldingoperations.                                          Stress
                                                                        used. relieving                be      for
                                                                                                   mayrequired thinner
          (d) The preheating temperature shall be checked by            effective weld throats when materials, welding consum-

                                                                   46



COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Licensed by Information Handling Services
             ASME B31.4-1998 Edition                                                                                                              434.8.9-434.11

              FIG. 434.8.6(a)-(2) (CONT’D)
             NOTES:
             (11 No minimum when materials joined have equal yield strength Csee General Note (f)l.
             (2) Maximum thickness tDfor design purposes shall not be greater than 1.5t.

             GENERAL NOTES:
             (a) The sketches in Fig. 434.8.6(a)-(2) illustrate acceptable preparations for joining pipe ends having unequal wall thicknesses and/or materials
                 of unequal specified minimum yield strength by butt welding.
             (b) The wall thickness of the pipes to be joined, beyond the joint design area, shall comply with the design requirements of this Code.
             (c) When the specified minimum yield strengths of the pipes to be joined are unequal, the deposited weld metal shall have mechanical properties
                 at least equal to those of the pipe having the higher strength.
             (dl The transition between ends of unequal thickness may be accomplished by taper or welding as illustrated or by means of a prefabricated
                 transition nipple not less than one-half pipe diameter in length.
             (e) Sharp notches or grooves at the edge of the weld where it joins a slanted surface shall be avoided.
             (f) For joining pipes of unequal wall thicknesses and equal specified minimum yield strengths, the rules given herein apply, except there is no
                 minimum angle limit to the taper.
             (g) The effective weld throat tw shall be used for determining postweld heat treatment requirements.

             INTERNAL DIAMETERS UNEQUAL:
             (1) I f the nominal wall thicknesses of the adjoining pipe ends do not vary more than 3/32 in. (2.5 mm), no special treatment is necessary provided
                 full penetration and bond is accomplished in welding. See sketch (a).
             (2) Where the nominal internal offset is more than y3, in. ( 2 . 5 mm) and there is no access to the inside of the pipe for welding, the transition
                 shall be made by a taper cut on the inside end of the thicker pipe. See sketch (b). The taper angle shall not be steeper than 30 deg. nor less
                 that 14 deg.
             (3) For hoop stresses of more than 20% of the specified minimum yield strength of the pipe, where the nominal internal offset is more than
                 ?j2 in. (2.5 mm), but does not exceed one-half the wall thickness of the thinner pipe, and there is access to the inside of the pipe for welding,
                 the transition may bemade wih a tapered weld. See sketch (c). The land on the thicker pipe shall be equal t o the offset plus the land on
                 abutting pipe.
             (4) Where the nominal internal offset is more than one-half the wall thickness of the thinner pipe, and there is access to the inside of the pipe
                 for welding, the transition may be made with a taper cut on the inside end of the thicker pipe [see sketch (b)l, or by a combination taper
                 weld to one-half the wall thickness of the thinner pipe and a taper cut from that point Csee sketch (d)l.

              EXTERNAL DIAMETERS UNEQUAL:
             (5) Where the external offset does not exceed one-half the wall thickness of the thinner pipe, the transition may be made by welding [see sketch
                 (ell, provided the angle of rise of the weld surface does not exceed 30 deg. and both bevel edges are properly fused.
             (6) Where there is an external offset exceeding one-half the wall thickness of the thinner pipe, that portion of the offset over one-half the wall
                 thickness of the thinner pipe shall be tapered. See sketch (f).

             INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL DIAMETERS UNEQUAL:
             (7)Where there is both an internal and an external offset, the joint design shall be a combination of sketches (a) to (f). See sketch Cg). Particular
                attention shall be paid t o proper alignment under these conditions.




             ables, weldprocess,
                               transported    liquids, or temperature                      434.10Installation of Pipe in the Ditch
             make it necessary.
                                                                                              It is veryimportant that stresses induced   into the
                Thethickness to be   used to determine the stress                          pipeline by construction be minimized.Thepipe shall
             relieving requirements of branchconnections or slip-                          fit the ditch without the use of external force tohold
             on flanges shall be the thickness of the pipe or header.                      it in place untilthebackfilliscompleted.Whenthe
                 (6) Inweldsbetween      dissimilar materials, if either                   pipeislowered into the ditch, care shall be exercised
              material requires stress relieving, the joint shall require                  so as not to imposeundue stress inthepipe.Slack
              stress relieving.                                                            loops may be used where laying conditions render their
                                                                                           use advisable.
              434.9Tie-In
                                                                                           434.11Backfilling
                 Gaps left in the continuous line construction at such
              points as river, canal, highway, or railroad crossings                          Backfilling shall be performed in a manner to provide
              require special consideration for alignment and welding.                     firmsupport of thepipe.When there are large rocks
              Sufficient equipment shall be available and care exer-                            backfill
                                                                                           in the            material, care shall be exercised to
              cised not to force or strain the pipe to proper alignment.                   prevent damage to the pipe and coating by such means

                                                                                      47




COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Licensed by Information Handling Services
        434.11-434.13                                                                                                    ASME B31.4-1998 E d i t h




                                                                              4t



                    112 in. (13 mm)                                                (or t if
                                              I I    Front and backweld
                                                                          I                        I            back weld
                                                                                                        Front and

                                             (3)Slipon Welding Flange                                  (4) Slipon Welding F l a w




                                          L
                                      Size of weld



                                                      c Theoretical
                                                         throat


                                             ( 5 )Convex Fillet Weld                                   ( 6 )Conuve Fillet Weld


                           FIG. 434.8"               RECOMMENDED ATTACHMENT DETAILS OF FLANGES




        as the use of a rock shield material, or by making the                      434.13 Special Crossings
        initial fill with a rock-free material sufficient to prevent
                                                                                       Water,railroad,andhighway       crossings require spe-
        rockdamage.Wheretheditchisflooded,                care shall
                                                                                    cific considerations not readily
                                                                                                                   covered      in a general
        be exercised so thatthepipeisnotfloatedfromthe
                                                                                    statement, since allinvolve variations in basicdesign.
        bottomoftheditchpriortobackfillcompletion.
                                                                                    The        company obtain
                                                                                        pipeline       shall            permits
                                                                                                                 required
                                                                                      such         The
                                                                                    for crossings. design                shall employsound
        434.12Restoration of Right of Way andCleanup
                                                                                    engineering andgoodpipeline practice withminimum
           These operations shall follow good construction prac-                    hazard to the facilityanddue consideration ofpublic
        tices and considerations ofprivateandpublic      safety.                    safety. Construction shall be soorganized as to result


                                                                              48



COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Licensed by Information Handling Services
                        STD-ASME B31-9-ENGL                                                                  91T E




             M E B31.4-1998 Edition
              M                                                                                                              434.13434.15.1


             in minimal interference with traffic or the activities of         andinstallationofhangers,and        special protection to
             adjacentpropertyowners.
                                   Adequate           efforts shallbe          prevent damage by the elements or bridge and approach
                                 the      of
             made to determine location buried     pipelines,                  traffic shall be considered. Any agreed upon restrictions
                          and other underground structures along
             utility lines,                                                    or precautions shall be contained in the detailed specifi-
             and crossing theproposed right ofway.Theowners                    cations. Inspectors shall assure themselves that these
             of any affected structures shall be given adequate prior          requirementsaremet.
             noticeoftheproposed     construction so that the owner
             may make operational preparations and provide a repre-                            Highway
                                                                                         Railroad
                                                                                  434.13.4 and Crossings                                       (98)

             sentative atthe crossing.                                            ( a ) The safety of the general public and the preven-
                                                                               tion of damage to the pipeline by reason of its location
                434.13.1WaterCrossings. Crossings of rivers,                   areprimary considerations. The great variety of such
             streams, lakes, and inland bodies of waterare individual          crossings precludes standard design. The construction
             problems, and the designer shall investigate composition          specifications shall cover the procedure for such cross-
             ofbottom,variation       in banks,velocity of water,              ings, basedupontherequirementsofthespecific               lo-
             scouring,and special seasonalproblems.Thedesigner                 cation.
             shall determine whetherthe crossing is to be underwater,             (6) Installation ofuncased canier pipeispreferred.
             overheadonasuspension        bridge, or supportedonan             Installation of carrier pipe, or casing ifused,shall be
             adjacent bridge. Continuity of operation and the safety           in accordance with API RP 1102. As specified in para.
             ofthegeneralpublic      shall bethe controlling factors           461.1.2(f), if casing isused,coated        carrier pipe shall
                  in     and
             both design in            construction. Where   required,         beindependently supported                      end
                                                                                                                outside each of         the
             detailed plans and specificationsshall be prepared taking         casing and           from
                                                                                           insulated the            casing throughout the
             intoaccounttheseandany          special considerations or         cased section, and casing endsshallbe           sealed using
             limitationsimposed by the regulatory bodyinvolved.                a durable, electrically nonconductive material.
                 (a) Underwater Construction. Plans specifica-
                                                       and                        ( c ) The effective stress due to internal pressure and
             tionsshall describe thepositionof       the line,showing          external loads (including both live and dead loads) in
             relationshipofthe    pipeline to the naturalbottomand             pipe installed under railroads or highways without use
             the depth below mean low water level when applicable.             of casing shall not exceed 0.90SMYS (specified mini-
             To meet the conditions set out in para. 434.13.1, heavier         mum   yield strength). Also, cyclic stress components
             wallpipemaybespecified.Approachandpositionof                      shall be checked for fatigue failure.
             theline in thebanks is important, as istheposition
             ofthe line across the   bottom. Special consideration               Inland
                                                                               434.14                    Construction
                                                                                                Coastal Water                                  (98)
                             to of and means
             shall be given depth cover other
             ofprotecting    the pipeline in surf
                                            the zone.           Special           Plansand specifications shall describe alignment of
             considerationshall be given to protective coatingand              the pipeline, depth below mean water      level, and depth
             the of
                use        concrete jacketing or the  applicationof            below bottom if ditched. Special consideration shall be
             riverweights.Completeinspection        shall be provided.         given to depth of cover and other means of       protecting
             Precautions shall be taken during construction to limit           the pipeline in the surfzone.Consideration         shall be
                          the that
             stress below level would   producebuckling                                     of
                                                                               given to use weight         coating(s), anchors, or other
             or collapse due to out-of-roundness of the completed              means of maintaining position of the pipe under antici-
             pipeline.                                                         pated conditions of buoyance and water motion. Com-
                                                                               plete construction inspection shall be provided. Precau-
                434.13.2 Overhead Structures. Overhead structures              tions shallbetakenduring       construction to limit stress
             used to suspend pipelines shall bedesignedandcon-                 below the level that would produce buckling or collapse
             structedonthe basis of sound engineering and within               due to out-of-roundness ofthecompleted pipeline.
             the restrictions or regulations of thegoverningbody
             having jurisdiction. Detailed plans and   specifications          434.15 Block andIsolatingValves
             shall be prepared where required and adequate inspec-
                                                   General                        434.15.1                                               (98)
             tion shall be provided to assure complete     adherence
                                                                                  ( a ) Blockand isolating valves shall beinstalled for
             thereto.
                                                                               limiting hazardanddamagefrom        accidental discharge
               434.13.3 Bridge Attachments. Special requirements               andfor facilitating maintenanceofthepiping        system.
             are involved in this of
                                type       crossing. The of
                                                       use                        (b) Valves shall be at accessible locations, protected
             higher
                  strength lightweight steel pipe, proper
                                                        design                 fromdamage or tampering, andsuitablysupported to

                                                                          49



COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Licensed by Information Handling Services
        434.15.1434.20.1                                                                                         ASME B31.4-1998 Edition

        prevent differential settlement or movementthe
                                                     of                         the
                                                                              to main       line, they shall be made accordance
                                                                                                                     in
        attached piping. Where an operating device to open or                 with para. 404.3.1. When such connections or additions
        close thevalve is provided, it shall be protectedand                  are made to coated lines, all damaged coating shall be
        accessible only to authorizedpersons.                                         and        with
                                                                              removed replaced new               coating materialin
           (c) Submergedvalveson pipelines shall be marked                    accordance with para.461.1.2(h). This protective coating
        or spotted by survey techniques to facilitate quick                   should include the attachments.
        locationwhenoperationis     required.
                                                                              434.17ScraperTraps
           434.15.2MainlineValves
           (a) Mainlineblockvalves shall be installedonthe                       434.17.1 Scraper traps are to be installed as deemed
        upstream side of major river crossings and public water               necessary for good operations. All pipe, valves, fittings,
        supplyreservoirs. Either ablock or checkvalve shall                   closures, andappurtenancesshallcomplywithappro-
        be installed the
                    on downstream              side ofmajor river             priate sections ofthisCode.
        crossings andpublicwatersupply          reservoirs.                      434.17.2 Scraper traps on mainline terminations and
           (6) A mainline valve
                           block shall               be installed at          tied into connection piping or manifolding shall be
        mainlinepump stations, andablock            or checkvalve             anchored below ground with adequate concrete anchors
        (where applicable to minimize pipeline backflow) shall                when required and suitably supported above ground to
        be installed at other locations appropriate for the terrain           prevent transmission of line stresses due to expansion
        features. In industrial, commercial, and residential areas            andcontraction to connecting facilities.
        whereconstructionactivitiesposea           particular risk of
        external damage to the pipeline, provisions shall be                     434.17.3 Scraper trap and its components shall be
        made for the appropriate spacing and location of main-                assembled in accordancewith para. 435, andpressure
        line valves consistent with   the typeofliquidsbeing                  testedtothesame    limits as the mainline.Seepara.
        transported.                                                          437.4.
           (c) A remotelyoperatedmainlineblockvalve              shall
                                       Markers            Line
        be provided at remotely controlled pipeline facilities                434.18                                                          (98)
        to isolate segments of the pipeline.                                     Adequate pipeline location markers indicating caution
           (cf) Onpipingsystems       transporting LPG or liquid              for the protection of thepipeline, the public, and persons
        anhydrous  ammonia,  check valves         shall be installed                      work
                                                                              performing in          the area shall be installed  over
                                        block to
        where applicable with each valve provide                              each line on each side of road, highway, railroad, and
        automatic blockageof reverse flow in the piping system.               streamcrossings.Markersinaccordancewithrequire-
           (e) Inorder to facilitate operational control, limit               ments of regulatory agencies shall be installed on each
        the duration of  an outage, and to expedite repairs,                  side of navigable stream crossings. API RP 1109 shall
        mainline blockvalvesshall         be installed at 7.5 mile            be usedforguidance.
        (12 km)maximumspacingonpipingsystemstrans-
        porting LPG or liquid anhydrous ammonia in industrial,                434.19CorrosionControl
        commercial,andresidential        areas.
                                                                                          of
                                                                                 Protection       ferrous pipe. andcomponentsfrom
           434.15.3 Pump Station, Tank Farm, and Terminal                     externalandinternalcorrosion       shall be as prescribed
        valves                                                                in Chapter VIII.
           (a) Valvesshall be installed the
                                        on suctionand
        discharge ofpump stations wherebythepump station                           Pump
                                                                              434.20           Tank
                                                                                        Station,  Farm,                  and Terminal
        can be isolatedfromthe pipeline.                                             Construction
                                       on lines entering or
           (b) Valves shall be installed
                                                                                 434.20.1General. All construction workperformed
        leaving tank farms or terminals at convenient locations
                                                                              onpump       stations, tank farms, terminals,   equipment
        whereby tank
                the farm         or terminal may be isolated
                                                                              installations, piping,andallied facilities shall be done
        from other facilities such as thepipeline, manifolds,
                                                                              under construction specifications.    Such specifications
        orpump stations.
                                                                              shall cover all phases of the work under        contract and
                                                                              shall be in sufficient detail to insure that the requirements
        434.16Connections to MainLines
                                                                              of Code
                                                                                this            shall be met. Such specifications shall
           Where connections to themainlinesuch           as branch           include specific details on soil conditions, foundations
        lines, jump-overs, relief valves, air vents, etc., are made           and concrete work, steel fabrication and building erec-

                                                                         50



COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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              ASME B31.4-1998 Edition                                                                                  434.20.1434.212


              tion, piping, welding, equipment and materials, and all           434.20.6 Controls and Protective Equipment.Pres-
              constructionfactorscontributingtosafetyandsound                sure controls and protective equipment, including pres-
              engineering practice.                                          surelimitingdevices,regulators,controllers,relief
                                                                                    and safety
                                                                             valves, other      devices,             as shown on the
                 434.20.2 Location. Pumpstations, tank farms,and             drawings or required by the     specifications,
                                                                                                                           shall      be
              terminalsshould be located theon pipeline’s   fee       or     installed by competent and skilled workmen. Installation
              leased property in order to be assured that proper safety      shall be accomplished with careful handling and mini-
              precautions may be applied. pump
                                             The       station,    tank      mum exposure of instruments and devices to inclement
              farm, or terminal shall be located at such clear distances     weatherconditions, dust, or dirt to preventdamage.
              from adjacent properties not under control of the com-         Also, piping, conduits, or mounting brackets shall not
              pany as tominimizethecommunicationoffirefrom                   cause the instruments or devices to be distorted or in
              structures on adjacent properties. Similar consideration       anystrain.Instrumentsanddevicesshall           be installed
              shall be giventoitsrelativelocationfromthestation              so that they can be checked without undue interruptions
              manifolds,       maintenance
                        tankage,                     personnel
                                           facilities,                       in operations. After installation, controls and protective
              housing, etc. Sufficient open space shall be left around       equipment shall be tested under conditions approximat-
              the building and manifoldsto provide access for mainte-        ing actual operations to assure their proper functioning.
              nance equipment and fire fighting equipment. The      sta-
              tion, tank farm, or terminalshall be fenced insuch a              434.20.7 FireProtection. Fireprotection whenpro- (98)
              manner as to  minimize         and
                                     trespass, roadways    and               vided shall be in accordance with recommendations in
              gatesshould be located give
                                        to ready   access to          or     IWPA 30. If the system installed requires the services
              egressfromthefacilities.                                       of pumps, motive
                                                                               fire     their     power
                                                                                                      shall               be separate
                                                                             from the station power so that their operation shall not
                 434.20.3 BuildingInstallation. Buildingsshall be
                                                                             be affected by emergencyshutdownfacilities.
              located and constructed to comply with detailed plans
              andspecifications.Theexcavationforandinstallation
                                                                             434.21 StorageandWorkingTankage
              of foundationsanderectionofthebuildingshall              be
              done by craftsmenfamiliarwiththerespectivephase                   434.21.1 General. All construction workperformed
              of the work, and all work shall    be done in a safe and       on storage and working tankage and allied equipment,
              workmanlikemanner.Inspectionshall          be providedto       piping,andfacilitiesshall      be doneunderconstruction
              assure that the requirements of the plans and specifica-       specifications. Such specifications shall cover all phases
              tionsaremet.                                                   of theworkundercontract,andshall          be in sufficient
                                                                             detail to insure that the requirements of the Code shall
                 434.20.4 Pumping Equipment and Prime Movers.
                                                                             be met. Such specifications shall include specific details
              Installation of pumpingequipmentandprimemovers
                                                                             on soil conditions, foundations and concrete work, tank
              shall be covered by detailedplansandspecifications
                                                                                        and
                                                                             fabrication erection,        welding,
                                                                                                    piping,      equipment
              whichhavetakenintoaccountthevariablesinherent
                                                                             and materials, dikes, and all construction factors contrib-
              in local soil conditions, utilization, and arrangement of
                                                                             utingtosafetyandsoundengineeringpractice.
                                                           in
              the equipment to provide the optimum operating ease
              and maintenance access. Machinery shall handled and
                                                              be
                                                                                434.21.2 Location                                       1981
              mounted in accordance with recognized good millwright
              practiceand be providedwithsuchprotectivecovers                   (u) Tankageshall be located on thepipeline’sfee
              as to prevent damage during construction. Recommenda-          or leased property in order to assure that proper safety
              tions of installation details provided by manufacturers        precautions may be applied.     Tank facilities shall be
              for       piping,
                auxiliary               setting, and  aligningshall     be   located at such clear distances from adjacent properties
              considered as minimumrequirements.                               under       of company
                                                                             not control the            as                  to minimize
                                                                             the communication of fire from structures on adjacent
                434.20.5 Pump Station, Tank Farm, and Terminal               properties. Similar consideration shall be given to rela-
              Piping. Allpiping,includingbutnotlimited        to main        tive locationsbetweenstationmanifolds,pumping
              unit interconnections, manifolds,      traps,
                                               scraper etc.,                 equipment, maintenance facilities, personnel     housing,
              which can be subject to the mainline pressure shall be            Sufficient space
                                                                             etc.        open shall                       around
                                                                                                                    be left     the
              constructed in accordancewiththeweldingstandards               tankage facilities and associated equipment to provide
              (see para. 434.8), corrosioncontrolrequirements (see                                     and fighting
                                                                             access for maintenance fire             equipment.
              Chapter VIII), and other practices    of thisCode.             The tankageareashall        be fenced so as to minimize




COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Licensed by Information Handling Services
          4412322
           33.444                                                                                               ASME B31.4-1998 Edition

          trespass, and roadways and gates should be located to               Installationsshall be madein     accordancewithNFPA
          givereadyingresstoand       egress fromthefacilities.               70 and A P I RP 5OOC.
             (6) Spacing of tankage be
                                    shall governed         by the
          requirements ofNFPA 30.                                                434.22.2 Care and Handlingof Materials. All elec-
                                                                              trical
                                                                                   equipment instruments
                                                                                              and                    shall be carefully
   (98)      434.21.3 Tanks and     Pipe-Type Storage                         handled properly
                                                                                      and          stored       or enclosed to prevent
             (u) Tanks storage
                       for            or handling oil
                                                   crude and                  damage, deterioration,or contamination during construc-
          liquidpetroleumproductsandliquidalcoholshaving                          Packaged
                                                                              tion.         components                to
                                                                                                                       be
                                                                                                               are not exposed
          vaporpressuresapproximatingatmospheric shall            be          until installation. Equipment susceptible to damage    or
          constructed in accordance with API 650, API 12B, API                deterioration by exposure to    humidity shall    be ade-
          12D, API 12F, or designed and constructed in accord-                quatelyprotected by usingappropriatemeanssuch          as
          ance with acceptedgoodengineeringpractices.                         plastic film enclosures,desiccants,orelectricheating.
             (b) Tanksforstorage or handlingliquidpetroleum
          products and liquid alcohols having vapor gage pressures               434.22.3 Installation. Theinstallation of electrical
          of 0.5 psi (0.035 bar) but not exceeding 15 psi (1 bar)             materials shall bemadeby qualified personnel familiar
          shall be constructed in accordance with API 620.                    with details of electrical aspects and code requirements
             (c) Tanks used for storage or handling liquids having                                                           be
                                                                              for such installation. At all times care shall exercised
          vaporgagepressuresgreater       than 15 psi (1 bar) shall                                                  of
                                                                              to prevent damage to the insulation cable and wiring.
          be designedandconstructed        in accordance with the             All partial installations shall be protected from damage
          design of accredited tank builders and theASME Boiler               during construction. The installation design and specifi-
          andPressureVesselCode,Section          VIII, Division 1 or          cationsshallgiveconsideration       totheneedfordust-
          Division2.                                                          and/or moisture-proof enclosures for such special gear
             (d) Buriedpipe-typeholdersusedforstorageand                      as relays,smallswitches,andelectroniccomponents.
          handlingliquidpetroleum,
                                 liquidalcohols,           or liquid          In no case shall the frames of electric motors     or other
          anhydrous ammonia shall be designed and constructed                 groundedelectricalequipment be used as theground
          in accordance with therequirementsofthisCodefor                     connectionforelectricalwelding.
          pipeandpipingcomponents.
             434.21.4 Foundations. Tank     foundations  shall      be        434.23 LiquidMetering
          constructed in accordance with plans and specifications                434.23.1 Positivedisplacementmeters,turbine    me-
          which shall take into account local soil conditions, type           ters, or equivalentliquidmeasuringdevicesandtheir
          oftank,usage,andgenerallocation.                                    proving         shall
                                                                                     facilities        be designed and installed in
  (98)       434.21.5 Dikes or Firewdls. The    protection of  the                                            of
                                                                              accordance with the API Manual Petroleum Measure-
          pipeline's station, tank farm, terminal, or other facilities        mentStandards.
          fromdamage by firefromadjacentfacilities,          as well
          as the protection of the general public, may dictate the              434.23.2 Provisions shall be made to permitaccess
          needof dikes or firewalls around tankage or between                 to thesefacilities by authorizedpersonnelonly.
          tankage and station or terminal. Tank dikes or firewalls,
          where required, shall constructed to meet the capacity
                                 be                                             434.23.3 Assembly of themeteringfacilitycompo-
          requirementssetout in NFTA 30.                                      nentsshall be in accordance with para. 435.

          434.22 ElectricalInstallations                                      434.24 LiquidStrainersandFilters

  (981       434.22.1 General. Electrical              for
                                           installationslight-                   434.24.1 Strainers and filtersshall be designedto
          ing,power,andcontrolshall          be covered by detailed           the same pressure limitations and subjected to the same
          plansandspecifications,andinstallationsshall           be in        testpressures as thepipingsystem in whichtheyare
          accordance with codesapplicabletothespecifictype                    installed, and supported in such a manner as to prevent
          of circuitryandclassification       of areasforelectrical           undueloading totheconnectingpipingsystem.
                                        be
          installation. Inspection shall provided and all circuitry
          shall be tested before        to
                                operationassure, the
                                                that                            434.24.2 Installation design provide
                                                                                                      and     shall                for
          installation was made in workmanlike manner to provide              ease of maintenance and servicing without interference
          for the continuing safety of personnel and equipment.               with thestationoperation.

                                                                         52



COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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             ASME B31.4-1998 Edition                                                                                       434.24343512


                434.24.3 The     filteringmediumshould     be
                                                            of such               435.3.5   Boltingshall   be
                                                                                                            in    accordance with para.
             retention size and    capacity    as to fully protect
                                                                 the            435.2.
             facilities against the intrusion ofharmfulforeignsub-
             stances.                                                           435.4 Manifolds
               434.24.4 Assembly of strainers or filtersandtheir                  435.4.1 All components within a manifold assembly,
             componentsshall be in accordancewithpara.435.                      including valves, flanges, fittings, headers, and special
                                                                                assemblies, shall withstand the operating pressures and
                                                                                        loadings for the
                                                                                specified                     specificservicepiping to
                                                                                whichit is connected.
             435 ASSEMBLY OF PIPINGCOMPONENTS
                                                                                  435.4.2 Meter banks, prover loops, and scraper traps
             435.1 General                                                      shall be subject to the same assembly requirements   as
                                                                                manifolds.
               The        of various
                  assembly the          components,
                                   piping
             whetherdone in a shop or as a fielderection,shall                     435.4.3 Manifold headers with multiple outlets shall
             be done so that the completely erected piping conforms             haveoutletsdesigned as covered in paras.404.3.1(b)
             with the requirementsof this Code and with the specific            and 404.3.1(e) and illustrated in Figs. 404.3.1(b)(3) and
             requirements oftheengineeringdesign.                               404.3.1(d)(2), respectively. Assembly maybe with the
                                                                                use of jigs to assure alignment of outlets and flanges
             435.2 BoltingProcedure                                             withother             The          unit
                                                                                          components. fabricated shall                  be
                                                                                stress relieved before removal from the    jig.
               435.2.1 Allflanged joints shall befittedup so that
             the gasket contact faces bear uniformly      on the gasket,           435.4.4 Manifoldheadersassembledfromwrought
             andmadeupwithuniformbolt             stress.                       tees, fittings, and flanges may be assembledwith jigs
                                                                                to assure   alignment of components. Stress relieving
               435.22 In bolting gasketed flanged joints, the gasket
                                                                                shouldbeconsidered.
             shallbeproperlycompressedinaccordancewith            the
             design principles applicable to the type of gasket used.             435.4.5 All welding on manifolds and headers shall
                                                                                conformtopara.434.8.
                435.2.3 Allbolts    or studsshallextendcompletely
             throughtheirnuts.                                                    435.4.6 Final         of
                                                                                                         all
                                                                                               assembly components shall
                                                                                minimize locked-in stresses. The entire assembly shall
             4353 Pumping Unit Piping                                           be adequately supported to provide minimum unbalance
                                                                                andvibration.
                435.3.1 Pipingtomainpumpingunitsshall            be so
                      and        that
             designed supported when               to
                                         assembled the
                                                                                435.5 Auxiliary Liquid Petroleum, Carbon Dioxide,
             pumpflangesandvalvesitshould           be relativelyfree
                                                                                      LiquidAnhydrousAmmonia,           or Liquid
             of stress and should not add stress or load to the pump
                                                                                       AlcoholPiping
             frame.
                                                                                  4355.1 All auxiliary      between units
                                                                                                       piping       main
               435.3.2 The      and        shall into
                           design assembly take
                                                                                and auxiliary components shallbe assembled in a work-
                    the
             account forces                  and        to
                                 of expansion contraction
                                                                                manlikemannerand     in accordancewiththeapplica-
             minimizetheir effect within theassembly.
                                                                                ble code.
                435.3.3 All valves fittings
                                    and             on pumping units
                                                                                   435.5.2 All welded auxiliary lines shall be assembled
             shallcarrythesamepressureratings         as requiredfor
                                                                                in accordance with the requirements of this Code with
             lienoperatingpressures.
                                                                                special provisions as required for assembly to minimize
               435.3.4 Weldingshall be in accordance with para.                 locked-in stress, andforadequatesupport       or restraint
             434.8oftheCode.                                                    tominimizevibration.




                                                                           53



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              ASME B31.4-1998 Edition                                                                                            4364365.1




                                                          CHAPTER VI
                                                    INSPECTION AND TESTING


              436 INSPECTION                                                            ( I ) Visual inspection for detection of surface de-
                                                                                  fects in thepipeshallbeprovidedforeach              jobjust
              436.1General                                                        ahead of any coating operation and during the lowering-
                                                                                  in andbackfilloperation.
                 Construction inspection provisions for pipelines and
                                                                                        (2) The pipe swabbing operation shall be inspected
              related facilities shall be adequate to assure compliance
                                                                                    thoroughnessprovide
                                                                                  for              to                 a clean      inside
                                                                                                                             surface
              with the material, construction, welding, assembly, and
                                                                                  thepipe.
              testing requirements of this Code.
                                                                                        (3) Beforewelding,thepipeshall           be examined
                                                                                                                                   of the
                                                                                  for damage-free bevels and proper alignment joint.
              436.2 Qualification o Inspectors
                                   f
                                                                                        (4) Thestringerbeadshall        be inspected,particu-
                 Inspectionpersonnelshall      be qualified by training           larlyforcracks,beforesubsequentbeadsareapplied.
              and             Such
                  experience. personnel     shall          be capable of                (5) The           weld
                                                                                                completed shall              be cleaned and
              performingthefollowinginspectionservices:                           inspected prior to coating operations, and irregularities
                      right ofway and grading;                                    thatcouldprotrudethroughthepipecoatingshall               be
                      ditching;                                                   removed.
                      lineupandpipesurfaceinspection;                                   (6) Whenthepipeis         coated, inspectionshallbe
                      welding;                                                    made to determine that the coating machine does not
                      coating;                                                    causeharmfulgouges or grooves in thepipesurface.
                      tie-inandlowering; "
                                                                                        (7) Lacerationsofthepipecoatingshall            be in-
                      backfillingandcleanup;                                      spectedpriortorepair         of coating to see if thepipe
                      pressuretesting;                                            surface has been damaged. Damaged coating and pipe
                      specialservices testing inspection
                                     for    and                         of        shall be repaired before the pipe is lowered in the ditch.
              facilities,such as station construction, river crossings,                 (8) All repairs, changes, or replacements shall     be
              electricalinstallation,
                                    radiography,
                                               corrosion control,                 inspectedbeforethey are covered up.
              etc., as maybe required.                                                  (9) The condition of the ditch shall be inspected
                                                                                  before the pipe is lowered in to assure proper protection
              436.5 Type andExtent of Examination Required                                  and
                                                                                  of pipe coating.            For underwater crossings the
                                                                                  condition of the ditch and fit of the pipe to the ditch
       (98)      436.5.1 visual                                                   shall be inspectedwhenfeasible.
                 (a) Material                                                         (IO) The fit of the pipe to ditch shall be inspected
                    (1) Allpipingcomponents  shall       be visually  in-         beforethebackfillingoperations.
              spected to insurethat no mechanicaldamagehas oc-                        (If) Thebackfillingoperationsshallbeinspected
              curred during        and
                           shipment handling    prior            tobeing          forqualityandcompaction          of backfill,placementof
              connectedintothepipingsystem.                                       material for the control of erosion, and possible damage
                    (2) All pipe shall be visually inspected to discover          to thepipecoatings.
              anydefects as described in paras. 434.5 and 434.8.7.                    (12) Cased crossings shall be inspectedduringin-
                    (3) On systems where pipe is telescoped by grade,             stallation to determine that the carrier pipeis supported,
              wallthickness, or both,particularcareshall         be taken         sealed,andinsulatedfromthecasing.
              to insure proper placement of pipe. Permanent records                   (13) River crossings shall have thorough inspection,
              shall be kept  showing location
                                    the                  as installed of          andshall be surveyedandprofiledafterconstruction.
              each     wall        type,
                  grade, thickness, specification,   and                              (14) Allpipingcomponentsotherthanpipeshall
              manufacturerofthepipe.                                              be inspected to insure damage-free condition and proper
                 (b) Construction                                                 installation.

                                                                             55



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        46524741
         3..-3..                                                                                                 ASME B31.4-1998 E d i t h


          436.5.2 Supplementary Types of Examination                        of the pipe shall be hydrostatically tested in accordance
           (a) Testingoffieldandshopweldsshallbemade                        withpara. 437.4.1.
        in accordancewithpara.     434.8.5.                                       (3) Systems to be     operated at ahoop stress of
          (b) Radiographicinspectionofweldsshall     be per-                20% or lessofspecifiedminimumyield                   strength of
        formed in accordancewithpara. 434.8.5.                              the pipe may be subjected to a leak test in accordance
           (c) Coatedpipe shall be inspected in accordance                  with para. 437.4.3 in lieu of the hydrostatic test specified
        withpara. 461.1.2.                                                  in para. 437.4.1.
                                                                                  (4) When testing piping, in no case         shall the test
        436.6RepairofDefects                                                pressure       that
                                                                                    exceed stipulated                in the standards of
                                                                            material specifications (except pipe) incorporated in this
          436.6.1 Defects of fabricated items and in pipe wall              Code by reference and       listedin      Table 423.1 for the
        shall be repaired or eliminated in accordance with para.            weakestelement in the system, or portionofsystem,
        434.5.                                                              beingtested.
                                                                                  (5) Equipment not to be subjected to test pressure
          436.6.2 Welding defects shall be repaired in accord-              shall be disconnected the
                                                                                                  from piping                  or otherwise
        ancewithpara. 434.8.1.                                              isolated. Valves may be used if valve, including closing
                                                                            mechanism, is suitable for thetestpressure.
          436.6.3 Holidays or other damage to coating shall                    (6) Testing T i e - h . Because it issometimesneces-
        berepaired in accordancewithpara. 461.1.2.                          saryto divide apipeline into test sections andinstall
                                                                            test heads, connecting piping, andother necessary appur-
                                                                            tenances for testing, or to install a pretested replacement
          TESTING
        437
                                                                            section, itisnotrequiredthattie-inweldsbetested;
                                                                            however,tie-inweldsand            girth welds joining lengths
        437.1General
                                                                            of pretested pipe shall be inspected by         radiographic or
           ( a ) In order to meetrequirements ofthisCode,        it         other accepted nondestructive methodsinaccordance
         necessary
        is          that     tests be made upon the completed               with para. 434.8.5(a)(4) if system is not pressure tested
        system and upon component     parts of the finishedsystem.          after tie-in.Aftersuch         inspection, the joint shall be
        When reference in this Code is made to tests or portions            coated and inspected in accordance with para. 461.1.2
        of tests described other
                            in    codes
                                      and           specifications,         beforebackfilling.
        they shall beconsidered as apartof        this Code.                   (c) Testing Controls and Protective Equipment. All
           (6) Shouldleaksoccurontests,theline          section or          controls andprotectiveequipment,            including pressure
        component partshall be repaired or replaced and retested            limiting devices, regulators, controllers, relief valves,
        in accordancewiththisCode.                                          andothersafety devices, shall be tested to determine
                                                                            that they are in good mechanical condition; of adequate
          437.1.3Testing of FabricatedItems                                 capacity, effectiveness, and reliability ofoperation for
           ( a ) Fabricated items such as scraper traps, manifolds,         the service in   whichthey         are employed; functioning
        volumechambers,etc., shall be hydrostaticallytested                  the
                                                                            at                            and
                                                                                      correct pressure; properly    installedand
        to limits equal to or greater than those required of the            protected foreign
                                                                                      from        materials            or other conditions
        completed system. This test may be conducted separately             thatmightpreventproper            operation.
        or as apartofthecompleted          system.
           (6) In testing fabricated items before installation, the         437.4TestPressure
        applicable paragraphsof specifications listedinTable
        423.1 shall apply.                                                     437.4.1HydrostaticTesting of Internal Pressure
                                                                            Piping
           437.1.4TestingAfterNewConstruction                                  (a) Portionsofpipingsystemsto          be operated at a
           ( a ) Systems or Parts of Systems                                hoop stress of more than 20%of the specified minimum
               (1) All liquid transportation piping systems within          yield        of pipe
                                                                                 strength the              shall be subjected at any
        thescopeofthisCode,regardless            of stress, shall be        point to a hydrostatic proof test equivalent to not less
        tested after construction. Carbon dioxide systems shall             than 1.25 times internal
                                                                                             the      design pressure           at that
        behydrostaticallytested.                                            point (see para. 401.2.2) fornotlessthan      4 hr. When
               (2) Systems to be   operated at ahoop stress of              lines are tested at pressures that develop a hoop stress,
        more than 20% of the specified minimum yield strength               based on nominal wall thickness, in excess of W% of

                                                                       56



COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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             ASME B31.4-1998 Edition                                                                                               437.4.1437.6.4


            the specified minimum yield strengthof the pipe, special                   437.6Qualification Tests
            careshall beusedtoprevent              overstrain ofthepipe.
                                                                                         Wheretestsarerequired    by othersections of this
                   ( I ) Thoseportions of pipingsystemswhereall
            of pressured
              the                        are
                            components visually    inspected                           Code,thefollowingproceduresshall    be used.
                     the
            during proof to                 that is
                             test determine there no
            leakage require no further test. This can include lengths
            of pipe thatare pretested for use replacement sections.
                                                   as                                    437.6.1Visual Examination. Usedornew    pipe to
                   (2) On those portions of piping systems not visu-                   belaidshallbevisuallyexamined  in accordancewith
            ally inspected while under test, the proof test shall be                   para. 436.5.1.
            followed by a reduced pressure leak test equivalent to
            not less than 1.1 times the internal design pressure for
            notlessthan 4 hr.                                                            437.6.2Bending Properties
                (6) API RP 1110 maybeused for guidance for the                            (a) For pipe of unknown specification     or ASTMA
            hydrostatictest.                                                           120, bending properties are required if minimum yield
                (c) The              test
                          hydrostatic shall            be conducted with               strength used for design is above 24,000 psi (165 MPa),
            water,exceptliquidpetroleumthatdoesnotvaporize                             and after type of joint has been identified in accordance
            rapidly may     be used provided:                                          with para. 437.6.4. For pipe N P S 2 and smaller, bending
                   ( I ) the pipeline section under test is not offshore               testshallmeettherequirementsof           ASTM A 53 or
            and is outside of cities and other populated areas, and                    API 5L. For pipe largerthan NPS 2 in nominal diameter,
            each building within 300 ft ( 0m) of the test section
                                                 9                                     flatteningtestsshall meet therequirements in ASTM
            isunoccupied          the pressure equal
                            while test          is    to                     or        A 53, API 5L, or API 5LU.
            greaterthan a pressurewhichproduces a hoopstress
            of 50% of specific
                           the       minimum strength
                                               yield          of                         (6) The number of tests required to determine bend-
            the pipe;                                                                  ingpropertiesshall     be thesameasrequired           in
                   (2) thetestsectioniskeptundersurveillance                by         para. 437.6.6 todetermineyieldstrength.
            regularpatrolsduringtest;and
                   (3) communication is maintained                 the
                                                             along test
            section.                                                                      437.6.3Determination of WallThickness. When
                (d) If the     testingmedium       in the system       will be         thenominalwallthickness         is notknown, it shall be
            subject to thermal expansion during the test, provisions                   determined by measuring the thickness at quarter points
            shall bemade for relief of excess pressure. Effects              of        on oneendofeachpieceofpipe.Ifthelotofpipe
            temperaturechangesshall be takenintoaccountwhen                            is     to of
                                                                                         known be uniform               grade,size,andnominal
            interpretations are made ofrecordedtestpressures.                          thickness, measurement shall be made on not less than
                (e) After completion the  of hydrostatic   test,          it is        5% of individual
                                                                                             the                   but less
                                                                                                          lengths, not than                   10
            important in coldweatherthatthelines,valves,and                            lengths; thickness of the other lengths may be verified
            fittings be drainedcompletelyofanywatertoavoid                             by applying a gage to set the         minimum thickness.
            damagedue to freezing.                                                     Followingsuchmeasurement,thenominalwallthick-
                 f Carbon
                  J           dioxidepipelines,
                                              valves, fittings
                                                     and                               ness shall be taken as the next nominal wall thickness
            shall be dewatered and dried prior to placing in service                   belowtheaverageofallthemeasurementstaken,but
            to prevent the possibility of forming           a corrosive com-           inno casegreaterthan 1.14 timestheleastmeasured
            poundfromcarbondioxideandwater.                                            thicknessforallpipeunder         NPS 20, and   no greater
                                                                                       than 1.1 1 timestheleastmeasuredthicknessfor           all
               437.4.3 Leak Testing. A 1 hr hydrostatic or pneu-                       pipe NPS 20 andlarger.
            maticleaktestmaybeusedforpiping            systems tobe
            operated at a hoop stress of 20% or less of the specified
            minimumyieldstrengthofthepipe.Thehydrostatic                                 437.6.4Determination of Weld Joint Factor. If
                                          than 1.25 times the internal
            test pressure shall be not less                                            the type of longitudinal or spiral weld joint is known,
            design pressure. The pneumatic test gage pressure shall                      corresponding
                                                                                       the             weld       joint factor (Table 402.4.3)
            be 100 psi (7 bar) or that pressure which would produce                    may be used.Otherwise, as noted in Table 402.4.3,
            a nominal hoop stress of 25% of the specified minimum                      the factor E shall not exceed 0.60 for pipe NPS 4 and
            yieldstrength of thepipe,whichever is less.                                smaller, or 0.80 for pipe over NPS 4.

                                                                                  57



COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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       476-77
        3..3.                                                                                             ASME B31.4-1998 Edition

          437.6.5 Weldability. For steel pipeof unknown spec-                     Nominal Pipe         Number of Lengths
                                                                                      SiZe                 per Test
       ification, weldability shall be determined as follows. A
       qualifiedweldershallmake        a girthweldinthepipe.                     Lessthan6                    200
                                                                                 6 through 12                 100
       This weld shall be tested in accordancewith the require-                  Larger than 12                50
       ments ofpara. 434.8.5.Thequalifying weldshallbe
       madeunderthemostsevereconditionsunderwhich                         Alltestspecimensshallbeselected           at random.
       welding will be permitted in thefieldandusingthe
       sameprocedure as to be usedinthefield.Thepipe                       437.6.7 Minimum Yield Strength Value. For pipe
       shall be consideredweldable if the      requirements  set        ofunknown specification, the minimum yield strength
       forth in para.434.8.5aremet.Atleastonesuchtest                   may be determined as follows.
                                                                           Averagethevalueofallyieldstrengthtests          for a
       weld shall be made for each number of lengths to be
                                                                           lot. minimum strength then
                                                                        test The          yield      shall                    be
       used as listedbelow.
                                                                        taken as thelesser of thefollowing:
                                                                           (a) 80% of the    average      of yield
                                                                                                    value the
                     MinimumNumber of TestWelds                         strengthtests;
                Nominal Pipe         Number of Lengths                     (b) the minimum value of anyyieldstrengthtest,
                     size                per Test                       except that in no       shall value
                                                                                             case this             be taken as
                                                                        greaterthan52,000psi      (358 MPa);
                Less than 6                 400
                6 through 12                200                            (c) 24,000 psi (165 MPa) if the average yield-tensile
                Larger than 12              100                         ratio exceeds 0.85.

         All testspecimensshall    be selectedatrandom.                 437.7 Records
                                                                           A record shall be maintained in the      files of the
                                                                        operating company relative to design, construction, and
          437.6.6Determination of Yield    Strength. When               testing of each mainline within the scope of this Code.
       the specified minimum yield strength, minimum tensile            These records shall include material specifications; route
       strength, or minimum percent of elongation of pipe is                 and
                                                                        maps alignments        for
                                                                                          sheets              'as-built' condition;
       unknown,thetensilepropertiesmay       be established as          location of eachpipesize,grade,wallthickness,         type
       follows.                                                         of seam (if any), and manufacturer; coatings; test data;
          Perform tensile prescribed
                  all    tests                 by API 5L or             and,forcarbondioxidepipelines,toughnessrequire-
       5LU, exceptthattheminimumnumber           of suchtests           ments.Theserecordsshallbekeptforthelifeofthe
       shall be as follows.                                             facility. See para.436.5.1(a)(3).




                                                                   58



COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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            ASME 831.4-1998 Edition                                                                                       450450.2




                                           CHAPTER VI1
                              OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES


            450 OPERATIONANDMAINTENANCE                                    clothingshall beofrubberfabric       or otherammonia
                PROCEDURESAFFECTINGTHESAFETY                               imperviousmaterial.
                OFLIQUIDTRANSPORTATIONPIPING
                SYSTEMS
                                                                           450.2 Operation and MaintenancePlans and
                                                                                 Procedures
            450.1 General                                                     Each operating company having a transportation pip-
                                                                           ingsystemwithinthescope             of thisCodeshall:
               (a) It is not possibletoprescribe        in thisCode a
                                                                              (a) have written detailed plans and training programs
            detailed set ofoperatingandmaintenanceprocedures
                                                                           for employees covering operating and maintenance pro-
            thatwillencompassallcases.It          is possible, however,
                                                                           cedures for the    transportation pipingsystemduring
             for each operating company to develop operating and
                                                                           normal operations and maintenance in accordance with
            maintenance procedures based on the provisions of this
                                                                           the        of Code;
                                                                              purpose this              features
                                                                                                essential       recom-
            Code, andthecompany’sexperienceandknowledge
                                                                           mended for inclusion in the plans for specific portions
            of its facilitiesandconditionsunderwhichthey              are
                                                                           of thesystemaregiven           in paras. 451 and 452.
            operated,whichwill        be adequatefromthestandpoint
            of public safety.
                                                                              (b) have a planforexternalandinternalcorrosion
                                                                           controlofnewandexistingpipingsystems,including
               (b) The methods procedures forth
                                    and         set herein                 requirementsandproceduresprescribed             in para. 453
            serve as a general guide, but not relieve the individual
                                            do                             andChapterVIII;
            or operating company from the responsibility for prudent
                                                                               (c) have a writtenEmergencyPlan           as indicatedin
            actionthatcurrentparticularcircumstancesmake              ad-
                                                                           para. 454 forimplementation in theevent of system
            visable.
                                                                           failures, accidents, or otheremergencies;trainappro-
                (c) It must be recognized that local conditions (such      priate operating and maintenance employees with regard
            as the effects of temperature, characteristics of the line     to applicable portions of the plan, and establish liaison
            contents, and topography) will have considerable bearing with appropriate public officials with respect to the plan;
             on the  approach      to any particularmaintenance  and
                                                                              (d) have a plan for reviewing changes in conditions
            repair job.
                                                                           affecting the integrity and safety of the piping system,
               (d) Suitable safety equipment shall be available for        including provisions for periodic patrolling and reporting
            personnel use at all work areas and operating       facilities of construction   activity changes
                                                                                                    and                   in conditions,
            whereliquidanhydrousammoniaistransported.Such                  especially in industrial,                and
                                                                                                       commercial, residential
            safetyequipmentshallincludeatleastthefollowing:                areas and at river, railroad,andhighway crossings, in
                   ( I ) full facegasmaskwithanhydrousammonia              order to consider the possibility of providing additional
            refill canisters;                                              protection to prevent damage to the pipeline in accord-
                   (2) independentlysuppliedairmask;                       ancewithpara. 402.1;
                   (3) tight-fittinggoggles or fullfaceshield;                (e) establish liaison with local authorities who issue
                   (4) protectivegloves;                                   construction permits in urban areas to prevent accidents
                   (5) protectiveboots;                                    caused by excavators;
                   (6) protective slicker and/orprotectivepantsand              v ) establishprocedures to analyzeallfailuresand
            jacket;                                                        accidents for the purpose of determining the cause and
                   (7) easily accessible shower andor at least 50 gal      to minimize the possibility of recurrence;
            (190 liters) ofcleanwater       in anopentopcontainer.            (g) maintain necessary maps and records to properly
               Personnel   shall                               use
                                    be instructed in effective of          administer the plans and procedures, including records
            masks and limited shelflife of refill canisters. Protective    listed in para. 455;

                                                                      59



COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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          450.2451.6.1                                                                                              ASME B31.4-1998 Edition

             (h) have   procedures for abandoning   piping systems,                   Markers
                                                                                  451.3
          includingtherequirements in para.457;
                                                                                     (u) Markers shall be installed over each line on each
              ( i ) in establishing plans and procedures, give particu-
                                                                                  sideofroad,highway,        railroad, and stream crossings
          lar attention to those portions of the system presenting
                                                                                  to properly locate and identify the system. Markers are
          the greatest hazard to the publicin the event of emergen-
                                                                                  notrequired for pipelines offshore.
          cies or because of construction or extraordinary mainte-
                                                                                     (b) Pipelinemarkers       at crossings, aerial markers
          nancerequirements;
                                                                                  whenused,and other signs shall be maintained so as
              (i) operate and maintain its piping system in confor-
                                                                                  to indicate the location of the line. These markers shall
          mancewiththeseplansandprocedures;
                                                                                  showthenameofthe          operating company, and, where
             (k) modifythe plans andproceduresfromtime               to                    an
                                                                                  possible, emergency   telephone        contact. Additional
          time as experience dictates and as exposure of         the              pipelinemarkers shall be installed    along line
                                                                                                                             the           in
          system to the public and changes operating conditions
                                               in                                 areas of development and growth to protect the system
          require.                                                                from                API 1109
                                                                                       encroachment. RP          shall          be usedfor
                                                                                  guidance.
          451PIPELINEOPERATIONAND
                                                                                  451.4Right of Way Maintenance
              MAINTENANCE
                                                                                    (u) The right of way should be maintained  so as to
          451.1OperatingPressure                                                  have clear visibilityand to give reasonableaccessto
                                                                                  maintenance crews.
              (u) Care shall be exercised to assure that any    at
                                                                                    (6) Accessshall be maintainedtovalvelocations.
          point in thepipingsystemthemaximumsteady                   state
                                                                                    (c) Diversion ditches or dikes shall be maintained
          operating pressure    and static head             with
                                                    pressure the
                                                                                  whereneeded to protect against washoutsoftheline
          line in astaticconditiondonotexceed               at thatpoint
                                                                                  anderosionofthelandowner’s        property.
          the internaldesign          and
                             pressure pressure   ratingsfor
          the components used as specified in para. 402.2.3, and
          that the level of pressure rise due       to surges and other           451.5Patrolling
          variationsfromnormaloperationdoesnotexceed                   the           (u) Each operating company shall maintain a periodic
          internal design        at point
                         pressureany                      in the piping           pipelinepatrolprogram to observe surface conditions
          system andequipmentbymore              than 10% as specified            on and adjacent to the pipeline right of way, indication
          in para. 402.2.4.                                                       of leaks, construction activity other than that performed
              (6) Apipingsystemshall          be qualifiedfor a higher            by thecompany,andany           other factors affectingthe
          operating pressurewhenthehigher             operating pressure          safetyand operation of the pipeline. Specialattention
          willproduce        a hoop stress of more 20% than of                    shall be given to such activities as road building, ditch
          the specifiedminimum     yield        of pipe
                                        strength the                    in        cleanouts, excavations, and like encroachmentstothe
          accordancewithpara.456.                                                        system.
                                                                                  pipeline            Patrols shall bemade       at intervals
              (c) If a piping system is derated to a lower operating                              2
                                                                                  not exceedingweeks,         that
                                                                                                        except piping   systems
          pressure in lieu of     repair     or replacement, the   new            transportingLPG or liquidanhydrousammoniashall
          maximum steady state operating pressure shall be deter-                 be patrolled at    intervals not exceeding 1 week     in
          mined in accordancewithpara. 451.7.                                     industrial,commercial, or residential areas.
              (d) For existing systems utilizing materials produced                  (6) Underwater crossings shall be inspected periodi-
          under discontinued or superseded standards or specifica-                cally for sufficiency of cover, accumulation of debris,
          tions, theinternaldesignpressureshall           be determined           or forany other condition affecting the            and
                                                                                                                                safety
          usingthe allowable stress anddesign criteria listed in                  security of the crossings, and at any time it is felt that
          the of
             issue the           applicable code or specification in              the crossings are in danger as a result of floods, storms,
          effect at the timeoftheoriginal          construction.                  or suspectedmechanicaldamage.

451.6    451.2
Communications
            A
     maintained communications
             be shall facility                               to                     451.6.1
                                                                                  General                                                       (98)
          assure safe pipeline operations underbothnormaland                        (u) Repairs shall be covered by a maintenance plan
          emergencyconditions.                                                    [see para. 450.2(a)] and shall be performed  under

                                                                             60



  COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers
  Licensed by Information Handling Services
              ASME B31.4-1998 Edition                                                                                             451.6.1-451.6.2

              qualified supervision by trained personnel aware of and                      (4) All cracksshall beremoved or repaired;
              familiar the
                        with hazards          to public safety,utilizing                   (5) Allweldsfound to havedefects as set forth
              strategically locatedequipment repair
                                             and     materials.                      in para. 434.8.5(b) or in the appropriate pipe specifica-
              The maintenance shall
                                plan consider appropriate
                                                the                                  tionshall be removed or repaired.
              information  contained in Publ.
                                          API 2200, Pub.
                                                       API                                 (6) General Corrosion. Pipe      shall be replaced,
              2201, API RP 1107, and API RP          1 11 1. It is essential         or repaired if the area is small, or operated at a r e d u d
              that all personnel working pipeline repairs understand
                                           on                                        pressure para.
                                                                                              (see 451.7)             if general corrosion    has
              the need for careful planning of the job, be briefed as                        the thickness
                                                                                     reduced wall                             than design
                                                                                                                       to less the
              to theprocedureto be followed in accomplishingthe                      thicknesscalculated in accordancewithpara.404.1.2
              repairs, andfollowprecautionarymeasuresandproce-                       decreased by an amount            to manufacturing
                                                                                                                 equal the
              duresoutlined in APIPubl.2200.Personnelworking                         tolerance applicable to the pipe      or component.
              on repairs to pipelines handling LPG, carbon dioxide,                        (7) Localized Corrosion Pitting. Pipe        shall be
              liquid alcohol, or liquid anhydrous ammonia shall also                 repaired,replaced, or operated at a reducedpressure
              be informedonthespecificproperties,characteristics,                    (see 451.7)
                                                                                         para.             if localized corrosionpitting      has
              andpotential hazards         with liquids,
                                  associated those                                   reduced the wall   thickness to less than designthe
              precautions to be taken following detection of          a leak,        thicknesscalculated in accordancewithpara.404.1.2
              and safety repair procedures set forth for LPG pipelines               decreased by an amount            to manufacturing
                                                                                                                  equal the
              in API Publ. 2200. Approvals, procedures, and special                  toleranceapplicabletothepipe           or component. This
              considerations  described in API         2201 be
                                                  Publ. shall                        applies if the lengthofthepittedareaisgreaterthan
              observedforwelding, as well as makinghottaps on                        permitted by the equation shown below. The following
              pipelines,vessels, or tankswhichareunderpressure.                      methodappliesonlywhenthedepthofthecorrosion
              Piping in the vicinity of any repair shall be adequately               pitislessthan     80% ofthenominalwallthicknessof
              supportedduringandaftertherepair.                                      thepipe.Thismethodshallnot             be used to evaluate
                 (6) Ifan inertfluidisused       to temporarilydisplace              corrosion concentrated      in electric resistance  welded
              theliquid in a pipelinesystemforthepurpose                of a         seams (ERW), electric induction welded seams or elec-
              repair, a detailedwrittenprocedureshall          be required.          tric flash-welded seams, nor shall it be used to evaluate
              Because the potential energy of      a gas presents special            corrosion-causedmetal loss whichiscircumferentially
              concerns, this procedure shall address,      as a minimum,             orientedalong or in a girthweld or its heat-affected
              thefactorsrelatedtothe        useof an inertgas:                       zone.Themethod may be used, however,to evaluate
                    ( I ) maximum Bow rate;                                          the longitudinal profile of corrosion-caused metal loss
                    (2) pressure;                                                    which crosses a girth weld or impinges on a submerged
                    (3) injectiontemperature;                                        arc welded seam. The corroded area         must be clean to
                    (4) inertgasdisposal;                                            baremetal.Careshall        be taken in cleaningcorroded
                    (5) safetyprocedures.                                            areas of a pressurized    pipeline     the
                                                                                                                       when degree    of
                 The procedure shallbe followed under the supervision                corrosionissignificant.
              required in para. 45 1.6.1(a).
                                                                                                          L = 1.128
       (98)      451.6.2 Disposition of Defects
                 (a) Limitsand Dispositions of Imperfections
                   ( I ) Gougesandgrooveshaving           a depthgreater             where
              than12y2% the           wall      shall
                           of nominal thickness be
              removed or repaired.
                   (2) Dents meeting any of the following conditions
              shall be removed or repaired:                                            L = maximumallowablelongitudinal extent ofthe
                       (u) dents which affect the pipe curvature at the                     corroded area as shown in Fig. 451.6.2(a)(7),
              pipeseam o atanygirthweld;
                              r                                                             in. (mm)
                       (6) dentscontaining a scratch,gouge, or                         B = a value to      4.0
                                                                                                   notexceed whichmay                   be
              groove; or                                                                    determinedfromtheaboveequation          or Fig.
                        ( c ) dents exceeding a depth of V4% in. (6 mm)                     45 1.6.2(a)(7)
              in pipe NPS 4 and smaller, or 6% of the nominal pipe                     D = nominal outside diameter of the pipe, in. (mm)
              diameter in sizes greaterthanNPS4.                                       tn = nominalwallthicknessofthepipe,in.         (mm)
                    (3) Allarcbumsshall        be removed or repaired.                  c = maximum depth of the corroded area, in. (mm)

                                                                                61




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                               -
        4162
         5..                                                                                           ASME B31.4-1998 Edition

                               Longitudinal axis of                (see para. 451.7). ASME B31G may be used for
                                 corroded areas
                                                                   guidance.




                    r
                                                                        (9) All pipe containing leaks shall be removed or
                    L         L          "            4            repaired.
                                                                       (b) Allowable Pipeline Repairs
                                                                         ( I ) If practical, thepipelineshouldbetakenout
                                                                   of service and      repaired by cutting out     a cylindrical
                                                                   piece of pipe containing the defect and replacing the
                                                                   same pipe
                                                                        with meeting requirements
                                                                                          the                            of para.
                                                                   401.2.2andhaving a lengthofnot less thanone-half
                                                                   diameter.
                                                                         (2) If  not practical to take     the pipeline out of
                                                                   service, repairs may be made by the installation of a
                                                                   full encirclement welded or mechanically applied split
                                                                   sleeve in accordancewithpara.451.6.2(c).
                                                                             (a) For repairs of     dents, either a  hardenable
            4                                                      fillermaterialsuch as epoxyshall be used to fill the
                                                                   void between    the                  the to
                                                                                             sleeve and pipe          restore the
                                                                   original contourof the pipe, or the carrier pipe shall
                                                                   be tapped through the sleeve or other means provided
            3
                                                                   to equalize the internal pressures ofthe carrier pipe
                                                                   andthe sleeve.
                                                                             ( b ) For repairs to nonleaking cracks in materials
        B
                                                                   thatmight be expected to behave in a brittle manner
                                                                   (e.g., aseam defect in alow-frequencyweldedERW
            2                                                      seam), an appropriately-designed fitting shall be installed
                                                                   onthe sleeve through          which the sleeve and carrier
                                                                   pipewillbetappedto             equalize theinternal pressures
                                                                   of the carrier pipe and the sleeve.
                                                                         (3) If  not practical to take     the pipeline out of
            1
                                                                   service, defects mayberemovedby               grinding or hot
                                                                   tapping. When          grinding, theground     areas shall be
                                                                   smoothlycontouredandbe              inaccordancewithpara.
                                                                   451.6.2(a)(8). When hot tapping, the portion of piping
            O
                                                                   containing the defect shall be completelyremoved.
                O       0.2        0.4           0.6      0.8            (4) If practical
                                                                                 not                to takethe pipeline out  of
                                                                   service, minor leaks andsmallcorroded areas, except
                                     =h"                           for cracks, may be repaired by the installation of
                                                                   a     or
                                                                    patch welded           in
                                                                                    fitting accordance with                paras.
          FIG. 451.6.2(a)(7) PARAMETERS USED I N                   451.6.2(~)(5) and (8). Pipecontainingarcburns,
         ANALYSIS OF THE STRENGTH OF CORRODED                      grooves, andgougesmayberepairedwithpatches                   or
                            AREAS                                  weldedfitting if thearcbum or notchisremovedby
                                                                   grinding.
             (8) Areas where      grinding has
                                             reduced re-
                                                    the                  (5) If not      practical to take the pipeline out of
        maining wall thickness to less than the design thickness   service, defects in weldsproducedwithafillermetal,
        calculated in accordancewithpara.404.1.2decreased          smallcorroded areas, gouges,grooves,andarcbums
        by
         an     amount  equal to the  manufacturingtolerance       may be repaired by depositing weld metal in accordance
        applicable to the pipe or component, may be analyzed       with para. 45 1.6.2(~)(9).      Weld imperfections, arc burns,
        thesameaslocalizedcorrosionpitting[seepara.                gouges, and grooves shall be removed by grinding prior
        451.6.2(a)(7)] to determine if ground areas need to be     to depositing theweldfillermetal.
        replaced, repaired, or the operating pressurereduced             (6) If not             to the        out
                                                                                       practical take pipeline of




COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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             ASME B31.4-1998Edition                                                                                                       451.6.2

            service, nonleaking corroded areas may be repaired by               the pipe. For full encirclement split sleeves installed for
            installation of a fully welded, partial encirclement half           repair by reinforcement only and not internal pressure
            sole in accordance with para. 451.6.2(c)( 13).                      containment,circumferentialweldingisoptional.                 Spe-
                   (7) If practical take pipeline of
                          not        to the         out                         cial consideration     shall be         to
                                                                                                                   given minimize            stress
            service, nonleaking corroded areas maybe repaired by                concentrationsresultingfromtherepair.
            installation of a mechanically applied composite material                  (7) Mechanicallyapplied full encirclementrepair
            wrap used to reinforce the pipeline in accordance with              fittingsshallmeetthedesignrequirements                   paras.
                                                                                                                                        of
            para. 45 1.6.2(c)( 14).                                             401.2and418.
                (c) Repair Methods                                                     (8) Welded fittings used to cover pipeline defects
                   ( I ) All repair weld  procedures all
                                                     and welders                shall not exceed NPS 3 and shall have a design pressure
            performing repair work shall be qualified in accordance             ofnotlessthanthepipebeingrepaired.
            with para. 434.8.3 or APIRP1107. The welders shall                         (9) For repairs involving only depositionof a weld
            also be familiar with safety       precautions and        other     fillermetal,weldingprocessesshall              bein accordance
            problems associated with cutting and welding onpipe                 with the requirements of the appropriate pipe specifica-
            that contains or has contained liquids within the scope             tionforthegradeandtypebeingrepaired.Welding
            of this  Code.         and       shall
                           Cutting welding commence                             procedure    qualifications  shall      bein accordance    with
            onlyaftercompliance withpara.434.8.1(c).                            para. 45 1.6.2(~)(2).
                   (2) Thequalificationtestforweldingprocedures                      (IO) Where repairs are made to a coated pipe, all
            tobeusedonpipecontaining              a liquidshallconsider         damaged             shall removed new
                                                                                            coating be               and coating
            the cooling effects of the pipe contents on the soundness           applied in accordance with para. 461.1.2. Replacement
            and physical properties of the weld. Welding procedures             piecesofpipe,weldedpatches,and                 full encirclement
              pipe containing shall qualified
            on not               liquid be                                in    welded split sleeves used in making repairs shall              also
            accordance with para.434.8.3.                                       becoatedwheninstalled             in a coatedline.
                   (3) Materials used forpipelinerepairshall be in                   ( I I ) Pipecontainingliquidshall          beexamined  to
            accordancewithatleastone             of thespecifications or        determinethatthematerial             is soundandofadequate
            standards listed in Table 423.1, or as otherwise required           thickness in the     areas      to be affected by grinding,
            by thisCode.                                                        welding,cutting, or hottappingoperations.
                   (4) Temporary    repairs    maybe      necessitatedfor            (12) If the pipeline is not taken out of service, the
            operating purposes and shall be made in a safe manner.              operatingpressureshall be reducedto a levelwhich
            Such  temporary   repairs be
                                     shall made permanent                 or    willprovidesafetyduringtherepairoperations.
            replaced in a permanentmanner as describedherein                         (13) Fullyweldedpartialencirclementhalfsoles
            as soon as practical.                                                    be to
                                                                                may used                repaircorrodedareasonly          onpipe
                   (5) Welded           shall rounded
                                patches have                        comers      andshallnot beused to repair leaks,gouges,dents,
            and a maximumdimensionof 6 in.(150 mm) along                        or other defects. The use of half soles shall be limited
            the pipe axis. The patch material shall be of         a similar     to pipe sizes NPS12 or lessand may only beused
            or highergrade with a wallthicknesssimilartothe                     on pipe made prior to 1942 with a specified minimum
            pipebeingrepaired.Patchesshall             be limitedtopipe         yield           not
                                                                                      strength exceeding                           (276
                                                                                                                        40,000 psi MPa).
            sizes NPS and and
                          12 less conforming APIto                      5L,     The half sole material shall be of           a similar or higher
            GradeX42andlower.Patchesshall                  be attached by       grade  with a wall      thickness less
                                                                                                                   not than             87.5% or
            fillet welds. Insert patching is prohibited. Special consid-        morethan125%ofthatofthepipebeingrepaired.
            eration shall be given to minimize stress concentrations            Half soles shall have rounded comers and a maximum
            resultingfromtherepair.                                             lengthof10 ft (3 m)alongthepipeaxis.Halfsoles
                   (6) Full encirclement welded split sleeves installed         shall not be used across girth welds and the minimum
            to repair leaks or otherwise to contain internal pressure           clearancebetweentheend               ofhalf soles or theends
            shallhave       a design  pressure     of less the
                                                    not than                    of half soles and girth welds shall be 2 in. Combinations
            pipe being  repaired shall
                                and               be fully welded,   both       of a half sole and patches shall not be used           in parallel
            circumferentially and longitudinally. Length of full en-            around a given       circumference.         To ensure optimum
            circlement split sleevesshallnot          be less than 4 in.        performanceofhalf           soles, theannularspacebetween
            (100 mm). If the sleeve is thicker than the pipe being              the corroded pipe and the half sole may be filled with
            repaired,thecircumferentialendsshall             be chamfered                       filler
                                                                                a hardenable material         such            as epoxy. Special
            (atapproximately45          deg.) down to thethickness of           consideration    shall be given to ensuring a close fit

                                                                           63



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                       S T D - A S M E B 3 L - q - E N G L L770 H 0757b70 Ob072b5 404



       451.6.24519                                                                                          ASME B31.4-1998 Edition

       between the edges of the half sole and the pipe being
               and minimizing
       repaired to                      stress concentrations re-
       sulting fromthe repair.
           (14) Mechanically applied composite material wrap
       may be used to reinforce the     pipelineprovidedthat
             and         methods
       design installation                   are proven for the           where
       intended service prior to application. Theuseris cau-                G = 0.893 U   &
       tioned that a qualified written procedure performed by                   = a value not to exceed 4.0 in the above analysis
       trainedpersonnel is a requirementand records shall                         and which may be determined from the above
       be retained in accordancewith para. 455.                                   equation
                                                                           Pd = derated internal design gage pressure, psi (bar)
                                                                            P; = original internaldesigngagepressure,based
         451.6.3 Testing Repairs to Pipelines Operating at                        on        nominal thickness
                                                                                    specified       wall        of            the
       a Hoop Stress of MoreThan 20% of the Specified                             pipe(see para. 404.1), psi (bar)
       MinimumYieldStrength of the Pipe                                     L = longitudinal extent of the corroded area as
         (a) Testing of Replacement Pipe Sections. When                           shown in Fig.451.6.2(a)(7), in. (mm)
       a scheduledrepair a
                       to     pipeline is
                                        made by cutting                    For r, c, and D, see para.451.6.2(a)(7).
       out a sectionofthepipe       as a cylinder andreplacing
       it with another section of pipe, the replacement section           For values of G greaterthan4.0,
         pipe
       of shall         be subjected to pressure The
                                        a      test.
       replacement section of pipe shall be tested as required
       foranewpipeline       in accordancewith para. 437.4.1.
       The tests may be made on the pipe prior to installation            except pd shall not exceed pi.
       provided radiographicor other acceptable nondestructive
       tests(visualinspectionexcepted)     are madeonalltie-              451.8ValveMaintenance
       inbuttwelds after installation.
                                                                                         valves
                                                                            Pipeline block    shall       be inspected, serviced
          ( 6 ) Examination o Repair Welds. Welds
                               f                       made               where necessary, andpartiallyoperated    at least once
       duringpipelinerepairs shall be examined by accepted                eachyear to assure properoperating conditions.
       non-destructivemethods      or visually
                                             examined      by a
       qualified inspector.                                                   Railroads Highways
                                                                          451.9        and     Crossing                 Existing       (98)
                                                                                Pipelines
                                                                             (a) Whenan existing pipelineis to becrossed by
       451.7DeratingaPipeline        to aLowerOperating                   a new road or railroad, the operatingcompany shall
             Pressure                                                     analyze the pipeline in the area to be crossed in terms
                                                                          of thenewanticipatedexternalloads.          If thesumof
                                                                          the circumferential stresses caused by internal pressure
          (a) Corroded pipe or pipe containing areas repaired             and newly imposed external loads (including both live
       by grinding may be derated to a loweroperating pressure
                                                                          and deadloads) exceeds 0.90 SMYS (specified minimum
       in lieu of replacement or repair or further repair. Except                                                     shall
                                                                          yield strength), the operating company install
       as provided in para. 451.7(b), the    lower      operating         mechanical reinforcement, structural protection, or suit-
       pressure shall be based on para. 404.1.2 and the actual            able pipe to reducethe stress to0.90SMYS or less,
       remainingwallthicknessofthepipe           at thepointof            or redistribute the external loads acting on the pipeline.
       deepestcorrosion or grinding.                                      API 1102  provided        that
                                                                                            methods may                  be used to
          (6) For pipe containing localizedcorrosionpitting               determinethetotal     stress caused by internalpressure
       or areas repaired by grinding the where remaining                  and external loads. API    1102 also provides     methods
       material in the pipe does not meet the depth and length            to check cyclic stress componentsfor fatigue failure.
       limits in para. 45I .6.2(a)(7),the loweroperating pressure            (6) Installation of uncased carrier pipeispreferred.
       may be determined by the following equation, provided              Adjustments of existing pipelines in service at apro-
       the corrosion or grinding is not in the girth or longitudi-        posed railroad or highway crossing shall conform to
       nalweld or relatedheataffectedzones.                               details contained in API RP 1102. As specified in para.

                                                                     64



COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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             ASME B31.4-1998 Edition                                                                                           451.M52.7


            461.1.2(f),ifcasingisused,coated         carrier pipeshall             (6) Reliefvalveson   pressure storage vessels con-
            be independently   supported outside each of end the                taining LPG, carbondioxide, or liquid anhydrous ammo-
            casing insulated the
                  and          from            casing throughout  the           niashall be subjected to tests at least every 5 years.
            cased section, andcasingends        shall besealedusing
            adurable,electricallynonconductivematerial.                         452.3StorageVessels
               (c) Testing and inspection of replaced pipe     sections
                                                                                   (u) Storage vessels, including atmospheric and pres-
                           to            of 451.6.3.
            shall conform requirements para.                        All
                                                                                suretanks,handlingthe        liquid or liquids beingtrans-
            new girth welds in the carrier pipe shall be radiographed
                                                                                      shall periodically
                                                                                ported be                       and
                                                                                                        inspected pertinent
            or inspected by other acceptable nondestructive methods
                                                                                recordsmaintained. Points to be coveredinclude:
            (visual inspection excepted).
                                                                                     ( I ) stability of foundation;
                                                                                     (2) conditionofbottom, shell, stairs, roof;
             451.10InlandWatersPlatformRisers                                        (3) venting or safetyvalveequipment;
                Riser installationsshall be visually inspected annually              (4) conditionoffirewalls or tank dikes.
             forphysicaldamageandcorrosion          in the splash zone             (b) Storage vessels and tanks shall be cleaned in
             andabove.The extent ofanyobserveddamageshall                       accordancewith API Publ. 2015.
             be determined, and, ifnecessary,the riser installation
             shallberepaired     or replaced.                                   452.4Storage of CombustibleMaterials
                                                                                   All flammable or combustible materials in quantities
             452 PUMP STATION,TERMINAL,ANDTANK                                  beyondthoserequired      for everyday use or other than
                 FARMOPERATIONANDMAINTENANCE                                    thosenormallyusedinpumphouses            shall be stored
                                                                                in a separate structure built of noncombustible material
             452.1General                                                       located a suitable distance fromthepumphouse.        All
                                                                                aboveground oil or gasoline storage tanks shall be
                 (u) Starting, operating, and shutdown procedures for           protected in accordancewith NFPA 30.
               equipment be
             all           shall establishedand           the operating
             companyshalltakeappropriate steps to see thatthese                 452.5Fencing
             procedures are followed. These procedures shall outline
             preventive measures systems
                                 and        checksrequiredto                       Station, terminal, and tank farm areas shall be main-
             ensure the proper functioning of all shutdown, control,                 in
                                                                                tained a       safe condition, and shall be fenced and
             andalarmequipment.                                                 locked, or attended, for theprotectionoftheproperty
                                                                                andthepublic.
                (b) Periodic               and
                             measurement monitoring flowof
             and recording of discharge pressures shall be provided
             fordetectionof      deviations fromthe steady state op-            452.6Signs
             erating conditions ofthesystem.                                       (u) Suitable signs shall be posted to serve as warnings
                                                                                in hazardousareas.
             452.2ControlsandProtectiveEquipment                                   (b) Classifiedandhighvoltage       areas shall be ade-
                                                                                quatelymarkedand isolated.
                (u) Controls and protectiveequipment,including
                                                                                   (c) Caution signs shall be displayed indicating name
             pressurelimitingdevices, regulators, controllers, relief
                                                                                 the
                                                                                of      operating company and, where possible, an
             valves,andothersafety        devices, shall be subjected to
                                                                                emergencytelephone contact.
             systematic periodic inspections and tests, at least annu-
             ally, except as provided in para. 452.2(b), to determine
                                                                                452.7Prevention of AccidentalIgnition
             thattheyare:
                   ( 1 ) in goodmechanical condition;                             (u) Smoking shall be prohibitedin all areas of a
                   (2) adequate from the standpoint of capacity and             pump station, terminal, or tank in     the
                                                                                                               farmwhich
             reliabilityofoperationforthe        service in whichthey                  leakage or presence of
                                                                                possible                       vapor   constitutes a
             are employed;                                                      hazardoffire or explosion.
                   (3) set to functionat the correct pressure;                    (b) Flashlights or hand lanterns, when used, shall
                   (4) properlyinstalledandprotectedfromforeign                 beoftheapprovedtype.
             materials or other conditions that might prevent proper              (c) Welding shall commence only after compliance
             operation.                                                         withpara.434.8.1(c).

                                                                           65



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       452.7-454                                                                                               ASME B31.4-1998 Edition

          (d) Consideration should be given to the prevention                      a
                                                                              report
                                                                            and system  emergency the
                                                                                                 to                    appropriate
       of other means of accidental ignition. See NACE RP-                  operating company personnel. This could include sup-
       01-77 for additional guidance.                                       plying a card, sticker, or equivalent withnames,ad-
                                                                            dresses, and telephone numbers of operating company
                                                                            personnel to be contacted.
                                                                               (e) Intheformulationofemergencyproceduresfor
       453 CORROSIONCONTROL                                                 limiting accidental discharge fromthepiping             system,
          Protection
                   of     ferrous pipe components
                                     and          from                      the operating company shall give consideration to:
       external and internal corrosion, including tests, inspec-                  ( I ) formulating and     placing in operation   proce-
       tions,and appropriate corrective measures,shall be as                dures for an area cooperative pipeline leak notification
       prescribedinChapterVIII.                                             emergency action system between operating companies
                                                                            havingpipingsystems in the area;
                                                                                  (2) reduction of pipelinepressure by ceasing
                                                                            pumping operations on the piping system, opening the
       454 EMERGENCYPLAN
                                                                            systemtodelivery          storage on either side ofthe leak
           (u) AwrittenEmergencyPlanshall           be established          site, and expeditious closing ofblockvalvesonboth
       for               in event system
          implementation the      of                       failures,                   the
                                                                            sides of leak             site, and in the case of systems
       accidents, or other emergencies, and shall include proce-            transporting LPG,continuationofpumpinguntil                LPG
       dures for prompt and expedient remedial action provid-               has been replaced at pointofleakby               a less volatile
       ing for the safety of the public and operating company                        if
                                                                            product vapors           are notaccumulatingtoan         extent
       personnel, minimizing property damage, protecting        the         thata serious hazardappearsimminent;
       environment,  and limiting accidental discharge from                       (3) interim instructions tolocal authorities prior
       thepipingsystem.                                                     to arrival ofqualifiedoperatingcompanypersonnelat
           (6) The Plan shall provide for acquainting and train-            theleak site;
       ingofpersonnel responsible for the prompt execution
                                                                                  (4) rapidtransportationofqualifiedpersonnel             to
       of emergency action. Personnel shall be informed con-
                                                                            theleak site;
       cerning the characteristics of the liquid in thepiping
       systems the
               and          safe practices in the  handlingof                     (5) minimization of public exposure to injury and
       accidental discharge and repair ofthe facilities, with               prevention of accidental ignition by evacuation of resi-
       emphasis on the special problems and additional precau-                           the       of
                                                                            dents and halting traffic      on             roads, highways,
       tionsinthehandlingof         leaks andrepairofsystems                and railroads intheaffectedarea;
       transporting LPG, carbon dioxide, or liquid anhydrous                      (6) in the case of systems transportingLPG, assess-
       ammonia. The operating company shall establish sched-                ment of extent and coverage of the LPG vapor cloud
       uled reviewswithpersonnelofproceduresto              be fol-         and determination of       hazardous       area with portable
       lowed in emergencies at intervals not       exceeding      6         explosimeters; ignition of vapors at leak site to prevent
       months, and reviews shall be conducted such that they                the uncontrolled spread of vapors; utilization of tempo-
       establishthecompetenceoftheEmergencyPlan.                            rary flares or blowdowns on either side of           the leak
           (c) Procedures shall cover        with
                                       liaison           state and          site; and             of
                                                                                        utilizationinternalplugging equipment
       local civil agencies such as fire    departments,police              where it isanticipatedthatvaporizationofLPGen-
       departments, sheriffs offices, andhighwaypatrols,         to         trappedinpipelinesegmentwillcontinueoverapro-
       provide  promptintercommunications         for coordinated           longed period;
       remedial action; dissemination of information on loca-
       tionof system facilities; characteristics oftheliquids                     (7) in the case of systemstransporting liquid anhy-
       transported,including additionai precautionsnecessary                drous ammonia, assessment of the extent and coverage
       with leaks from piping systems    transportingLPG, carbon            of the ammonia vapor cloud and utilization of internal
       dioxide, or liquid anhydrous ammonia; joint prepara-
                                                and                         plugging equipment where it is anticipated that vaporiza-
       tionof cooperative action as necessary to assurethe                      of
                                                                            tion liquid  anhydrous   ammonia            in
                                                                                                               entrapped the
       safetyofthepublic       in theeventofemergencies.                    pipeline segment will continue over a prolonged period;
           (d) A line of communications shall be established                      (8) In case systems
                                                                                           the of                      transporting carbon
       with residents along   the piping system recognize
                                                    to                      dioxide, assessment of the carbon          dioxide released, its

                                                                       66



COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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               ASME BJl.4-1998 Edition                                                                                                    454-457


               effects, andtheuseofexistingmeans        to blowdown                  steady state operating pressure in accordancewiththe
               andcontrolthespreadofit       at theleaksite.                         designrequirementofthisCode,andthesystem                  has
                                                                                     previously been tested for a duration and to a pressure
                                                                                     equal to or greaterthanrequired        in paras.437.4.1(a)
        (98)   455 RECORDS                                                           and (c) for a new          system the
                                                                                                           piping     for proposed
                  For operation and maintenance purposes, the follow-                highermaximumsteadystateoperatingpressure,the
               ingrecordsshallbeproperlymaintained:                                  system may be operated the  at increased  maximum
                                                                                     steadystateoperatingpressure.
                  (a) necessaryoperational data;
                                                                                           (2) If the physical condition of the piping system
                  (b) pipelinepatrolrecords;
                                                                                     as determined by (a) aboveindicatesthattheability
                  (c) corrosionrecords as requiredunderpara. 465;
                                                                                      the      to         the
                                                                                     of system withstand increased   maximum
                  (d) leakandbreakrecords;                                                                            has
                                                                                     steady state operating pressure not been satisfactorily
                  (e) recordspertainingtoroutine    or unusualinspec-                verified, or the system has not been previously        tested
               tions,such as external or internalline conditions;                    to thelevelsrequired by thisCodefor a newpiping
                      pipeline repair records.                                       system for the proposed higher maximum steady state
                                                                                     operating pressure, the system maybe operated at the
                                                                                     increasedmaximumsteadystateoperatingpressure                if
               456 QUALIFYINGAPIPINGSYSTEMFORA                                       the system shall successfully withstand the test required
                    HIGHEROPERATINGPRESSURE                                          by thisCodefor a new systemtooperateunderthe
                  (u) In event up-rating existing
                          the of           an       piping                           same conditions.
               system when the higher operating pressure will produce                   (c) Inno caseshallthemaximumsteadystate                op
               a hoop   stress     of than
                                    more             20% of the     specified        erating pressure of a piping system be raised to a value
               minimum strength the the
                           yield       of pipe, following                            higherthantheinternaldesignpressurepermitted               by
               investigativeandcorrectivemeasuresshall               betaken:        this Code for a new piping system constructed of the
                     ( I ) the design and previous testing of the piping             samematerials. The rateofpressureincrease             to the
               system and the materials and equipment it be reviewed
                                                             in                      higher maximum allowable steady state operating pres-
               to determinethattheproposedincrease               inmaximum           sure shouldbegradual so as toallowsufficienttime
               steadystateoperatingpressure          is safeand in general           forperiodicobservationsofthepipingsystem.
               agreement withtherequirementsofthisCode;                                 (d) Records of such investigations, work performed,
                                                                                     and pressure tests conducted shall be preserved as long
                     (2) the conditions of the piping system be deter-
                                                                                     as the facilitiesinvolvedremain in service.
               mined by leakagesurveysandotherfieldinspections,
               examination of maintenance and corrosion control rec-
               ords, or othersuitablemeans;                                          457 ABANDONINGAPIPINGSYSTEM
                     (3) repairs, replacements, or alterations in the pip-              In theevent of abandoning a pipingsystem,it           is
               ing system disclosed to be necessary         by steps (1) and         requiredthat:
               (2) bemade.                                                                           to
                                                                                        (a) facilities      be abandoned in place  shall     be
                  (b) The   maximum   steady       state operating   pressure        disconnected from all sources of the transported liquid,
               maybe increased after compliance with (a) above and                   such as otherpipelines,meterstations,controllines,
               one ofthe following provisions.                                       and other appurtenances;
                     ( I ) If the physical condition of the piping system               (b) facilities to be abandoned in place shall be purged
               as determined by (a) above indicates that the system is               of the transported liquid and vapor with an inert material
               capable of withstanding the desired increased maximum                 andthe ends sealed.




                                                                                67



COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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             ASME B31.4-1998 Edition                                                                                               460-461.1.1




                                                         CHAPTER VI11
                                                      CORROSION CONTROL


             460 GENERAL                                                          461 EXTERNALCORROSIONCONTROLFOR
                                                                                       BURIEDORSUBMERGEDPIPELINES
                (a) ThisChapterprescribesminimumrequirements
             and proceduresfor protection offerrous pipe and compo-
             nents external internal
                  from        and                      corrosion, andis           461.1 NewInstallations
             applicable to new piping installationsand existing piping
             systems.                                                               461.1.1 General                                                91
                                                                                                                                                  I8
                (b) External and internal corrosion shall be controlled               (a) Control of external corrosion ofnewburied or
             consistent with condition of the piping system and the               submergedpipingsystems shall be provided for each
             environment in which the system is located by applica-               component in thesystemexceptwherethe               operating
             tion of these corrosion control requirements and proce-              companycandemonstrateby            tests, investigations, or
             dures. Application of some corrosion control practices               experience in the area of application that a detrimental
             requires asignificantamountofcompetentjudgment                       corrosive environment does not exist. However, within
             in order to be effective in mitigating corrosion, and                12 months   after installation, the operating company
             deviation from the provisions of Chapter ispermissi-
                                                 this                             shall electrically inspect the buried or submerged system.
             ble in specific situations, providedthe operating com-                the electrical inspection indicates that a corrosive
                                                                                  If
                  can
             pany demonstrate thethat               objectives expressed          condition exists, the piping system shall be cathodically
             herein have been achieved. For carbon dioxide systems,               protected. If cathodic protection notis       installed, the
             it shall be             that     can
                          recognized water combine        with                    piping system shall be electrically inspected at intervals
             carbon  dioxideform
                            to acompound maythat be                               not exceeding 5 years, and the system shall be cathodi-
             corrosive underpipeline conditions.                                  cally protectedif electrical inspection indicates thata
                ( c } Corrosioncontrolrequirementsandprocedures                   corrosive condition exists.
             may in many instances require measures in addition to                    (6) Controlof external corrosion ofburied or sub-
             those shown herein. Therefore, each operating company                mergedpipeandcomponentsinnew               installations (in-
             shall establish procedures to implement the requirements             cluding new pump stations, tank farms, and terminals,
             of this Chapter. Procedures, including those for design,             and relocating, replacing, or otherwise changingexisting
             installation, and maintenance  of        cathodic protection                                 be
                                                                                  piping systems) shall accomplished by the application
             systems, shall be   prepared and         carried out
                                                                by,     or        of an effective protective coating supplementedwith
             under the direction of, persons qualified by training or             cathodic protection and suitable drainage bonds in stray
             experience incorrosioncontrolmethods.NACERP-                         current areas. Materials shall be selected with       due
             01-69 or NACE RP-06-75 provides a guide for proce-                   regard to the type of supplemental corrosion protection
             dures to implement requirements herein and to monitor                and to theenvironment.
             andmaintain cathodic protectionsystems.                                  (c) Where              and
                                                                                                 impractical, where   adequateprovi-
                (d} Corrosion personnel shall be provided equipment               sions for corrosion control havebeenmade, the mini-
             and instrumentation necessary to accomplish the work.                mum clearance of 12 in. (300 mm) between the outside
                (e) Coatingcrewsandinspectors            shall be suitably           any installed
                                                                                  of pipe                        and
                                                                                                   underground the                   extremity
             instructed provided equipment
                        and         with           necessary            to        ofany other underground structure specifiedinpara.
             coat and inspect thepipeandcomponents.                               434.6(c)maybereduced.


                                                                             69



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        41124115
         6..-6..                                                                                                 ASME B31.4-1998 Edition

            461.1.2ProtectiveCoating                                         galvanic anode or impressed current anode system shall
            (u) Protective coatings used on buried or submerged              be installedthatwill mitigate corrosionandcontaina
        pipe and components shall have the following character-              method of determining the degreeof cathodic protection
        istics:                                                              achievedontheburied          or submergedpiping system.
                ( I ) mitigate corrosion;                                       (b) A cathodic protectionsystemshall        be installed
                (2) havesufficientadhesiontothemetalsurface                  not later than 1 year after completionof construction.
        to effectivelyresistunderfilmmigrationofmoisture;                       (c) Cathodic protection shall be controlled so as not
                (3) be ductile enough to resist cracking;                    to damage the protective coating, pipe, or components.
                (4) havestrengthsufficient to resistdamagedue                   (d) Owners ofknownunderground structures which
        to handlingandsoil           stress;                                 may be affected by installation of a cathodic protection
                (5) havepropertiescompatiblewithanysupple-                   system shall be notified of said installation, and, where
        mental cathodic protection.                                          necessary, joint bonding surveys shall be conducted by
            (6) Weldsshall be inspected for irregularities that              partiesinvolved.
        could protrude through the pipe coating, and any such                   ( e ) Electrical installations shall be made in accord-
        irregularitiesshall be removed.                                      ance with the National Electrical Code, NFPA 70, API
            ( c ) Pipe coating shall be inspected, both        visually      RP 5 W , and applicable local codes.
        and by    an       electric holiday detector, just prior    to:
        loweringpipeinto ditch, applyingaweightcoating                  if      461.1.4ElectricalIsolation
        used, or submergingthepipe if noweightcoatingis                         (u) Buried or submerged coated piping systems shall
        used. holiday
               Any                 or other damage to the      coating       be electrically isolated at all   interconnections  with
        detrimentalto effective corrosion control shall be re-               foreign systems, exceptwherearrangementsaremade
        pairedandreinspected.                                                formutual cathodic protection or whereunderground
            (d) Insulatingtype coating, ifused, shall havelow                metallic structures are electrically interconnected      and
        moisture     absorption characteristics and     providehigh          cathodically protected as aunit.
        electrical   resistance.     Insulating coatings shall be in-           (b) An insulating   device shall be installed      where
        spected in accordance with established practices at the              electrical isolation of a portion of a piping system from
        time of application and just prior to lowering pipe into             pump stations, storage tanks,and similar installations
        ditch, and defects shall be repairedandreinspected.                  isnecessary to facilitate theapplication of corrosion
            ( e ) Pipe shall be handled and lowered into ditch or            control. The  insulating      shall be
                                                                                                     device not installed
        submerged so as to prevent damage after the electrical               whereacombustibleatmosphere             isanticipatedunless
        inspection.Pipe coating shall be protectedfromlow-                   precautions are takentopreventarcing.
        ering-indamageinrough               or detrimental environment          (c) Consideration shall be given      to the prevention
          use rock
        by of                   shield, ditch padding, or any     other      of damage to piping systems due to lightning or fault
        suitable protectivemeasures.                                         currents wheninstalled in close proximity to electric
                   If coated pipe is installed by boring, driving, or        transmission tower footings, ground cables, or counter-
        other similar method, precautions shall be to        taken                See
                                                                             poise. NACE             for
                                                                                            RP-01-77 guidance acwhen
        minimizedamage to the coating duringinstallation. If                 interference problems are suspected. Studies in collabo-
        casingisused(seeparas.             434.13.4 and 451.9), carrier      rationwiththe      operator ofsuch electric transmission
        pipe shall be independently supported outside each end               systems shall be made on common problems of             corro-
        of the casing and insulated from the          casing throughout      sionand electrolysis.
        the         of
           length cased               section, and casing ends    shall         (d) Electrical shall
                                                                                              tests            be made  to      locate any
        be sealedusinga           durable, electrically nonconductive        unintentional contacts with underground metallic struc-
        material.                                                            tures, and, if such contacts exist, each      one shall be
            (g) Thebackfillingoperation shall beinspectedfor                 corrected.
        quality, compaction, and placement of material to pre-                  (e) When a pipeline isseparated, a bonding conductor
        ventdamage to pipe coating.                                          of sufficient current carrying capacity shall be installed
            ( h ) Where a connection is madetoacoatedpipe,                   across the points of separation and retained during the
        all damaged coating shall be removed and new coating                 periodof separation.
        appliedontheattachments              as well as onthepipe.
                                              Leads               Test         461.1.5                                                        1981
 (98)      461.1.3  Cathodic ProtectionSystem                                  (a) Except  whereimpractical    in wet marsh areas,
            (u) A   cathodicprotectionsystem provided               by a     sufficienttestleads shall be installedonallburied or




COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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                      STD.ASME B 3 1 - 4 - E N G L L778 D 0757b70 Ob07271 708 D




              ASME B31.4-199% Edition                                                                                            461.1.54613

              submergedcoatedpipingsystems            for taking electrical        where the need for additional information is indicated.
              measurements to indicate adequacy the    of         cathodic                                       and
                                                                                   The type, location, number, frequency such of
              protection.                                                          inspections shall be determined by consideration of
                 (b) Test leads shall beinstalled as follows.                      such factors as knowledge of the condition of       the
                    ( I ) Special attention shall be given to the manner           piping system and environment, and     public or employee
              ofinstallation of testleadsused for corrosioncontrol                 safety in the event of  leakage. Corrective measures
              or testing,and leads shall be attached to thepipein                  shall beinaccordancewith       para. 464.
              such manner as to minimize stress and prevent surface                   (6) Install cathodic protectionon all buried or sub-
              cracks inthe pipe. Leadsmaybe attached directlyon                    merged piping systems that are coated with an effective
              the with low
                 pipe the temperature     welding process                          external surface coating material,except at pump sta-
              using aluminum powder and copper oxide and limiting                  tions, tank farms, and terminals. All buried or submerged
              the charge to a 15 g cartridge, or with soft solders or              piping at pump stations, tank farms, and terminals
              other materialsthat do notinvolvetemperatures            ex-         shall be electrically inspectedand cathodic protection
              ceedingthose for soft solders.                                       installed or augmentedwherenecessary.
                    (2) Slackshall be provided to preventtest leads                   (c) Operating pressures on bare piping systems shall
              frombeingbroken         or damagedduringbackfilling.                    be          until
                                                                                   not increased they             are electrically inspected
                    (3) Leads shall beinsulatedfromtheconduitin                    and other appropriate actions are taken regarding condi-
              whichthey are contained.                                             tion of pipe and components. The requirements of para.
                    (4) Bond  pointsshall      be made  watertight,
                                                                  and              456 shall also be compliedwithin         the event of u p
              baredtestleadwires,pipe,andcomponentsshallbe                         rating.
              protected by electrical insulating    materialcompatible
              with original wireinsulationandpipe          coating.
                                                                                   461.3 Monitoring                                              (98)
                 461.1.6 ElectricalInterference
                                                                                      (a) Cathodic protection facilities for new or existing
                 (a) If an impressed current type     cathodic protection          piping systems shall be              in
                                                                                                              maintained a         serviceable
              systemisused,theanodes          shall be located so as to            condition, and electrical measurements and inspections
              minimize adverse effect on existing underground metal-               of cathodically protectedburied or submerged piping
              licstructures.                                                       systems, including tests for stray electrical currents,
                 (b) The possibility of external corrosion induced by              shall be conducted at least each calendar year, but with
              stray electrical currents in the earth shall be recognized.          intervals notexceeding 15 months, to determinethat
              SeeNACERP-01-69andNACE                  W-01-77 for addi-            the cathodic protection system is operating properly
              tional guidance. .These stray currents are generated by              andthatallburied       or submerged piping is protected
              sources remote from, andindependent of, thepiping                    in accordance with applicable criteria. Appropriate cor-
              system, and are more predominant in highly industrial-               rective measures shall be    takenwhere      tests indicate
              ized areas, mining regions, and locales containing high              thatadequateprotectiondoesnot         exist.
              voltage dc electrical power ground beds. Foreign com-
                                                                                      (6) Evidence of adequate level of cathodic protection
              panypipeline cathodic protectionsystemsare           also a
                                                                                   shall be by one or more of the criteria listed in Criteria
              common source of stray earth       currents. The protection
                                                                                   for Cathodic Protection, Section 6 in    NACE   RP-01-
               the
              of pipingsystem            against stray current induced
                                                                                   69, or Section 5 in NACE RP-06-75.
              corrosion shall be provided by metallic bonds, increased
              cathodic protection, supplemental     protective coatings,
                                                                                      (c) The type,  number, location, and    frequency of
                                                                                   tests shall be adequate   to    establish with reasonable
              insulatingflanges, or galvanic anodes.
                                                                                   accuracy the degree of protection provided on all piping
                                                                                   within the limits of each cathodic protection system,
              461.2 ExistingPiping Systems                                         and shall be determined by considering:
                 The operating company   shall establish procedures                     ( I ) age of the piping system and operating experi-
              for determiningthe external condition of its existing                ence, including bellhole inspections andleakage sur-
              buried or submerged  pipingsystems take
                                                and action                         vey data;
              appropriate for the conditions found, including, but not                  (2) condition of pipe at time     of application of
              limitedto,the   following.                                           cathodic protection and method of applying protection;
                 (a) Examine and study records available from previ-                    (3) corrosiveness of environment;
              ousinspectionsandconductadditionalinspections                              (4) probability of loss of protection due to activity


                                                                              71



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        4613-4623                                                                                              ASME B31.4-1998 Edition

       of other construction, reconstruction, or othercauses                NACE RP-01-75      provides guidance. Frequent scraping,
       in the area;                                                         pigging, or sphering, dehydration, inhibition, or internal
             (5) methodofapplying        cathodic protection and            coating may be usedto limit internal corrosion.
       design life of cathodic protection installation;                        (b) If dehydration or inhibitors are usedto control
             (6) publicandemployeesafety.                                   internal corrosion, sufficientcouponholders        or other
          (d) Test leads required for cathodic protection shall             types of monitoring techniques shall be utilized to
       bemaintained so that electrical measurementscan be                   adequatelydeterminethe        effectiveness oftheinternal
       obtainedtoinsureadequateprotection.                                  corrosion control program.Inhibitorsshall be selected
          (e) Cathodic protection rectifiers or other impressed             of a type that will not cause deterioration of any piping
       current power source shall be inspected at intervals not             component and shall be used in sufficient quantity and
       exceeding 2 months.                                                  proper quality necessary to mitigate internal corrosion.
           (fl L connected protective devices, includingre-
              AI                                                               (c) If internal coatings are used to control corrosion,
       verse current switches, diodes, and interference bonds,              they shall meet the quality specifications and minimum
       failure of which would jeopardize structure protection,              dryfilm thickness established in theindustryand           be
       shall be checked at intervals notexceeding 2 months.                          in           with
                                                                            inspected accordance industry     recommended
       Other interference bonds shall be checked at least each              practices. Internal coatings shall include provisions for
       calendar year but at intervals not exceeding 15 months.              joint protectiononpiping joined by welding or other
          (g) Bare components in a piping system that are not               methodsexposingparentmetal           at the joints, such as
       protected by cathodic protection shall be electrically               the use of a suitable corrosion inhibitor.
       inspected at intervals not exceeding 5 years. The results               (d) For purposesthis liquid
                                                                                                 of Code, anhydrous
       of inspection leak
        this         and                 records for piping
                                                    the                     ammonia shall contain aminimumof 0.2% water by
       componentsinspected shall be analyzedtodetermine                     weight to inhibit stress corrosion cracking. Any added
       the location of localizedactive corrosion areas. Cathodic            water must be made using steam condensate, deionized,
       protectionshall be applied at suchareas.Inspections                  or distilled water.
       and analysis of leak and repair records shall be repeated
       at intervals notexceeding 5 years.                                   462.2 ExistingPiping Systems
          (h) Buried or submerged piping components exposed
         any
       for reason  shall       be examined indications
                                             for         of                    The operating company shall establish     procedures
       external corrosion. Discovery of active corrosion, gen-              for determining the corrosive effect of the commodity
       eral pitting of the component’s surface, or a leak caused                                    the
                                                                            being transported, and internal         of
                                                                                                            conditionits
       by corrosion shall be investigated further to determine              existing piping systems, and take appropriate action for
       thecause and extent of the      corrosion whether
                                                and                         the conditions found, including, but not limited to, the
       cathodic protection shall be installed or augmentedto                following.
       mitigate corrosion or whether piping system or portion                  Examineandstudy records available fromprevious
       thereofshallbetreated      as indicated in paras.464(b),             inspections andconduct additional inspectionsand in-
                                                                            vestigations where the need for   additional information
       (c), and ( 4 .
                                                                            is indicated. Corrective measures shall be in accordance
                                                                            withpara. 464.
       462 INTERNALCORROSIONCONTROL
                                                                            462.3 Monitoring
       462.1 New Installations
                                                                               (a) If scraping, pigging, or sphering, dehydration,
          (a) Internal corrosion is recognized in the operation             inhibitors, or internal coating are used to control internal
       of liquid pipelines, and a commodity that will corrode               corrosion in new or existing piping systems, coupons
       the internal surfaces of pipe and components in a piping             shall beexamined or other monitoringtechniquesuti-
       system shall not be transported      unless the corrosive            lized at intervals not exceeding 6 months to determine
       effect of commodity been
                the           has investigated   and                        the effectiveness of the protective measures or the
       adequate steps taken to mitigateinternal corrosion. It               extent of any corrosion. Appropriate corrective measures
       is usuallynecessary control
                           to      internal
                                          corrosion               in        shall be taken where examinations or monitoring tech-
       petroleumproductsandliquefiedpetroleum              gas pipe-        niques indicate that adequate protection does not     exist.
       lines to protect product       quality, preserve high    line           ( 6 ) Wheneveranypipe      or component in a piping
       efficiencies, and prevent corrosion of internal surfaces.            system can be visually examined internally, or pipe or

                                                                       72



COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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              ASME B31.4-1998 Edition                                                                                             462.3465

              component is removedfrom a pipingsystemfor any                   464 CORRECTIVEMEASURES
              reason, internal
                    the      surfaces
                                    shall            be inspected
                                                                for
                                                                                  (a) Criteria on corrosionlimitsanddisposition           of
              evidence of corrosion,and if corrosion is found,the
              adjacent pipe or component shall be examined. Discov-            corroded pipe are specified in paras. 451.6.2(a)(6) and
              eryof active corrosion, general pitting ofthepipe or             45 1.6.2(a)(7).
              component surface, or a leak caused by corrosion shall              (6) Where  inspections or leakage            indicate
                                                                                                                         history
              be investigated furtherto determine the cause and extent         thatactivecorrosion of metal is takingplace in any
              of thecorrosionandwhetherstepsshall         be taken or          portion of a piping system to the extent that a safety
              augmented to mitigate corrosion or whether system or             hazardislikelytoresult,thatportion            of thesystem
              portionthereofshall    be treated as indicated in paras.         shall be treated as specified in para.451.6.2(a)(6) or
                                                                               (7),and:
              464(b),(c),and ( 4 .
                                                                                     (1) in the case of external corrosion     of buried or
                                                                               submerged piping, cathodic protection shall be installed
              463 EXTERNALCORROSIONCONTROLFOR                                  or augmentedtomitigatetheexternalcorrosion;
                   PIPINGEXPOSEDTOATMOSPHERE                                         (2) in the case of internal corrosionof piping, steps
                                                                               indicated in para. 462.1 shall be taken or augmented to
              463.1 NewInstallations                                           mitigatetheinternalcorrosion;
                                                                                     (3) in the case ofexternalcorrosion          of piping
                 Pipe and components that are exposed to the atmo-             exposed to the atmosphere, protective coating        or paint
              sphere shall be protected from external corrosion by use         shall be repaired or applied to mitigatetheexternal
              of corrosion resistant steel or application of protective        corrosion.
              coating or paint        the
                                unless operatingcompany   can                     (c) Pipe that is replaced because of external corrosion
              demonstrate by test, investigation, or experience in area        shall be replaced with coatedpipe if buried or sub-
              of applicationthat a corrosive    atmosphere does not                                                                or
                                                                               merged, and with corrosion resistant steel pipe coated
              exist. Protective coating or paint shall be applied to a         or paintedpipe if exposedtotheatmosphere.
              clean surface and shall be suitable material to provide             (d) If a portionofthepipingsystem             is repaired,
              adequateprotectionfromtheenvironment.                            reconditioned, or replaced, or operating       pressure    is
                                                                               reducedbecauseofexternal          or internalcorrosion,the
              463.2 ExistingPipingSystems                                      need for protection of that portion from such corrosion
                                                                               deteriorationshall be considered, any and indicated
                 Pipe and components in existing piping systems that
                                                                               steps takentocontrolthecorrosion.
              areexposed to theatmosphereshall       be inspected in
              accordancewith    a plannedscheduleand       corrective
              measures shall be taken in accordance with para. 464.            465 RECORDS                                                     (98)

                                                                                  (u) Records and maps showing the location of cathod-
              463.3 Monitoring
                                                                                    protected
                                                                               ically        piping,cathodicprotection         facilities,
                 Protective coating or paint used to prevent corrosion         and neighboring structures affected by or affecting the
               pipe
              of and         components exposed the
                                                 to atmosphere                 cathodicprotectionsystemshall         be maintainedand
              shall be maintained in a serviceable     condition,
                                                                and            retainedfor as long as thepipingsystemremains           in
              suchprotectivecoating or paint, as well as barepipe              service.
              andcomponents coated
                             not              or painted as permitted             (6) Results of tests, surveys and inspections required
              underpara.463.1,shall     be inspectedatintervalsnot             by this Chapter shall retained as needed to indicate the
                                                                                                     be
              exceeding 3 years.  Appropriate corrective
                                                       measures                adequacy of corrosion control measures. The minimum
              shall be taken in accordance para. where
                                              with 464                         retentionperiodshall     be 2 years or until theresults
              inspectionsindicatethatadequateprotectiondoesnot                 of subsequent inspections, tests,or surveys are received,
              exist.                                                           whicheverislonger.




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              ASME B31.4-199% Edition                                                                                                  A40&A400.2




                                                      CHAPTER IX
                                           OFFSHORE LIQUJD PIPELINE SYSTEMS


              A400 GENERALSTATEMENTS                                                    buckle arrestor: any device           to, made
                                                                                                                      attached or            a
                                                                                        part of, the pipe for the purpose ofmesting a propagat-
                                  X
                  ( a ) Chapter I pertains to only offshore pipeline                    ingbuckle.
              systems as definedinpara.          A400.1.
                  (b) This Chapter is organized to parallel the number-                 buckle detector: any means for detecting dents, exces-
               ing and content of the first eight chapters of the Code.                 sive ovalization, or buckles in a pipeline.
              Paragraphdesignations are thesame as those in the                         external hydrostatic pressure: pressureacting onany
              firsteightchapters,withtheprefix"A."                                                                                   in
                                                                                        external surface resulting from its submergence water.
                  (c) All provisions of the first eight chapters of the
              Code   are     also requirements of this     Chapter unless               flexible pipe: pipe    whichis
              specifically modified herein. If the text in this Chapter                    (a) manufactured as a compositefrombothmetal
              adds requirements, requirements
                                 the                         in the  original           andnonmetalcomponents;
              Chapter with the same title and number also apply.              If           (b) capable of allowing deflections
                                                                                                                       large           without
              a provision in thisChapteris in conflict with oneor                       adverselyaffectingthepipe'sintegrity;and
              more provisions in other chapters, the provision in this                     (c) intended to be an integral part of the permanent
              Chaptershallapply.                                                        liquidtransportationsystem.
                  (d) It is the intent of this Chapter to provide require-                 Flexiblepipedoesnotincludesolidmetallicpipe,
              ments for the safe and reliable design, installation, and                 plastic pipe, fiber reinforced plastic pipe, rubber hose,
              operation of offshore liquid pipeline systems. It is not                  or metallic lined nonmetallic
                                                                                                    pipes with                linings             or
              the intent of this Chapter tobe all inclusive. Engineering                coatings.
              judgment must be used to identify special considerations                  hyperbaric weld: a weld performed at ambient hydro-
              which are notspecificallyaddressed.API                  RP 11 11          static pressure.
                    be
              may used          as a guide. Itisnottheintentofthis
              Chapter to   prevent development application
                                   the              and                                 offshore: the beyond line
                                                                                                      area      the           of ordinary high
              ofnew       equipment technology. activity
                                     and             Such       is                      wateralongthatportionofthecoastthat         is in direct
              encouraged as long as the safety and reliability require-                 contact with the open seas and beyond the line marking
              ments oftheCode          are satisfied.                                   theseawardlimitofinlandcoastalwaters.
                                                                                        offshore pipeline riser: the   vertical or near-vertical
              A400.1 Scope                                                              portionofanoffshorepipeline         between theplatform
                 This Chapter covers design, material requirements,
                                       the                                              piping and the pipeline ator below the seabed, including
              fabrication,installation,inspection,testing,andsafety                     a length of pipe of at least five pipe diameters beyond
              aspects ofthe operationandmaintenanceofoffshore                           the bottom elbow, bend, or fitting. Because of the wide
              pipeline systems. For purposes of this Chapter, offshore                  variety of configurations, the exact location of transition
              pipeline systems include offshore liquid pipelines, pipe-                 among pipeline, pipelineriser, and platform piping must
              linerisers,offshoreliquidpumpingstations,pipeline                         be selected on a case-by-casebasis.
                              pipe
              appurtenances, supports,              and
                                          connectors, other                             offshore pipeline system: includes all components of a
              components as addressed specifically in the Code. See                                                                    of
                                                                                        pipeline installed offshore for the purposetransporting
              Fig. 400.1.2.                                                             liquid, other than production facility piping. Tanker or
                                                                                        bargeloading  hoses      are not            part the
                                                                                                                         considered of
              A400.2 Definitions                                                        offshorepipelinesystem.
                 Some of the more common terms relating to offshore                     offshore platform: anyfixed or permanentlyanchored
              liquidpipelinesaredefinedbelow.                                           structureorartificialislandlocatedoffshore.

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        pipe collapse: flatteningdeformationofthepipere-                   may influencethesafetyandreliabilityofanoffshore
        sulting in loss of cross-sectional strength and circular           pipelinesystemare
        shape, which is caused by excessive external hydrostatic               pressure,
        pressure acting alone.                                                 temperature,
                                                                               waves,
       platform piping: onoffshore platforms producing hy-
                                                                               current,
       drocarbons, platformpipingisall        liquid transmission
                                                                               seabed,
       piping and appurtenances between the production facil-
                                                                               wind,
         and
       ity the        offshore pipelineriser(s).     On offshore
                                                                               ice,
       platforms not producing hydrocarbons, platform piping
                                                                               seismic activity,
        all transmission and
       isliquid          piping appurtenances
                                                                               platformmotion,
       between the risers. Because of a wide variety of config-
                                                                               water depth,
       urations,the exact locationofthe        transition between
                                                                               support settlement,
       the offshore pipeline riser(s), platform piping, and pro-
                                                                               accidentalloads,
       duction facility must be selected on a  case-by-case basis.
                                                                               marinevessel activity, and
        propagating buckle: a buckle which progresses rapidly                  fishing/recreational activities.
        along a pipeline caused by the effect of external hydro-             Thedesignofan       offshore pipelinesystemisoften
        static pressure
                      on a previously   formed buckle,local                controlled by installation considerations rather than by
        collapse, or other cross-sectional deformation.                    operating load conditions.
        pullrube: aconduit attached toan offshore platform
        throughwhicharisercan   be installed.                              A401.9InstallationDesignConsiderations
        pull-tube riser: riser pipe or pipes        through
                                            installed                         A401.9.1 Loads for Installation Design. The design
        apulltube(e.g.,   J tube or I tube).                               of an offshore pipeline system suitable for safe installa-
        reruminterval:    statistically determined interval
                                                  time                     tion and the development of offshore pipeline construc-
        between successive events of    design
                                             environmental                 tion procedures shall bebasedon consideration ofthe
        conditions being equaled or exceeded.                              parameters listed    in paras. A401.9.2 and A401.9.3.
                                                                           These parameters shall be considered to the extent that
        riser: see offshore pipeline riser.                                they are significant to the proposed system and applica-
        sea floor bathymetry: refers to water depths along the             bletothemethod        of installationbeing considered.
        pipelineroute.                                                           parts the
                                                                              All of              offshore pipeline       shall
                                                                                                                    system be
                                                                           designed for the most critical combinations of installa-
        splash zone: the area of pipeline
                                   the    riser        or other            tionandenvironmentalloads,          acting concurrently, to
        pipeline components that is intermittently wet and dry             whichthesystemmay          be subjected.
        duetowaveandtidal        action.
        trawl board: a structure that is attached to the bottom                A401.9.2 InstallationLoads. Installationloads
        ofcommercialfishingnetsandisdraggedalongthe                         which shall be   considered are those         on
                                                                                                                  imposed the
        sea floor.                                                          pipeline system under anticipated installationconditions,
                                                                            excluding those resulting from  environmental condi-
        vortexshedding: theperiodicsheddingoffluidvortices                . tions.
        andresultingunsteady flow patterns downstreamof a                      Loads whichshould       be considered as installation
        pipeline span.                                                      loads include:
                                                                               (a) weight, including (as appropriate) the weight of:
        A401 DESIGNCONDITIONS                                                     (1) pipe;
                                                                                  (2) coatings andtheirabsorbedwater;
        A401.1General                                                             (3) attachments to thepipe;and
           A401.1.1 Offshore DesignConditions. A          number                  (4) freshwater or sea water content (if pipeis
        of physical parameters, henceforth referred to as design            floodedduring installation);
        conditions, govern design of the offshore pipeline system              (b) buoyancy;
        so thatitmeets installation, operation, andotherpost-                  (c) external pressure;and
        installation requirements. Some of the conditions which                (d) static loadsimposedby construction equipment.

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                  When considering the effect of pipe andor pipeline            A401.10 OperationalDesignConsiderations
               component weights (in air and submerged) on installa-
               tionstressesandstrains,thevariabilitydue       toweight
                                                                                   A401.10.1 Loads for Operational Design. The de-
                                                                                signofanoffshorepipelinesystemsuitablefor              safe
               coating, manufacturing tolerances, and water absorption
                                                                                operation shall be based on considerationsof the param-
               shall also be considered.
                                                                                eters listed in paras.A401.10.2andA401.10.3.These
                                                                                parameters shall be consideredtotheextentthatthey
                  A 0 . . Environmental
                   4193                       Loads During  Installa-           aresignificanttotheproposedsystem.
               tion. Environmental loads which shall considered are
                                                        be                         Allpartsoftheoffshorepipelinesystemshall              be
               those imposed on the pipeline system by environmental            designedforthemostcriticalcombinations            of opera-
               conditions. Loads which should considered under this
                                                  be                            tional and environmental loads, acting concurrently, to
               categoryinclude, as appropriate,thosearisingdueto:               whichthesystemmaybe            subjected. The most critical
                  (a) waves;                                                    combination will depend upon operating criteria during
                  (b) current;                                                  storm conditions. If full operations are to be maintained
                                                                                duringstormconditions,thenthesystemshallbede-
                  (c) wind;
                                                                                signed for concurrent    action of full             and
                                                                                                                          operational
                  (d) tides;                                                    design environmental  loads.      If operations are to be
                  (e) ice;and                                                   reduced or discontinued during storm conditions, then
                      dynamicloadsimposed         by constructionequip-         thesystemshall be designedforboth:
               mentandvesselmotions.                                               (a) full operational loads, plus maximum coincidental
                  The effects of largetidalchangesandwaterdepth                 environmentalloads;and
               variations on construction    equipmentshall        be con-         (b) design environmental loads, plus appropriate re-
               sidered.                                                         ducedoperationalloads.
                  An appropriate design return interval storm shall       be
               selectedfortheanticipatedinstallationduration.This                  A401.10.2 Operational Loads. Operational loads
               design return interval shall not be less than three times        which  shall be consideredarethoseimposed          on the
               theexpectedexposureperiodforthepipelineduring                    pipelinesystemduringitsoperation,excludingthose
               installation, or 1 year,whicheverislonger.                       resultingfromenvironmentalconditions.
                  Direction of waves, andwind, currents
                                                      shall               be       Loads which should be considered operational loads
               considereddetermine most
                          to         the criticalexpected                       include:
               combination of the environmental loads to be used with              (a) weight, including (as appropriate) the weight of:
               theinstallation loads, as described in para.A401.9.1.                  ( 1 ) pipe;
                  Loads imposed by construction equipment and vessel                  (2) coatings and theirabsorbedwater;
               motions vary with the construction method and construc-                 (3) attachments tothepipe;and
               tion
                  vesselselected.        The limitations and behavioral               (4) transportedcontents;
               characteristics of installation equipment shallbe consid-           (b) buoyancy;
               ered in the  installationdesign.     The effect of  vessel          (c) internal and externalpressure;
               motions on the pipe and its coating shall be considered.            (cf) thermalexpansionand      contraction;
                  Localenvironmental        are
                                       forces subject             radical
                                                                 to                (e) residualloads;and
               change in offshoreareas. As a result,thosepotential                  cfl overburden.
               changes should be considered during installation contin-            Anticipatedimpactloads,such        as thosecaused by
               gencyplanning as wellasduringinstallation            design.     trawlboards,should      be considered as an operational
                                                                                load.
                 A 0 . . Bottom Soils. Soil characteristics shall be
                   4194
                                                                                   A401.10.3 Environmental  Loads During Opera-
               considered in on-bottom    stability       during
                                                   analysis     the
                                                                                tion. Environmental loads which shall be considered are
               installation period, span analysis, and when installation
                                                                                those imposed on the pipeline system by environmental
               proceduresaredevelopedforthefollowing:
                                                                                conditions. Loads which should be considered under this
                  (a) riserinstallation in pull tubes;                          categoryinclude, as appropriate,those arising due to:
                  (b) laying horizontal curves in thepipelinerouting;              (a) waves;
                  ( c ) pipelinebottomtows;and                                     (b) current;
                  (d) trenchingandbackfilling.                                     ( c ) wind;


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           (d) tides;                                                         A401.11.3  Environmental   Loads During Hydro-
           (e) ice loads
                       (e.g.,
                            weight, floating
                                           impacts,                        static Test. Environmental loads which shall be consid-
        scouring);                                                         ered are those          on pipeline
                                                                                           imposed the       system                by
            (Jj seismic events; and                                        environmental conditions. Loads which should be con-
           ( 8 ) dynamically induced soil loads (e.g., mud slides,         sideredunder     this category include, as appropriate,
        soilliquefaction).                                                 those arising dueto:
          An appropriate design return interval storm shall be                (a) waves;
        selected for the anticipated operational life of the off-             (b) current;
        shore pipelinesystembutshallnotbe           less than100              (c) wind;and
        years.                                                                (d) tides.
          Direction of        wind,
                        waves, and             currents shall be              An appropriate design return interval storm shall    be
        considered to determine the most critical expected                 selected for the anticipated hydrostatic test duration but
        combination of the environmental loads to be used with             shall not be lessthan 1 year.
        the operations loads, as described in para. A401.10. l.                       of     wind,
                                                                              Directionwaves, and                 currents shall be
           A401.10.4Bottom Soils. When establishing on-bot-                          to         the
                                                                           considereddetermine most                 critical expected
        tom stability requirements maximum
                                   and         allowable                               of environmental to used
                                                                           combination the               loads be
        spans for irregular seabeds, consideration shall be given          withthehydrostatictestloads,        as described in para.
        toseabedsoil characteristics.                                      A401.11.1.

        A401.11HydrostaticTestDesignConsiderations                           A401.11.4 Bottom Soils. When establishing on-bot-
                                                                                                      and
                                                                           tom stability requirements maximum              allowable
           A401.11.1 Loads for Hydrostatic Test Design. The                spans for irregular seabeds, consideration shall be given
        design of an offshore pipeline system suitable for safe            to seabed soil characteristics.
        hydrostatic       and development
                    testing the             of             offshore
        pipelinehydrostatic test proceduresshallbebasedon                  A401.12 Route SelectionConsiderations
        consideration of theparameterslisted            in paras.
        A401.11.2andA401.11.3.Theseparameters              shall be           (u) Offshore pipeline routes     shall     be selected to
        considered to the extent that they are significant to the          minimizetheadverse effects of:
        proposedtest.                                                           ( I ) installation
                                                                                                 and      related environmental loads
           Allpartsoftheoffshorepipelinesystem             shall be        (see para. A401.9);
        designedforthemost        critical combinations of hydro-               (2) operational and    relatedenvironmental loads
        static test and environmental loads, acting concurrently,          (see para.A401.10);and
        towhichthesystemmay            be subjected.                            (3) hydrostatic test and related environmental loads
           A401.11.2 Hydrostatic Test Loads. Hydrostatic test              (seepara.A401.11).
        loadswhich shall be considered are thoseimposedon                     (b) Selection of offshore pipelineroutesshallcon-
        the offshore pipeline  system anticipated
                                     under        test                     sider the capabilities and limitations of       anticipated
        conditions, excluding those resulting from environmen-             construction equipment.
        tal conditions.                                                       (c) Surveys of the pipeline route shall be conducted
           Loadswhichshould        be consideredhydrostatictest            toidentify:
        loadsinclude:                                                           ( I ) seabed materials;
           (u) weight, including ( sappropriate) the weight of:
                                    a                                           (2) subsea (including sub-bottom) and surface fea-
               (1) pipe;                                                       which
                                                                           tures may              represent potential        to
                                                                                                                      hazardsthe
               (2) coatings andtheirabsorbedwater;                         pipeline construction and operations;
               (3) attachments to the pipe; and                                 (3) subsea (including sub-bottom) and surface fea-
               (4) freshwater    or sea water used for  hydro-             tures which  may       be adversely  affected     by pipeline
        static test;                                                       construction and operations, including       archaeological
           (b) buoyancy;                                                   and sensitive marine areas;
           ( c ) internaland external pressure;                                 (4) turningbasins;
           (cf) thermalexpansionand contraction;                                (5) anchorage areas;
           (e) residualloads;and                                                (6) shipping lanes; and
            (jJ overburden.                                                     (7) foreignpipelineand other utilitycrossings.

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              ASME B31.4-1998 Edition                                                                                                A401.12A402.3.5

                (d} Routing shall be selected to avoid, to the extent               during installation shall be considered in material selec-
              practical, the identifiedhazards.                                     tion in accordancewith the requirements of para.
                                                                                    A423.2. Welding procedures and weld defect acceptance
                                                                                    criteria shall consider the  need to prevent fractures
              A402DESIGNCRITERIA                                                    duringinstallation.Seeparas.434.8.5andA434.8.5.
                                                                                       (e) Design Against Loss o In-Place Stability. Design
                                                                                                                   f
              A4023 Allowable Stresses and Other Stress            Limits           against loss of in-place stability shall be in accordance
                The allowable stresses andother stress limits given                 withtheprovisionsofpara.A402.3.5(e),exceptthat
              in 402.3
               para.          are superseded the
                                            by          provisions of               the installation design wave and current conditions shall
              paras.A402.3.4andA402.3.5.                                            be based upon the provisions of para. A401.9.3. If      the
                Design and installation analyses shall be based upon                pipeline is to be trenched, it shall be designed for
              acceptedengineeringmethods,material       strengths, and              stability duringtheperiodpriortotrenching.
              applicable design conditions.                                             ( Impac?. During period
                                                                                        J                   the         the
                                                                                                                   when pipe                  is
                                                                                    susceptible toimpactdamageduringinstallationand
                  A402.3.4 Strength Criteria During Installation                    testing, consideration shall be given to impacts due to:
              andTesting                                                                  ( I ) anchors;
                  (a) Allowable Stress Values. The maximum longitu-                       (2) trawl boards;
                                            and
              dinal stress due to axial bending duringloads                               (3) vessels;
              installation shall be  limited to avaluethat        prevents                (4) ice keels; and
              pipe buckling and that will not impair the serviceability                   (5) other foreignobjects.
              of the installed pipeline system. Other stresses resulting               (g} Residual Stresses. The pipeline system shall nor-
              from pipeline installation activities, such as spans, shall           mally installeda
                                                                                         be         in
                                                                                                     manner                so as to minimize
              belimited     to the same criteria. Instead a of       stress         residual         The
                                                                                             stresses. exception           shall bewhen     the
              criterion, an allowable installation strain limit may                 designer purposefully plans for residual stresses (e.g.,
              beused.                                                               reeledpipe,cold springing of risers, pull-tuberisers).
                  (b) Design AgainstBuckling. The offshore pipeline                    (h) Flexible Pipe. The manufacturer's recommended
              system shall be designed and installed in a manner to                 installation          should
                                                                                                 procedures            be adhered to during
              preventlocalbucklingofthepipewall,             collapse, and          installation. Flexible pipe shall be designed or selected
              column buckling during installation. Design and      installa-        to prevent failure due to the combined effects of external
              tion procedures shall consider the effect of external                 pressure, internal pressure, torsional forces, axial forces,
              hydrostatic pressure; bending, axial, and torsional loads;            andbending.(SeeAPI          RP 17B.)
              impact; mill                       wall
                            tolerances in the thickness;            out-of-
              roundness;and other applicable factors.Consideration                     A402.3.5StrengthCriteriaDuring       Operations
              shall also be given to mitigation of propagation buckling                (a} Allowable Stress Values. Allowable stress values
              which may follow local buckling        or denting. The pipe           for steel pipe during operation shall not exceed those
              wall thickness shall beselected to resist collapse due                calculated by the equations in para.A402.3.5(a), (1)
              to external hydrostaticpressure.                                      through (3).
                  (c} Design Against   Fatigue. Thepipeline shall be                     ( I } Hoop Stress. For offshore pipeline systems,
              designed and installed to limit anticipated stress fluctua-           the tensile hoop stress due to the difference between
              tions to magnitudes frequencies
                                     and           which not
                                                         will                       internal external
                                                                                            and      pressures       shall not exceed the
              impair the serviceability of the installed pipeline. Loads            valuesgivenbelow.
                     may
              which cause             fatigue include wave     action and           N O E ; Sign convention is such that tension is positive and compres-
              vibrationsinducedbyvortexshedding.            Pipelines and           sion is negative.
              riser spans shall be designed to prevent vortex-induced
              resonant vibrations,when          When
                                       practical.                vibrations
              must be tolerated, the resulting stresses due to vibration
              shall be considered. If alternative acceptance standards
              for girth welds in API      Standard 1104 are used,     the
              cyclic stress analysis shall include the determination
              ofapredictedfatiguespectrum          to whichthe pipeline
              isexposedoveritsdesignlife.
                  (d} Design Against Fracture. Prevention of fractures              where

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                                                   TABLE A402.3.5(a)
                                     DESIGN FACTORSFOROFFSHORE PIPELINE SYSTEMS
                                                                                              ~~




                                                                           Hoop                    Longitudinal         Combined
                                     Location                            Stress 6                   Stress F2           Stress F3

                      Pipeline                                             0.72                       0.80                0.90
                      Riser and Platform Piping [Note (1)l                 0.60                       0.80                0.90

                      GENERAL NOTE:
                      I n t e setting of design factors, due consideration has been given to, and allowance has been made for, the
                          h
                      underthickness tolerance and maximum allowable depth of imperfections provided for in the specifications
                      approved by the Code.

                      NOTE:
                      (1) Platform piping does not include production facility piping on a platform; see definitions para. A400.2.



          S,, = hoopstress, (MPa)
                          psi                                                           I I = absolute value
          Pi = internaldesign pressure, psi (bar)                                   (3) Combined Stress. For offshore pipeline sys-
          P, = external pressure,psi (bar)                                     tems,thecombined   stress shall notexceedthevalue
           D = nominal outside diameter of pipe, in. (mm)                      given by the Maximum Shear Stress Equation (Tresca
            r = nominalin. Stress):
                    wall
                      (mm)
                       Combined
                   thickness,
          FI = hoop       design
                     stress           from
                                 factor Table
                 A402.3.5(a)
          Sy = specifiedminimumyield        strength, psi(MPa)
             (2) Longitudinal Stress. For offshore pipeline sys-
             the
        tems, longitudinal      stress shall notexceedvalues
        foundfrom
                                                                               where
                                                                                    S = maximum
                                                                                    ,         longitudinal             stress, psi (positive
                                                                                             tensile or negativecompressive)(MPa)
        where                                                                            =   S, + Sb or S, - Sb, whicheverresultsinthe
           S, = maximum   longitudinal stress, psi (positive                                 larger stress value
                tensile or negativecompressive)(MPa)                                S, =     axial stress, psi (positive tensile or negative
              = S, + Sb or S, - Sb, whichever results in the                                 compressive)(MPa)
                larger stress value                                                      =   &/A
           S, = axial stress, psi(positive tensile or negative                      F, =     axial force, lb (N)
                compressive)(MPa)                                                  A =       pipe cross-sectional area, in.2 (mm2)
              = &/A                                                                 Sb=      maximum resultant bending stress, psi (MPa)
           F, = axial force, lb (N)                                                   = *    / m / z
                                         pipe
            A = cross-sectional area of material,   in.2                          Mi = in-planebendingmoment,in.-lb(N.m)
                (mm2>                                                             M, = out-of-plane bendingmoment,in.-lb(N.m)
           Sb = maximum resultant bending stress, psi (MPa)                        ii = in-plane stress intensification factor from Fig.
                =   + / W / z                                                                419.6.4(c)
           Mi = in-planebendingmoment,in.-lb(N.m)                                   i, = out-of-plane stress intensification factor from
           M, = out-of-plane bendingmoment,in.-lb(N.m)                                       Fig. 419.6.4(c)
             ii = in-plane stress intensification factor from                       z  = section modulus of thepipe,in.3(cm3)
                  Fig.419.6.4(c)                                                    S, = hoop stress, psi(MPa)
            i, = out-of-plane stress intensification factor from                    S, = specifiedminimumyield strength, psi (MPa)
                  Fig.419.6.4(c)                                                    i, =                         (MPa)
                                                                                             torsional stress, psi
            Z = sectionmodulus the
                              of           pipe,       (cm3)                         = M,/Z
           F2 = longitudinal stress design factor fromTable                       M, = torsional     in.-lb
                                                                                               moment,     (N.m)
                  A402.3.5(a)                                                     F3 = combined stress design factor fromTable
             ,
           S = specified minimum yield strength, psi (MPa)                                   A402.3.5(a)

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             ASME B31.4-1998 Edition                                                                                                A40235

                Alternatively. the MaximumDistortionalEnergy                       (d) Design Against Fracture. Prevention of fractures
                    (Von
             Theory Mises    Combined                     be
                                              Stress) may used                  during operation shall considered in material selection
                                                                                                        be
             forlimitingcombinedstressvalues.Accordingly,the                    in accordancewiththerequirementsofpara.A423.2.
             combined stress shouldnotexceedvaluesgivenby:                      Welding procedures and weld defect acceptance criteria
                                                                                    consider need
                                                                                shall         the            to prevent fractures during
                                                                                operation.Seeparas.434.8.5andA434.8.5.
                                                                                   (e) Design Against Loss of In-Place Stability
                                                                                      ( 1 ) General. Pipeline design for lateral and vertical
                   (4) Strain. Whenthepipelineexperiences           a pre-      on-bottom stability is governed by permanentfeatures
             dictable noncyclicdisplacement        of its support(e.g.,         such as sea floor bathymetryandsoilcharacteristics
             fault movement along the pipeline route        or differential     and by transient events, such as hydrodynamic, seismic,
             subsidence along the line) or pipesagbeforesupport                 and soil behavior events, havinga significant probability
             contact, longitudinal ,combined
                     the            and           stresslimits                  of occurrenceduringthe        life of thesystem.Design
             may be replaced with an allowable strain limit, so long            conditions to be considered are provided inpara.
             as the consequences of yielding do not impair the                  A402.3.5(e), (2) through (4).
             serviceability of the installed pipeline. The permissible             The pipeline system shall       be designed to prevent
             maximum longitudinal strain depends upon the ductility             horizontal and vertical movements or shall be designed
             of the         any
                    material, previously experienced  plastic                   so thatanymovementswill           be limitedtovaluesnot
             strain,andthebucklingbehavior           of thepipe.Where           causing allowable stresses and strains to be exceeded.
             plastic strains are anticipated, the pipe eccentricity, pipe       Typical factors to be considered in the stability design
             out-of-roundness, and the abilityof the weld to undergo            include
                                                                be
             such strains without detrimental effect should consid-                  waveandcurrentforces,
             ered. These same criteria maybeapplied to pull tube                     soilproperties,
             or bending risers
                         shoe           or pipeinstalled by the      reel            scourandresultantspanning,
             method.                                                                 soilliquefaction,and
                (b) Design Against Buckling. Thepipelineshall be                     slopefailure.
             designed with an adequate margin of safety to prevent                 Stability may be obtained by such      means as, but
             localbucklingofthepipewall,collapse,andcolumn                      notlimitedto
             buckling during operations. Design and operating proce-                 adjustingpipesubmergedweight,
             duresshallconsiderthe       effect of externalhydrostatic               trenchingand or covering of pipe,and
             pressure;bending,axial,andtorsionalloads;impact;                        anchoring.
             mill tolerances in the wall thickness, out-of-roundness,              When calculating hydrodynamic forces, the fact that
             andotherapplicablefactors.Considerationshall              also     wave forces      vary spatially     the
                                                                                                               along length          the
                                                                                                                                    of
             be given to mitigation of propagationbucklingwhich                 pipeline may be takenintoaccount.
             may followlocalbuckling or denting.Thepipewall                        Two on-bottom stability design conditions that shall
             thickness shall be selected resist
                                           to     collapse         due to       be consideredareinstallationandoperational.
             externalhydrostaticpressure.                                             ( 2 ) Design Wave and Current Conditions. Opera-
                (c) Design Against Fatigue. Thepipelineshall             be          design and
                                                                                tional       wave current              conditions shall be
             designed and operated tolimit anticipated stress fluctua-          based upon an event having a minimum return interval
             tions magnitudes frequencies
                  to           and            which               will not      of
                                                                                 not          than
                                                                                           less        100 years. most
                                                                                                                 The unfavorable
             impairtheserviceability of thepipeline.Loadswhich                  expected combination ofwaveand           current conditions
             may cause fatigue include internal pressure variations,            shall beused.Maximumwaveandmaximumcurrent
             wave action, andpipevibration,suchasthatinduced                    conditions  do       necessarily simultaneously.
                                                                                                   not         occur
             by vortex  shedding. and spans
                                 Pipe riser shall                        be     When selecting the most unfavorable condition, consid-
             designed so that vortex-induced resonant vibrations are            eration mustbegiventothetimingofoccurrenceof
             prevented,wheneverpractical.        When vibrationsmust            thewaveandcurrentdirectionandmagnitude.
             be tolerated, the resulting stresses due to vibration shall              (3) Stability Against Waves and Currents. The
             be considered in the   combined  stresscalculations          in    submerged    weight of the shall
                                                                                                             pipe          be designed to
             para. A402.3.5(a). In addition, calculated fatigue failure         resist or limit movement to amounts which do not cause
             shallnotresultduringthedesignlifeofthepipeline                     the longitudinal and combined stresses, as calculated by
             andrisers.                                                         the equations in para. A402.3.5(a), to exceed the limits

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        A4023.5-A4023.7                                                                                         ASME B31.4-1998 E d i t h

        specified in para.A402.3.5(a).Thesubmergedweight                           (6) Bottom Soils. The pipe-soil interaction factors
        maybeadjustedbyweight             coating and/orincreasing            that are used be
                                                                                             shall                       the
                                                                                                       representative of bottom
        pipe wall thickness. Hydrodynamic forces shall be based               conditions at the site.
        on the wave and current values for the design condition                  ( Impact. During operations, consideration shall be
                                                                                 J
        at thelocation.Seepara.A402.3.5(e)(2).                                given to impactsdueto:
            Wave  and current direction andconcurrenceshall                        ( I ) anchors;
        be considered.                                                             (2) trawl boards;
           Thepipelineand its appurtenances maybelowered                           (3) vessels;
        belowbottomgrade        to provide stability.                              (4) ice keels; and
            Backfill or other protective covering options shall                    (5) other foreign objects.
        usematerialsandprocedureswhichprecludedamage
        to thepipelineand coatings.                                              A402.3.6 Design for Expansion Flexibility.
                                                                                                                    and
           Anchoring may be used alone or in conjunction with                 Unburied subsea pipeline systems and platform piping
        other options to maintain stability. Theanchorsshall                  shall be considered as "aboveground piping" [see para.
        bedesigned      to withstand lateral and    vertical    loads         419.l(a), (b), and (d)] wheresuchdefinitionis       appli-
        expectedfromthedesignwaveand               current condition.         cable.
        Anchorsshall be spaced to prevent excessive stresses                     Thermal expansion and contraction calculations shall
        in thepipe.Scourshallbeconsidered              in thedesign           consider the effects of fully saturated backfill material
        of the anchoring system. The       effect of anchors on the           onsoilrestraint.
        cathodic protectionsystem shall be considered.                           Allowable strength criteria shall be in accordance
           Intermittent block type, clamp-on, or set-on weights               with para. A402.3.5 in lieuofthe allowables listedin
        (river weights) shall not be used on offshore pipelines               para. 419.6.4. Equations in para. 419.6.4arevalidfor
        wherethereisapotential          for theweight to become               calculating theindicated stresses. See paras. A401.10
        unsupportedbecauseof scour.                                           andA401.11 for loadswhichmustbeconsidered               in
               (4) Shore Approaches. Pipe in the shore approach               design. Where appropriate, allowable strain criteria in
        zone shall be installed on a suitable above-water struc-              para. A402.3.5(a)(4) may be usedinlieuof        allowable
        ture or lowered or bored to the       depth necessary       to        stress criteria.
        prevent scouring, spanning, or stability problems which                  When                         is
                                                                                        an offshore pipeline to       be laid across a
        affect integrity and safe operation of the pipeline during            known fault zone or in an      earthquake-prone      area,
        its anticipated service life.  Seasonal variation     inthe           consideration shall begiven to the needforflexibility
        near-shore thickness ofsea floor sediments andshoreline               in the pipeline system and its components to minimize
        erosion over thepipeline service life shall be considered.            the possibility of damage due to seismic activity. Flexi-
               (5) Slope Failure and Soil Liquefaction. The pipe-                  in
                                                                              bilitythe                            be
                                                                                               pipeline system mayprovided  by
        lines shall be designed for slope failure in zones where              installation of the pipeline on or above the seabed and/
        they are expected (mud slide zones, steep slopes, areas               or by use of breakaway couplings, slack loops, flexible
        ofseismic slumping). If it is not practical to design                 pipe sections, or other site-specificsolutions.
        thepipelinesystem to survive the event, the pipeline
        shall be designed for controlled breakaway with provi-                   A402.3.7 Design of Clamps and Supports. Clamps
        sions tominimize loss of the pipelinecontents.                        and supports shall be           such a
                                                                                                     designed that  smooth
           Designforthe      effects of liquefaction shallbeper-              transfer of loads is made from the pipeline or riser to
        formed  for areas of   known or expected occurrence.                  the supporting structure without highly localizedstresses
        Soil liquefaction normally       results from cyclic wave             due to stress concentrations. Whenclampsareto           be
        overpressures or seismic loading of susceptible soils.                welded to thepipe,they      shall fully encircle the pipe
        The specific
            bulk      gravitythe
                            of pipeline be
                                       shall                                  and be welded to the pipe by a full encirclement weld.
        selected, or alternative methods shall be selected to                 The support shall be attached to the encircling member
        ensure bothhorizontalandvertical          stability.                  andnotthe     pipe.
           Seismic design conditions used to predict the occur-                  All welds to the pipe shall be nondestructively tested.
        renceofbottomliquefaction          or slope failureshall be           Clampsand supports shallbedesignedinaccordance
        at least as severe as those used for the operating design             withtherequirementsofAPI          RP 2A-WSD.
        strength calculations for the pipeline. Occurrence of                    Clamps and support design shall consider the corro-
        soilliquefactiondue      to wave overpressures shall     be           sive effects of moisture-retaining gaps and crevices and
        basedonastormintervalofnot             less than100years.             galvanically dissimilar metals.

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             AShíE B31.4-1998 Edition                                                                                         A4023.8-A40S.2.1

                A402.3.8 Design of Connectors and Flanges. Con-                   used in lieu of allowable stress criteria. Where crossing
             nectorsandflangesshallbedesigned         or selectedto               pipelines are governed by different codes, the allowable
             provide the smooth transfer of loads and prevent exces-              stress limits shall be in accordance with the provisions
             sivedeformation ofthe attached pipe.                                 of the applicable code.
               A402.3.9 Design of Structural Pipeline Riser Pro-
                                                                                  A402.4Allowances
             tectors. Where pipeline risers are installed in locations
             subject to impact from marine traffic, protective devices               A402.4.3     Joint
                                                                                             Weld Factors.           Pipe with a weld
             shall be installed in zone        to
                                    the subject damage              to            joint factor than
                                                                                             less       1 (Table        shall be
                                                                                                                402.4.3) not
             protect the pipe and coating.                                        usedin offshorepipelinesystems.
                A4023.10DesignandProtection              of SpecialAs-
             semblies. Design of special assemblies, suchas connec-               A404PRESSUREDESIGNOFCOMPONENTS
             tions, subsea tie-in assemblies, subsea valves, expansion
             loops,      riser           and
                   seabed connections, subsea       pipeline
             manifolds, consider additional and
                       shall      the        forces                               A404.1StraightPipe
             effectsimposed by a subseaenvironment.Suchaddi-                         A404. 1.1 General
             tional considerations include design storm currents and                 (b) For offshore        systems, applicable
                                                                                                      pipeline      the
             potentialforseabedmovement          in softsediments,soil            allowablestressvaluespecifiedanddefined        in para.
             liquefaction, increased potential for corrosion, thermal             404.1.l(b) shall be as follows:
             expansion and contraction, and stress due to installation
             procedures.                                                                                   S = FI C,
                                                                                                                   S,
                Appropriate measures shallbe taken to protect special
             assemblies in areaswheretheassemblies             are subject
                                                                                  where F, and Sy aredefined in para.A402.3.5.
             to damage by outside forces, suchas fishing and marine
             constructionactivities.
                                                                                  A404.3Intersections
                A402.3.11 Design of Flexible Pipe. Due to its com-
                                                                                    A404.3.1BranchConnections
             posite makeup, the mechanical behavior of flexible pipe
                                                                                    (d) Reinforcement of SingleOpenings
             is significantly different from that of steel pipe. Flexible
             pipe may be used for offshore pipelines      if calculations               ( I ) Pipe that has been cold-worked solely for the
             andor test results verify that the pipe can safely with-             purpose of increasingtheyieldstrengthtomeetthe
             stand loads considered in paras. A401.9, A401.10, and                specifiedminimumyieldstrengthisprohibited               in off-
             A401.11. Careful consideration should be given to the                shoreliquidpipelinesystems.This           does notpreclude
             useof flexiblepipeduetoitspermeablenatureand                         the use of pipe that has been cold-worked specifically
             possible rapid decompression failure of the liner material           forthepurposeofmeetingdimensionalrequirements.
             andcollapse the liner to
                        of inner due residual   gas                                  ( e ) Reinforcementof Multiple Openings
             pressure in the annulus upon pipeline depressurization.                    (4) Pipe that has been cold-worked solely for the
             (See APIRP 17B.)                                                     purpose ofincreasingtheyieldstrengthtomeetthe
                                                                                  specified minimum yieldstrengthisprohibited             in off-
                A4023.12 Design of Pipeline       Crossings. Subsea               shoreliquidpipelinesystems.Thisdoesnotpreclude
             pipeline crossings shall be designed to provide a mini-              the use of pipe that has been cold-worked specifically
             mum 12 in. (300 mm)       separation        the
                                                 between two                      forthepurpose of meetingdimensionalrequirements.
             lines.Dielectricseparation of thetwopipelinesshall
                                        of
             be considered in design pipeline    crossings.Soil
             settlement, scour, and cyclical loads shall be considered               PIPE
                                                                                  A405
             in thedesign of pipelinecrossings in ordertoensure
             that the separation is maintained for the design life  of            A4052 MetallicPipe
             bothlines.
                When liquid
                      two pipelines the
                                      cross, longitudinal                           A405.2.1 Steel Pipe
             stress and combined stress, as calculated by the equa-                 (a) The provisions of para. 405.2.1(a) are superseded
             tions in para.A402.3.5(a),shallnotexceedthelimits                    by the following. New pipe of the specifications listed
             specified in Table A402.3.5(a). Where appropriate, al-               in Table 423.1 may be used in accordance the with
             lowablestraincriteria in para.A402.3.5(a)(4) maybe                   design equations of para. 404.1.2 subject to para.

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        A405.2.1-A4103                                                                                           ASME B31.4-1998 Edition

        A404.1. I and theto testing requirements paras.
                                               of                              A408FLANGES,FACINGS,GASKETS,AND
        437.1.4(a)( I), 437.1.4(a)(2),437.1.4(a)(4),437.1.4(a)(5),                  BOLTING
        437.1.4(b),437.1.4(c),437.4.1,andA437.1.4.
           (c) Para.405.2.1(c) does notapply.                                  A408.1Flanges
           (d) Pipethathasbeencold-workedsolely                for the
        purposeofincreasingtheyieldstrength               to meetthe             A408.1.1General. Paragraph 408.1.l(c) does      not
        specifiedminimumyield strength isprohibited in off-                    apply.Castiron or ductile ironflanges are prohibited
        shore liquidpipeline systems. Thisdoes notpreclude                     for applications in offshore liquidpipelinesystems.
        the use of pipe that has been cold-worked specifically
        for the purpose of meeting dimensional requirements.                   A408.3FlangeFacings
                                                                                  A408.3.1General
        A405.3FlexiblePipe                                                        (c) Ring joint-type flanges are preferred in offshore
          Selection of flexible pipe shall be in accordance with               liquidpipelinesystems.
        APIRP17B.(See         also para. A402.3.11.)

                                                                               A409USEDPIPINGCOMPONENTSAND
                                                                                    EQUIPMENT
         FITTINGS,
        A406         BENDS,
                ELBOWS, AND                                                   Usedcomponents,
                                                                                piping       such                       elbows,
                                                                                                               as fittings,
             INTERSECTIONS                                        reducers,
                                                                    intersections,
                                                                     couplings,
                                                               closures, bends,
                                                                           flanges, valves, and equipment, may be reused as noted
                                                                           in para. 409, except that the reuse of piping components
        A406.2 Bends, Miters, and Elbows                                       of specification in
                                                                              unknown        is
                                                                                            prohibited                   offshore liquid
                                                                               pipelinesystems.
           A406.2.2 Mitered Bends. Mitered bends are prohib-
        ited in offshoreliquidpipeline systems.
                                                                               A410OTHERDESIGNCONSIDERATIONS
        A406.4Reductions
           A406.4.2 Orange Peel Swages. Orange peel swages                     A410.1 P g andInternalInspectionTools
                                                                                       is
        are prohibited in offshore liquid pipeline systems, other                 When specifying in-line piping components for off-
        than temporary construction components or other non-                   shore pipelines, consideration shall be given to the
        pressure-containingcomponents.                                         need for runningpipeline pigs andinternalinspection
                                                                               tools. Selectionofbend radius, launcherand receiver
        A406.6Closures                                                         traps, bendconfiguration, internal diametervariations
          A406.6.4Fabricated      Closures. Orange bull
                                                   peel                        (including ovality), and other internal obstructions shall
        plugs fishtails prohibited
            and       are                   in offshore liquid                 allowthepassageofsuch        devices, exceptwhere not
        pipeline systems, other than temporary
                                             construction                      practical.
        components or other  non-pressure-containingcompo-
        nents.                                                                 A410.2SpecialComponents
                                                                                  Systemcomponentswhich are notspecificallycov-
                                                                               ered in thisCode shall be  validated    for fitness by
                                                                               either:
        A407
           VALVES                                                                                                            of
                                                                                  (u) documented full-scale prototype testing the
                                                                               components or special assemblies; or
                                                                                  (b) a         history
                                                                                       documented     of         successful usage of
                                                                               thesecomponents or specialassembliesproduced         by
        A407.1General
                                                                               the samedesignmethod.
          Paragraph 407.l(b) doesnot     apply. Cast
                                                   iron   or                      Documentation shall include designandinstallation
        ductile ironvalves are prohibitedfor applications in                   methodswhichhavebeenprovenfor          the service for
        offshoreliquidpipeline systems.                                        which the componentisintended.

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COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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             ASME B31.4-1998 Edition                                                                                      A4102-A434.6

               Care should be exercised any
                                       in new          application of          consideration of additional limitations or requirements
             existing designs to ensure suitability for the intended           for pipemayincludeone       or moreof the following:
             service.                                                             (u) wall thickness tolerance;
                                                                                  (b) outside diametertolerance;
             A414THREADEDJOINTS                                                   (c) out-of-roundness tolerance;
                                                                                  (d) maximumandminimumyieldandtensile
             A414.1General                                                     strengths;
                                                                                  (e) pipechemistry limitations;
                Threadedconnections for in-line pipingcomponent                       fracture toughness;
             sizes, NPS 2 (60.3mm) or larger, are prohibitedin
                                                                                  (g) hardness;and
             offshore pipeline systems, except as permitted in para.
             A410.2.                                                       mill (h) pipe    hydrostatic testing and other nondestruc-
                                                                             tivetesting.
                                                                                For sour service (H2S), refer to NACEMR-01-75.
             A419EXPANSIONANDFLEXIBILITY
               Seepara.A402.3.6foradditional        provisions.

                                                                                  CONSTRUCTION
                                                                               A434
             A421DESIGN OF PIPE-SUPPORTING
                  ELEMENTS
                A402.3.7
               See additional
               para. for                            provisions.                    Inspection
                                                                               A434.2
                                                                                 Repairsrequiredduringnew     construction shall also
                                                                               beinaccordancewithparas.A434.8andA461.1.2.
             A423MATERIALS - GENERAL
                  REQUIREMENTS
                                                                               A434.3Right-of-way
                 Acceptable
             A423.1      Materials
                               and
                                 Specifications
                                             A434.3.3 and
                                                        Staking
                                                   Survey                                                           or Marking. The
                                                                               route of the offshore pipeline shall be surveyed, and
                Concrete weightcoating materials (cement, aggregate,
                                                                               the pipeline shall be properly located within the right-
             reinforcing steel) shall meet or exceed the requirements
                                                                               of-way by maintaining   survey    route markers or by
             of applicable ASTM standards.
                                                                               surveyingduring installation.
                Flexible . . shall be manufacturedfrommaterials
                         pipe
             meeting requirements API 17B ASTM
                    the            of RP and                                   A434.4 Handling, Hauling, Stringing, and Storing
             or ASME standards applicable to the materials selected
             bythe designer.                                                     Transportation by truck or other road vehicles, rail
                                                                               cars, andmarine vessels shallbeperformed in sucha
             A423.2LimitationsonMaterials                                      manner as to damage
                                                                                            avoid                         and
                                                                                                              to the pipe any
                                                                               preapplied coatings. Transportation of line pipe shall
                "Unidentified" pipe, plastic pipe, ASTM A 120 pipe,
                                                                               conform to the requirements ofAPI RP 5LW or API
             plastic pipewithnonmetallic       reinforcement, cast iron
                                                                               RP 5L1, as applicable.
             pipe, ductile iron pipe, andpipethathas       been cold-
             worked in order to meetthespecifiedminimumyield
                                                                               A434.6Ditching
             strength are prohibited in offshore liquidpipeline sys-
             tems. Thisdoesnotprecludetheuseofpipethathas                        The provisions of para. 434.6 are not applicable for
             been cold-worked specifically the purpose of meeting
                                              for                              offshore pipelines. Offshore pipelines shouldbe trenched
             dimensionalrequirements.                                          where necessary for stability, mechanical protection, or
                Inaddition to therequirementscontained        in refer-        preventionof interference withmaritime activities.
             enced standards, certain other               may
                                               requirements be                   Themethodsand        details of the pipeline trenching
             considered for components     used offshore, depending            and lowering operations shall be based on site-specific
             onwater depth, watertemperature, internal pressure,               conditions. Methods  and details shall be selected to
             productcomposition,product temperature, installation                    damagethe
                                                                               prevent      to pipe,             coating, andpipeline
             methodand/or other loading conditions. For example,               appurtenances.

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                                                                                                              ASME B31.4-1998 Edition

        A434.7 Bends,Miters,and         Elbows                             A434.11 Backfilling
          Miter     shall be
               bends not used                 in offshore liquid                       of
                                                                             Backfillingtrenched                            not
                                                                                                        offshore pipelines is
        pipeline systems.                                                  normally        but sometimes utilized
                                                                                   required may            be       to
                                                                           provide additional stability or protection.
        A 3 . . BendsMadeFromPipe
         4471
                                                                           A434.13 SpecialCrossings
           (a) Pipe has cold-worked
                   that been                   for
                                         solely the
                of        the
        purpose increasing yield           strength to the
                                                      meet                   A434.13.1 Water Crossings.                 para.
                                                                                                                        See
        specifiedminimumyield strength isprohibited in off-                A402.3.5(e)(3) concerning the use of river weights.
        shore liquidpipelinesystems.Thisdoesnotpreclude
        theuseofpipethathasbeencold-workedspecifically                     A434.14 OffshorePipelineConstruction
        for thepurposeofmeetingdimensionalrequirements.                       A434.14.1 PipeDepthandAlignment.            Plansand
                                                                           specifications shall describe alignment ofthe pipeline,
        A434.8 Welding                                                     its design depth below mean water level, and the depth
           A434.8.3 WeldingQualifications. Welding     proce-              below the sea bottom, if trenching is prescribed. Special
        dures and weldersperforminghyperbaricweldingon                     consideration shall be  given    to depth cover
                                                                                                                    of    and
        offshorepipelinesystemsshall    be qualified in accord-            other means of protecting the pipeline in the surf zone
        ance the
            with testing        provisions of either API Std.              and other areas of           hazards
                                                                                                potential     such           as near
        1104 or ASMESection IX, as supplemented by AWS                     platforms,anchorage areas, andshipping fairways.
        D3.6forType “O’ welds.
                                                                              A434.14.2 Installation Procedures and Equipment
          A434.8.5 WeldingQuality                                          Selection. Installation procedures shall be prepared prior
           (a) InspectionMethods                                           tobeginning construction. Installationproceduresshall
              (2) Welds in offshore pipelinesystems may also               address the design considerations in para. A401.9and
        be evaluatedonthebasisofpara.           A434.8.5(b).               strength considerations in para.A402.3.4.
              ( 4 ) Therequirements of    para. 434.8.5(a)(4) are             A434.14.3 Movement of Existing Pipelines.Consid-
        superseded by the following provisions. All circumferen-           eration should be given to reducing operating pressures
        tialweldson offshore pipelinesystemsshallmeet           the        inthe existing pipelines to obtainthelowestpractical
        requirements in para.434.8.5(a)forapipelinewhich                   stress levelspriortomovementofthe            existing lines.
        wouldoperateatahoop           stress ofmorethan20%of               Whether the pipelinepressureisreduced           or not, the
        the specified minimum yield strength of the      pipe. One         following steps should betakenpriortomovementof
        hundred percent of the total number of circumferential             the existing lines:
        butt welds on offshore pipeline systems shall be nonde-
                                                                              (a) perform a physical survey to determine the actual
        structively inspected, if practical; butinnocaseshall
                                                                           positionofthe pipeline;
        less than 90% of such welds beinspected. The inspection
                                                                              (b) determine wall thickness and mechanical proper-
        shall cover 100% of the length of such inspected weld.
                                                                           tiesof the existing pipelinesection to bemoved;
           (b) Standards o Acceptability. For girthwelds in
                             f
                                                                              ( c ) investigate possible pipe stress that may exist in
        offshore pipeline systems, alternative flawacceptance
                                                                           thepipeline in itspresent condition;
        limits may be basedupon fracture mechanics analysis
        andfitness-for-purpose      criteria as described by API              (d) calculate additional stresses imposed by thepro-
                                                                           posedmovement operation; and
        Std. 1104. Such alternative acceptance standards shallbe
        supported by appropriate stress analyses, supplementary               (e) prepare a detailed             for proposed
                                                                                                       procedure the
        welding procedure test requirements, and nondestructive            movement.
        examinations beyond the minimum requirements speci-                   Investigationof the possiblepipe stresses that may
        fiedherein.Theaccuracyofthenondestructivetech-                     be induced in the existing pipeline during the relocation
        niques for flawdepthmeasurementshallbeverified.                    should be performed regardless of the anticipated inter-
                                                                           nal pressure. This investigation should     consider appro-
           A 3 . . StressRelieving
            4489                                                           priate elevation tolerances for the lowering. Pipe stresses
           (a) On offshore pipeline systems, the demonstration                              the
                                                                           resulting from relocation          not
                                                                                                       should exceed  the
        specified in para. 434.8.9(a) shall conducted
                                            be        on                   criteria in para.A402.3.4,andpipe         stresses resulting
        materialsandunderconditions         which simulate,as              from existing pipelineoperation after loweringshould
        closely as practical,theactualproductionwelding.                   notexceed the criteria in para.A402.3.5.

                                                                      86



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            ASME B31.4-1998 Edition                                                                                           A434.1SA437.6

            A434.15 Block andIsolating Valves                                    spected for protection against damage by outside forces,
                                                                                 such as fishingand other marine activities.
              A 3 . 5 1 General
               441.
               (a) Blockand isolating valves shall be selected to
            providetimely closure and to limit bothpropertyand                   A437 TESTING
            environmental damage and provide safety under emer-
            gency conditions.
                                                                                 A437.1 General
               (b) On offshore platforms, consideration shall be
            given to locating blockand isolating valves, or valve                  A 3 . . TestingAfterNewConstruction
                                                                                    4714
            operator controls where used, in areas that are readily                (a) Systems or Parts o Systems
                                                                                                         f
            accessible underemergency conditions.                                                      of 437.1.4(a)(3)
                                                                                        ( 3 ) Provisions para.                     are super-
               (c) Submerged valves be
                                  shall marked           or spotted              seded by the following. All pipe and pressure-containing
            by survey techniques and         on
                                      recorded permanently                       pipingcomponents shall be testedinaccordancewith
            retained as-built records to facilitate locationwhen                 the provisions ofpara.437.1.4(a)(2).
            operationis required.                                                   (6) Testing T i e - h . Nonwelded connections
                                                                                                                        tie-in
                                                                                 shall be observed for leaks at operating pressure. Tie-
            A434.18 LineMarkers                                                  inweldsand        girth welds joining lengthsofpretested
              Linemarkers are notrequiredon          offshore pipeline           pipe shall be inspected by    radiographic or other accepted
            systems.                                                             nondestructivemethods in accordancewithpara.
                                                                                                   if     is pressure-tested
                                                                                 A434.8.5(a)(4), system not                              after
                                                                                 tie-in.
            A436 INSPECTION                                                         ( d ) Hydrostatic Test Medium. The hydrostatic test
                                                                                 medium for all offshore pipeline systems shall be water,
            A436.2 Qualification of Inspectors                                   except in arctic areas. Additives to mitigate the effects of
                                                                                 corrosion, biofouling, and freezing should be considered.
               In addition to the requirements of para. 436.2  offshore
                                                                                 Such additives shouldbe suitable for themethodsof
            inspection personnel shall be capable of inspecting the
                                                                                 disposal ofthetestmedium.
            following, as applicable:
                  offshore vesselpositioning systems;                               In arctic areas where freezing of water is a restraint,
                  diving operations;                                             the use of air, inert gas, or glycol is allowable, provided
                                                                                 appropriate detail considerations are addressed.
                  remotelyoperatedvehicle (ROV) operations;
                  pipeline trenching andburial operations;                          Disposal of all materials shall be done in an environ-
                 special services for testing and inspection ofoffshore          mentally safe manner.
            pipeline facilities, such as subsea pipeline lateral tie-ins,           ( e ) Diameter Restrictions. Testing for buckles, dents,
            and subsea pipeline crossings as maybe required; and                 and other diameter restrictions shall be performed after
                  pipelay parameters.                                            installation. Testing shall be accomplishedbypassing
                                                                                 adeformation   detectiondevicethroughthe             pipeline
            A436.5 TypeandExtent          of ExaminationRequired                 section, or by other methodscapableof            detecting a
                                                                                 change in pipe cross-section. Pipehavingdeformation
               4651
              A 3 . . Visual                                                     which affects the sërviceability of the pipeline facilities
               (b) Construction                                                  shall be repaired or replaced. Consideration should also
                   (9) When offshore pipelines are trenched, the con-            be given to repairing ovality which may interfere with
            ditionofthetrench,trenchdepth,and           fit of the pipe          pigging operations or internal inspections.
            to thetrenchshallbeinspectedwhen           feasible.
                 ( I l ) When offshore pipelines are tobebackfilled,             A437.4 Test Pressure
            the backfilling operations shall be inspected for quality
            ofbackfill,possibledamage       to thepipe coating, and                A 3 . . Leak Testing. Provisions of para. 437.4.3
                                                                                    4743
            depth of cover.                                                      are not applicable for offshore pipeline systems.
                 (12) Pipelines shall be inspected for spans.
                                                                                 A437.6 QualificationTests
                 (13) Pipeline crossings shall be inspected for speci-
            fied separation.                                                           of
                                                                                   Pipe unknown              and
                                                                                                 specification ASTMA              120
                 (15) Where specified, special assemblies and protec-            specificationpipearenotallowedin    offshore pipeline
            tionmeasures as described inA402.3.10 shall bein-                    systems. See para. A423.1.

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                                                                                                                                 di n
                                                                                                                                  t
                                                                                                                ASME B31.4-1998 E io

        A437.7Records                                                                                      that
                                                                             struction activity other than performed by           the
                                                                             operator, and any other factors affecting the safety and
           “As-built” records shall also include the locationof
                                                                             operation of the pipeline. Consideration should be given
               and
        anodes buckle         arrestors (ifused) by pipe joint
                                                                             to increased patrols in areas more susceptible to damage
        installation        Subsea
                    sequence.     valve,      and
                                        tie-in, other
                                                                             by outside forces. Such areas arelisted in A451.11.
        special assembly locations shall be recorded by coordi-
        nates.
                                                                             A451.6PipelineRepairs
                                                                                A451.6.1General. Additionalrequirements for re-
        A450OPERATIONANDMAINTENANCE                                          pairs to offshore pipelinesystems are as follows:
             PROCEDURESAFFECTINGTHE                                              Repair operations shall not result in imposed defor-
             SAFETYOFLIQUIDTRANSPORTATION                                    mationswhichwouldimpairtheintegrityofthepipe
             PIPINGSYSTEMS                                                   materials,andweight     or protective coating.
                                                                                  Subseaequipmentused in the repairof offshore
        A450.2OperationandMaintenancePlansand                                pipeline systems shall be carefully controlled and moni-
               Procedures                                                    tored to avoid damaging the pipeline, external     coating,
           The   provisionsparas.
                          of               450.2(d), 450.2(e), and           or cathodic protection system.
        450.2(i) are superseded bythefollowing:                                  When lifting or supporting pipe during repairs, the
           (d) Haveaplanforreviewing           conditions affecting          curvature of apipe sag bendandoverbend             shall be
        the integrity and safety of the pipeline system, including           controlled to prevent overstressing, denting, or buckling
        provisions for periodic patrolling and reporting of con-             the pipe or damaging the coating.Liftingequipment
        struction activity andchangesin conditions.                          shall be selectedtocomplywiththisrequirement.
           (e) Establish and maintainliaisons with local offshore                 Wave                             be
                                                                                        and current loads shall considered             in
        authorities who issue permits in order to prevent acci-              determining total imposed stresses and cyclical loadings
        dents caused bynew construction. Establish and main-                 in both surface and subsurface repairs.
           liaisons
        tain         with                                     and
                                available offshore firefighting                   Whenpipeisrepaireddamaged             coating shall be
        pollutioncontrol entities.                                           repaired.
            ( i ) In establishing plans and procedures, give particu-                                                       be
                                                                                 Replacement pipe and components shall protected
        lar attention to those portions of the system presenting             from corrosion.
        the greatest hazard to the public and to the environment                Consideration should be given to obtaining pipe-to-
        in the event of emergencies or because of construction               water potentials duringthe repair operations to verify
        or extraordinarymaintenancerequirements.                             conformance to cathodic protectionrequirements.
                                                                                A451.6.2Disposition of Defects
        A451PIPELINEOPERATIONAND                                                (b) Allowable Pipeline Repairs
             MAINTENANCE                                                          (4) Patches shall not be used on offshore pipeline
                                                                             systems.
        A451.3Markers                                                             (6) Partial
                                                                                            encirclementhalf     soles shall not be
                                                                             usedon offshore pipelinesystems.
          The provisions of para.45 1.3 do not apply to offshore                (c) RepairMethods
        pipeline systems.                                                         (5) Patches shall not be usedon offshore pipeline
                                                                             systems.
        A451.4 Right-of-way Maintenance                                           (8) Welded fittings allowed by para. 451.6.2(~)(8)
          The provisions of para. 45 1.4 not apply tooffshore
                                      do                                     to cover defects shall not be used in offshore pipeline
        pipeline systems.                                                    systems.
                                                                                 (13) Half soles for repairs in offshore pipeline
        A451.5Patrolling                                                     systems are prohibited.

           (u) Theprovisions
                           of      para. 451.5(a)
                                                and      (b) are               A451.6.4Repair of Flexible Pipe
        superseded by the    following. Each offshore pipeline                 ( a ) MajorStructural Damage. If the serviceability
        system operator shall maintain a periodic pipeline patrol                           pipeimpaired, damaged
                                                                             of the flexible is         the     pipe
        program to observe surface conditions on, and adjacent               sectionshall be replaced.
        to,the pipeline right-of-way,indicationofleaks,con-                    (b) Surface Cuts. Intheeventof     surface cuts and

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             ASME 831.4-1998 Edition                                                                                        A451.6A-A460

             abrasions which do not expose the load-carrying mem-                                                   or
                                                                              ering the line, installing temporary permanent warning
             bers to potential corrosion, the repair shall performed
                                                         be                   markers or buoys, or usingothersuitablemeans.
             in a mannerrecommended by themanufacturer.                          When such             indicate the facility
                                                                                                 studies                       is    in an
                                                                              unsatisfactorycondition, a plannedprogramshall            be
             A451.7Derating      a Pipeline to aLowerOperating                initiated to abandon, replace, or repair. If such a facility
                     PreSsUlX?                                                cannot be repaired or abandoned, the maximum allow-
                                                                              able operating pressure shall be reduced commensurate
               (c) If a component is installed during the repair that         withtherequirementsdescribed           in paras.451.7and
             has a maximum pressure rating less than the allowable            A45 1.7.
             operatingpressureofthepipeline,thepipelineshall                     Offshorepipeline risers shall be visuallyinspected
             be derated to thepressurerating      of thecomponent,                     for
                                                                              annually physical           and
                                                                                                   damage corrosion                 in the
             analyzed in accordancewith 451.l(a).                             splashzoneandabove.Considerationshould               also be
                                                                              given to periodicvisualinspection        of thesubmerged
             A451.8ValveMaintenance                                           zone of the riser. The extent     of any observed damage
                                                                              shall be determined,and if theserviceabilityofthe
                Provisions of para.451.8 do notapply to offshore
                                                                              riser is affected, the riser shall be repaired or replaced.
             pipeline systems. Pipeline block valves that would be
                                                                                 Considerationshould be given to theperiodicuse
             required by theEmergencyPlan(seeparas.454and
                                                                              of internal or external             tools
                                                                                                         inspection            to monitor
             A454)to be operatedduring an emergencyshall be
                                                                              externalandinternalpipelinecorrosionandtodetect
             inspectedperiodically,and fully or partiallyoperated
                                                                              otherunsafeconditions.
             at least once a year.

             A451.9RailroadsandHighwaysCrossingExisting                       A452OFFSHOREPLATFORM,PUMP
                    Pipelines                                                      STATION,TERMINAL,ANDTANK
                                                                                   FARMOPERATIONAND
               The provisionsof para. 451.9 do not apply to offshore
             pipelinesystems.                                                      MAINTENANCE

            A451.10 Wshore PipelineRisers                                     A452.5Fencing

              The provisions of 45
                                 para. 1.10         do not
                                                         apply      to          Fencingisnotapplicablefor        offshore facilities.
            offshorepipelinesystems.
                                                                              A452.7Prevention of AccidentalIgnition
            A451.11Inspection                                                   Smoking shall be prohibited in all areas of offshore
               As a means of maintaining the integrity of its pipeline        facilities inwhichthe possible leakage or presence of
            system, operating
                    each         company establish
                                           shall       and                    vapor constitutes a fire or explosion hazard.
            implement procedures for continuing surveillance of its
            facilities. Studiesshall                and
                                         be initiated appropriate             A454EMERGENCYPLAN
            actiontakenwhenunusualoperatingandmaintenance
            conditions such
                       occur,            as failures,
                                                    leakagehistory,              (d) Theprovisions of para.454(d) do notapply to
            unexplained changes in flow or pressure, or substantial           offshore pipeline systems.
            changes in cathodicprotectionrequirements.                          (e)
               Consideration should be given to inspection of pipe-                (5) The provisions of para. 454(e)(5) do not apply
            linesandpipelineprotectionmeasures           in areasmost         to offshore pipeline systems. To minimize public expo-
            susceptible to damage by outsideforces.Suchareas                  sure to injury and to prevent accidental ignition, provi-
            may include crossings, near
                          shore         areas platforms,                      sions for halting or diverting marine vessel traffic shall
            shipping fairways, pipeline crossings, span rectifications,       be included in theEmergencyPlan.
            subsea            and
                   assemblies, shallow   waterareas.              If the
            operatingcompanydiscoversthatthecoverorother                         GENERAL
                                                                              A460
                                meet original
            conditions do not the                      design, it shall
            determine whether the existing conditions are unaccept-              (a) In addition tothe                 para.
                                                                                                          provisions of 460(a),
            able. If unacceptable, operating
                                     the         companyshall                 special considerations shallbe given to corrosion control
            provideadditionalprotection by replacingcover,low-                of offshore pipeline systems because they cannot easily

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        A46(LA461.15                                                                                      ASME B31.4-1998 Edition

        be inspected after installation and there is the possibility   shall be taken to minimize damage to the coating during
        of damage to the coating system. Special attention shall       installation. Consideration should be given to insulating
        be given to the selection, design, andapplicationof            the carrier pipe from the casing pipe when the carrier
        corrosion control coatings, the cathodic protection sys-           is
                                                                       pipe pulled       into directionally drilled crossings or
        tem,andother corrosion designelements.                         pull-tube risers. Consideration should also be given to
           ( c ) NACE RP-06-75 provides a guide for procedures         preventingoxygenreplenishment in thewaterinthe
        to implement requirements herein and to monitorand             annulus between carrier pipe and casing by sealing at
        maintain cathodic protection systems for offshore pipe-        least one end of pull-tube risers and directionally drilled
        linesystems.                                                   crossings, or other measures to prevent corrosion.
                                                                          (g) The provisions of para. 461.1.2(g) do not apply
                                                                       to offshore pipeline systems. Inthe event that backfilling
        A461EXTERNAL CORROSIONCONTROL                                  is required, measures shall be taken to prevent damage
             FOR OFFSHORE SUBMERGED                                    to pipeline coating.
             PIPELINES
                                                                          A461.1.3CathodicProtection         System
        A461.1NewInstallations                                            (u) In addition to the provisions of para. 461.1.3(a),
                                                                       an offshore pipeline is considered to be cathodically
           A461.1.1General                                             protectedwhen it meetsone or moreof the criteria
           (a) The provisions of para.   461.1.l(a) do not apply       established in NACE RP-06-75. Where impressed cur-
        to offshore pipeline systems. All submerged steel pipe,        rent systems are used, the system shall be designed to
        valves,andrelatedfittings      shall be externally coated      minimize outages. The    designformula        for galvanic
        andcathodicallyprotected.                                      anode systems shall include the percentage of exposed
            (c) Provisionsof para. 461.1.l(c) do notapplyto            pipe, current output of   the                    life
                                                                                                         anodes, design of
        offshore pipeline systems. A minimum clearance of 12           the system, anode material, andutilizationefficiency.
        in. (300 mm) shall bemaintainedbetween the outside             Anodes shouldbe compatible with theoperating temper-
        ofany offshore pipelineandany         other structure that             the       and marine
                                                                       ature of pipeline the        environment.
        may affect the cathodic protection of     the    offshore      Consideration should be given to the effects on cathodic
        pipeline, except where impractical (e.g., bundled pipe-        protection of variations in oxygen content, temperature,
        lines) and whereadequate        provisions for corrosion       and water/soil resistivity of the particular offshore envi-
        control have been made.                                        ronment inwhich the pipeline isinstalled.
           A461.1.2ProtectiveCoating                                      For installations containing flexible pipe, consider-
           (a) In addition to the provisions of para. 461.1.2(a),      ation shall be given to the needfor galvanic anodes
        the coating systems for offshore pipeline systems shall        or impressed current at theendconnections.
        be selectedforthetypeofenvironmentinwhichthe                      (b) Provisionsofpara.461.1.3(b)        do notapply to
        facilityisto be installedandshallhavethefollowing              offshore pipeline systems. A cathodic protection system
        additionalcharacteristics:                                     shall be installed at thetimeofpipelineinstallation
             low water absorption;                                     or as soon as practical after pipeline installation.
             compatibilitywithsystem operating temperature;               (d) Provisionsof para. 461.1.3(d)donotapplyto
             compatibilitywithweightcoatingapplication                                                       of
                                                                       offshore pipeline systems. Owners other             offshore
        method, if applicable;                                         pipelines or facilities which may be affected by installa-
             sufficienttoughness to withstand   damage  during         tionofa    cathodic protectionsystemshall       be notified
        installationand operation;                                     ofsaidinstallation.
             resistance to future deterioration in asubmerged             A461.1.4ElectricalIsolation
        environment;                                                      (a) In addition to theprovisionsofpara.461.1.4,
             ease of repair; and                                                               given electrically
                                                                       consideration shall be to                isolating
             resistance to cathodic disbondment.                       supporting devices, such as clampsandpipe supports,
           The coating selected shall be appliedinaccordance           from the riser on platforms. Wiring and piping connec-
        with established specificationsandthemanufacturer’s            tionstoan    electrically isolatedpipeline shall also be
        recommendations.                                               insulatedfromdevicesgroundedtotheplatform.
                The provisions of para. 46 l. 1.2(f) do not apply
        to offshore pipeline systems. If coated pipe is installed        A461.1.5TestLeads
        by boring, driving, or other similar method, precautions         (a) It isconsideredimpractical      to locate test leads




COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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             ASME 831.4-1998 Edition                                                                                    A461.1.SA463.1

             on submergedportionsofoffshorepipelinesystems.                    A463 EXTERNALCORROSIONCONTROL
             Considerationshould be giventoinstallingtestleads                      FOROFFSHOREPIPINGSYSTEMS
             on platform risers, platform piping, and pipeline shore                EXPOSEDTOATMOSPHERIC
             crossings.                                                             CONDITIONS

                                                                               A463.1NewInstallations
                A461.1.6ElectricalInterference
                (c) When pipeline
                          new            arelaid in thevicinity of                Theoptionof demonstrating “by test, investigation,
             existing     measures
                     lines,        shall      be taken to minimize             or experience in area of applicationthat a corrosive
             electricalinterference.                                           atmosphere does not exist,” does not apply to offshore
                                                                               pipeline systems. The type of protective coating selected
             A461.3Monitoring                                                  shall be resistant to the environment existing offshore
                                                                                                                              in
                                                                               locations. The surface preparation and coating applica-
               (b) Evidence of adequate level of cathodic protection           tion shall be performed in accordance with established
             shall be by one or more of the criteria listed in NACE            specifications and the manufacturer’s recommendations.
             RP-06-75.                                                         The selected coating should have the following charac-
                                                                               teristics:
               (h) If repairs are madetooffshorepipelinesbelow                      lowwaterabsorption,
            water, inspection for evidence of external corrosion or                 resistancetowateraction,
            coating               shall
                      deterioration                     and
                                              be made; necessary                    compatibility with systemoperatingtemperature,
            corrective action shallbe taken to maintain the corrosion               resistancetoatmospheric deterioration,
            protection of the pipeline.                                             resistancetomechanicaldamage,and
               Whenan offshore pipeline is lifted above water for                   ease of repair.
            maintenance or repair purpose, the operating company                  The splash zone area of the offshore pipeline system
            shall visually inspect for evidence of coating deteriora-          shall be designed additional
                                                                                                   with                 against
                                                                                                               protection
            tion, external corrosion, and where possible, the condi-           corrosion. This shall be accomplished by one or more
            tionofanyexposedanode.             If excessivecorrosion is        of thefollowing:
            present,remedialactionshall          be taken as necessary.             specialcoating;
                ( i ) Considerationshould be     given to the  periodic             specialprotectivesystemsandtechniques;and
            useof       internal
                               inspection to
                                        tools monitor external                      other suitable measures, including selection of pipe
            pipeline corrosion.                                                material.




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            ASME B31.4-1998 Edition                                                                                                                     Appeadh A




                                                             APPENDIX A
                                                        REFERENCED STANDARDS]

               Specific editions of standards incorporated in this Code by reference, and the names and addresses of the sponsoring organizations, are shown
            in this Appendix. It is not practical to refer to a specific edition of each standard throughoutthe Code text; instead, the specific edition reference
            dates are shown here. Appendix A will be revised at intervals as needed, and issued in Addenda to this Code. An asterisk (*I is used to indicate
            those standards that have been accepted as American National Standards by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI).

            ASTM Specifications                                     ASTM Specifications (Cont'd)                             MSS Standard Practices

            A   6/A 6M-96                                           A 505-87 (R19931                                         SP-6-1996
            A   2O/A 20M-96a                                        A 506-93                                                 SP-25-1993
            A   29/A 29M-93a                                        A 507-93                                                 SP-44-1996
            A   36/A 36M-96                                         A 514/A 514M-94a                                         SP-55-1996
                                                                    A 515/A 515M-92                                         *SP-58-1993
            A 53-96                                                 A 516/A 516M-90 (R1996)                                  SP-61-1992
                                                                    A 517/A 517M-93                                          SP-67-1995
            A 105/A 105M-96                                         A 524-93 [Note (211                                      SP-69-1996
            A 106-95 [Note ( 2 ) l                                  A 530/A 530M-96                                          SP-70-1990
            A 126-95                                                                                                         SP-71-1990
            A 134-93                                                A   5721A 572M-94C                                       SP-75-1993
            A 135-96 [Note ( 2 ) l                                  A   5731A 573M-93a                                       SP-78-1987 (R921
            A 139-93a                                               A   575-89
                                                                    A   576-90b (R1995)
            A 181IA 181M-95b                                                                                                 API Standards and Other
            A 182IA 182M-96                                         A 633/A 633M-95                                           Publications
            A 193/A 193M-96b
            A 194/A 194M-96                                         A 663/A 663M-89 (R1994)                                   RP 2A-WSD, 20th Ed., 1993
                                                                    A 671-94
            A   216lA   216M-93                                     A 672-94                                                'Spec. 58, 14th Ed., 1996
            A   217/A   217M-95                                     A 675/A 675M-90a                                        *Spec. 5L, 41st Ed., 1995
            A   225/A   225M-93                                     A 694/A 694M-95C                                           [Note ( 3 ) l
            A   234/A   234M-96b                                                                                            *RP 5L1, 5th Ed., 1996
            A   242/A   242M-93a                                                                                            *RP 5LW, 2nd Ed., 1996
                                                                    NFPA Codes                                                 (Incorporates 5L1, 5L5, and
            A 283/A 283M-93a                                                                                                   516)
            A 285/A 285M-90                                         *30-1996                                                *Spec. 6A, 17th Ed., 1996
                                                                    *70-1996                                                 Spec. 60, 21st Ed., 1994
            A 307-94                                                                                                        *Spec. 126, 14th Ed., 1995
            A 320/A 320M-94a (R1995)                                                                                        *Spec. 12D, 10th Ed., 1994
            A 325-96                                                AWS Standards                                           *Spec. 12F, 11th Ed., 1994
            A 333/A 333M-94
            A 350/A 350M-96a                                        *A3.0-1994                                               RP 178, 1 st Ed., 1988
                                                                    *D3.6-1993                                              *RP 500, 1st Ed., 1991
            A 354-95
            A 381-93                                                                                                          Std. 600, 10th Ed., 1997
            A 395-88 (R19931                                        NACE Standards and Other
                                                                        Publications                                          Std. 602,   6th   Ed.,   1993
            A 420/A 420M-96 [Note ( 5 ) l                                                                                   *%d. 603,     5th   Ed.,   1991
                                                                    MR-01-75 (1997 Rev.)                                    'Std. 620,    9th   Ed.,   1996
            A 449-93                                                RP-01-69 (1996 Rev.)                                    *Std. 650,    9th   Ed.,   1993
                                                                    RP-01-75
            A 487fA 487M-93                                         RP-01-77 (1995 Rev.)                                     RP 1102, 6th Ed., 1993
            A 490/A 490M-93                                         RP-06-75 (1998 Rev.)                                    *Std. 1104, 18th Ed., 1994
                                                                    Corrosion Data Survey - Metals                          *RP 1107, 3rd Ed., 1991
                                                                     Section, 6th Ed., 1985                                  RP 1109, 2nd Ed., 1993



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          Appendix A                                                                                                      ASME B31.4-1998 Edition

   198)                                                 REFERENCED STANDARDS' (CONT'D)
          API Standards and Other                              ASM E Codes and Standards                           ASME Codes and
                                                                                                                           Standards
            Publications (Cont'd)                                                                                     (Cont'd)
                                                              *ASME Boiler andPressureVessel
           RP 1110, 4th Ed., 1997                               Code, 1995 Ed.                                    *B16.20-1993
           RP 1 1 , 2nd Ed., 1993
                11                                                                                                '616.21-1992
           RP 1117, 2nd Ed., 1996                             *B1.1-1989                                                                                 '816.25-1997
                                '616.28-1994    (R19921       *B1.20.1-1983
                       5th Ed., 1994
           Publ. 2015, *B1.20.3-1976                                          (Rl.991)                            '8316-1991
           Publ. 2200, 3rd Ed., 1994                                                                              '831.5-1992 & Addenda-1994
                         *B16.5-1996
                          [Note
           Publ. 2201, 4th Ed., 1995                                               (4)l                           *B36.10M-1996
              (R19941                *636.19M-1985            *B16.9-1993
           API Manual of Petroleum                            *B16.10-1992
             Measurement Standards

          NOTES:
          (1) Theissue date shown immediately following the number of the standard (e.g., A 53-96, 81.1-1989, and SP-6-1996 is the effective date
              of issue (edition) of the standard.
          (2) Approved only if mill hydrostatic test is performed.
          (3) Use of bell and spigot line pipe not permitted.
          (4) Limited as set forth in para. 402.2.1.
          (5) A 420/A 420M Grade WPL9 is not suitable for anhydrous ammonia due to copper content.



            Titles of standards and specifications listed above which are referenced in the text but do not appear in Table 423.1 - Material Standards
          or Table 426.1 - Dimensional Standards are as follows:

          API         ...             Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards
          API         2A-WSD          Recommended Practice for Planning,Designing, and Constructing Fixed Platforms - Working Stress Design
          API         5L1             Recommended Practice for Railroad Transportation of Line Pipe
          API         5LW             Recommended Practice for Tansportation of Line Pipe on Barges and Marine Vessels
          API         12B             Specification for Bolted Tanks for Storage of Production Liquids
          API         120             Specification for Field Welded Tanks for Storage of Production Liquids
          API         12F             Specification for Shop Welded Tanks for Storage of Production Liquids
          API         178             Recommended Practice for Flexible Pipe
          API          500            Classification of Locations for Electrical Installations at Petroleum Facilities
          API          620            Design and Construction of Large, Welded, Low-Pressure Storage Tanks
          API          650            Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage
          API          1102           Recommended Practice for Liquid Petroleum Pipelines Crossing Railroads and Highways
          API          1104           Standard for Welding Pipelines and Related Facilities
          API          1107           Recommended Pipeline Maintenance Welding Practices
          API          1109           Recommended Practice for Marking Liquid Petroleum Pipeline Facilities
          API          1110           Recommended Practice for Pressure Testing of Liquid Petroleum Pipelines
          API          11
                        11            Recommended Practice for Design, Construction, Operation and Maintenance of Offshore Hydrocarbon Pipelines
          API          2015           Cleaning Petroleum Storage Tanks
          API          2200           Repairing Crude Oil, Liquefied Petroleum Gas, and Product Pipelines
          API          2201           Procedures for Welding or Hot Tapping on Equipment in Service
          ASME         ...            Boiler andPressure Vessel  Code, Section VI11 Division 1 Pressure Vessels, Section VI11 Division 2Alternative
                                        Rules for Pressure Vessels, and Section I X Welding and Brazing Qualifications
          ASME         B316           Manual for Determining the Remaining Strength of Corroded Pipelines: A Supplement to 831, Code for Pressure
                                        Piping
          ASME         631.5          Refrigeration Piping
          AWS          A3.0           Welding Terms and Definitions
          AWS          03.6           Specification for Underwater Welding
          NACE         ...            Corrosion Data Survey - Metals Section
          NACE         M R-01-75      Sulfide Stress Cracking Resistant Metallic Materials for Oil Field Equipment
          NACE         RP-01-69       Recommended Practice - Control of External Corrosion on Underground or Submerged Metallic Piping Systems
          NACE         RP-01-75       Recommended Practice: Control of Internal Corrosion in Steel Pipelines Systems
          NACE         RP-01-77       Mitigation of Alternating Current and Lightning Effects on Metallic Structures and Corrosion Control Systems
          NACE         RP-06-75       Recommended Practice: Control of Corrosion on Offshore Steel Pipelines




                                                                              94



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             ASME 831.4-1998 Edition

                                                           REFERENCED STANDARDS' (CONT'D)

             NFPA        30             Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code
             NFPA        70             National Electrical Code



             Specifications and standads of the following organizations appear in Appendix A:

             ANSI      American National Standards Institute, Inc.                              AWS    American Welding Society
                       11 West 42nd Street                                                             P.O. Box 351040
                       New York, NY 10036                                                              550 N.W.LeJeuneRoad
                       212 642-4900                                                                    Miami, FL 33126
                                                                                                       305 443-9353
             API       American Petroleum Institute
                       Order Desk                                                               MSS    Manufacturers Standardization Society of the
                       1220 L Street,N.W.                                                                Valve and Fittings Industry, Inc.
                       Washington, DC 20005-4070                                                       127 Park Street, N.E.
                       202 682-8375                                                                    Vienna, VA 22180
                                                                                                       703 281-6613
             ASME      The American Society of Mechanical Engineers
                       Three Park Avenue                                                        NACE   National Association of Corrosion Engineers
                       New York, N Y 10016-5990                                                        1440 South Creek Drive
                       212 591-8500                                                                    P.O. Box 218340
                                                                                                       Houston, TX 77218-8340
                       ASME Order Department                                                           281 492-0535
                       22 Law Drive
                       Box 2900                                                                 NFPA   National Fire Protection Association
                       Fairfield, NJ 07007-2900                                                        Batterymarch Park
                       800 843-2763                                                                    Quincy, MA 02269-9101
                       201 882-1167                                                                    617 770-3000

             ASTM      American Society for Testing and Materials
                       100 Bar Harbor Drive
                       WestConshocken, PA 19428-2959
                       610 832-9500




                                                                                   95




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             ASME B31.4-199% Edition                                                                                           B-1-B-3




                                      APPENDIX B
                 SUBMITTAL OF TECHNICAL INQUIRIES TO THE B31 PRESSURE
                                  PIPING COMMITTEE


             B-1 INTRODUCTION                                                (a) Purpose.one   Specify
                                                                                                    the
                                                                                            followinpr:      of            W



                                                                                 (I) rivision Of presentCoderule(s);
               TheASMEB31PressurePipingCommitteeandits
                                                                                 (2) new or additionalCode rule(s);
            Section Committees meet regularly to consider revisions
                                                                                 (3) CodeCase;
                   Code new rules
            of the rules, Code                         as dictated by
            technological development, Code Cases, and Code inter-               (4) Codeinterpretation.
            pretations.ThisAppendixprovidesguidance           to Code        (b) Background. Provide the information needed for
            users for submitting technical inquiries to the Commit-       theCommittee’sunderstanding           of theinquiry,being
            tee.Technicalinquiriesincluderequestsforrevisions             sure to include reference to the applicable Code Section,
            or additions to the Code rules, requests for Code Cases,      Edition, Addenda, paragraphs, figures, and tables. Pref-
            andrequestsforCodeinterpretations.                            erably, provide a copy of the specific referenced portions
               Code Cases maybe issued by the Committee when              oftheCode.
            theneed is urgent.CodeCasesclarifythe            intent of       ( c ) Presentations. The   inquirer may desire or be
            existingCoderequirements        or providealternativere-      askedtoattend a meetingoftheCommitteetomake
            quirements. Code Cases are written as a questionand           a formal  presentation      or toanswer        from
                                                                                                                 questions
                    and usually
            a reply are         intended           to be incorporated     theCommittee   members         with     to inquiry.
                                                                                                            regard the
                the
            into Code         at a later Code
                                       date. interpretations              Attendance   at a Committee     meeting  shall    be at the
            provide the meaning of or the intent of existing rules        expenseoftheinquirer.Theinquirer’sattendance              or
            in theCodeandarealsopresented           as a question and     lack of attendance at a meeting shall not be a basis for
            a reply. Both Code Cases and Code interpretations are         acceptance or rejection of the inquiry the Committee.
                                                                                                                    by
            published by theCommittee.
               The Code rules, Code Cases, and Code interpretations       B-3 CODEREVISIONSORADDITIONS
            established by the Committee are not to be considered
            as approving,recommending,certifying,        or endorsing        Requests for Code revisionsor additions shall provide
            any proprietary or specific design or as limiting in any      thefollowing:
            way thefreedomofmanufacturers           or constructorsto        ( a ) Proposed Revision(s) or Aa¿fitions(s). For revi-
                                           or
            choose any method of design any form of construction          sions, identify the rulesof the Code that require revision
            thatconformstotheCoderules.                                   and submit a copy     of theappropriaterules          as they
               Asan alternative to the requirements of this Appen-        appear in the marked
                                                                                          Code        up           with theproposed
            dix, members of the Committee and its Section Commit-         revision. For additions, provide the recommended word-
            tees may introduce   requests Code
                                        for revisions                or   ingreferenced tothe existing Coderules.
            additions, Code Cases, and Code interpretations at their         (6) Statement of Need. Provide a briefexplanation
            respective Committee meetings       or may submit   such      of theneedfortherevision(s)           or addition(s).
            requests to the secretary of a Section Committee.                (c) Background   Information.        Providebackground
               Inquiries that do notcomply with the provisions of                      to       the
                                                                          information support revision(s)                or addition(s)
            this Appendix or that do not provide sufficient informa-      including any data or changes in technology that form
            tion for the Committee’s full understanding may result        the basis for the request that will allow the Committee
            in therequestbeingreturnedtotheinquirer           with no     to adequately evaluate the proposed revision(s) or addi-
            action.                                                       tion(s). Sketches, tables, figures, and graphs should      be
                                                                          submitted as appropriate. When applicable, identify any
                                                                          pertinent paragraph in the Code that would be affected
                                                                          by the revision(s) or addition(s) and paragraphs in the
             B-2 INQUIRYFORMAT                                            Code that reference the paragraphs that are to revised
                                                                                                                             be
               Submittals to theCommitteeshallinclude:                    or added.

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        B-3-B4                                                                                             ASME B31.4-1998 Edition

        B 4 CODECASES                                                       ( c ) Background Information.         any
                                                                                                            Provide back-
                                                                         groundinformationthat    will assisttheCommittee       in
           RequestsforCodeCasesshallprovide         a statement
                                                                         understandingtheproposedinquiryandreply.
        of need and   background information     similar tothat
        defined in B-3(b)andB-3(c),respectively,forCode
        revisions or additions. The proposed Code Case should SUBMITTAL
                                                                 B-6                 AND RESPONSE                                     (981
        identify the Code Section and be written as a question               to responses the
                                                                   Submittals and       from Committee
        and a reply in the same format as existing Code Cases.   shallmeetthefollowing:
                                                                            (a) Submittal. Inquiries from Code users shall prefer-
        B-5CODEINTERPRETATIONS                                           ably be submitted in typewritten form; however, legible
                                                                         handwritten inquiries    will also be considered.  They
           RequestsforCodeinterpretations       shallprovidethe          shall include the name, address, telephone number, and
        following:                                                       fax number, if available, of the inquirer and be mailed
           (a) Inquiry. Provide a condensed and precise ques-            to thefollowingaddress:
        tion, omitting superfluous background information, and,             Secretary
        when possible,composed in such a waythat a “yes”                    ASME B31 Committee
        or a “no” reply, possibly with brief provisos, is accept-           ThreeParkAvenue
        able. The question should be technically and editorially            NewYork, NY 10016-5990
        correct.                                                            (b) Response. The   Secretary       the
                                                                                                                ofappropriate
           (b) Reply. Provide a proposed reply that will clearly         SectionCommitteeshallacknowledgereceipt            of each
        and concisely answer the inquiry question. Preferably,           properlypreparedinquiryandshallprovide           a written
        thereplyshouldbe“yes”       or %o’’possiblywithbrief                      to inquirer
                                                                         response the                upon completion of the    re-
        provisos.                                                        questedaction by theappropriateSectionCommittee.




                                                                    98




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              ASME B31.4-1998 Edition                                                                                       Index




              Abandoning a piping system, 457                             Circumferential stresses, additive, 402.3.2(e),
              Accidental ignition, prevention of, 452.7                        434.13.4(c), 451.9(b)
              Additive circumferential stresses, 402.3.2(e),              Clearance, pipelines and underground structures,
                   434.13.4(c), 45 1.9(b)                                      434.6(c)
              Additive longitudinal stresses, 402.3.2(d)                  Closures
              Allowable stresses and other stress limits, 402.3             selection and limitations, 406.6
              Allowances and tolerances, wall thickness, 402.4            Coating, protective, application and inspection,
              Ambient influences, 401.4                                        436.5.1(b), 451.6.2(~)(10),461.1.2, 462.1(c),
              Ammonia, liquid anhydrous, 400.2, 423.2.5, 450.l(d),             463.1, 464(a)(3)
                  454(e)(7), 462.1  .(d)                                  Cold worked steel pipe, special requirements, Table
              Anchoring, 419.l(c), (d), 421.l(c)                              402.3.1(a), 402.3.1(d), 405.2.1(d), 434.7.1(a)
              Arc bums, 434.8.7(a), 436.5.1(a)(2), 451.6.2(a)(3),         Combined stress calculations, 419.6.4
                   (b)(4), (b)(5)                                         Combustible materiais, storage of, 452.4
              Assembly of piping components, 435                          Communications, 45     1.2
              Attachments to piping, 404.3.4                              Connections to main lines, 434.16
              Auxiliary piping, 422                                       Construction specifications, 434.1
                                                                          Contraction, thermal, 401.7
                                                                          Control piping, 422.3
                                                                          Corrective measures for corrosion control, 464
              Backfilling, 434.11
                                                                          Corrosion allowance, 402.4.1
              Bending, properties, unidentified pipe, 437.6.2
                                                                          Corrosion control
              Bends, pipe
                                                                            pipelines
                design, 404.2.1
                                                                               cathodic protection system, 461.1.3
                fabrication, 434.7.1
                                                                               corrective measures, 464
                flattening, 434.7.1(b)
                                                                               electrical interference, 46 1.6
                                                                                                           l.
                mitered bends, 406.2.2, 434.7.2
                                                                               electrical isolation, 461.1.4
                radius, 406.2.1(b)
                                                                              electrical test leads, 461.1.5
                wrinkle bends, 406.2.4
                                                                               external corrosion, 434.19, 453, 460, 461, 463
              Bolting, 408.5, 425.4
                                                                               internal corrosion, 434.19, 453, 460, 462
                procedure, 435.2
                                                                               monitoring, 461.3, 462.3, 463.3
                specifications, Tables 423.1 and 426.1
                                                                            protective coatings, application and inspection,
              Branch connections, 404.3.1
                                                                                  436.5.1(b), 451.6.2(~)(10),461.1.2, 462.l(c),
              Building installation, 434.20.3
                                                                                  463.1, 464(a)(3)
              Butt welds, 41 1.2, 434.8.6(a)
                                                                            pump stations, tank farms, and terminals, 461.l.l(b),
                type groove and joint design, 434.8.6(a)
                                                                                  461.2(b)
                                                                          Corrosion limits, 45 1.6.2(a)(6),  (a)(7)
                                                                          Corrosion records, 455,465
              Carbon dioxide, 400.2, 402.5, 437.4.1, 460                  Coupled joints, 418.1
              Casings under railroads and highways, 434.13.4(b),          Couplings, 406.3
                   451.9(a), 461.1.2(f)                                   Cover, minimum for buried pipelines, Table 434.6(a)
              Cast iron, 423.2.4                                          Crosses
                flanges, 408.1.1(c)                                         design, 404.3.1(a)
                valves, 407.l(b)                                            selection and limitations, 406.5
              Cathodic protection system, 461.1.3                         Crossings, 434.13
              Changes affecting safety, 450.2(d)                            bridge attachments, 434.13.3

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        Index                                                                                          ASME 831.41998 Edition

         highway crossings, 434.13.4, 45 1.9                        Elbows
         overhead structures, 434.13.2                                design, 404.2.2
         railroad crossings, 434.13.4, 451.9                          installation, 434.7.3
         river and stream crossings, 434.13.1                         selection and limitations, 406.2.3
         safety precautions, 434.3.2(c)                             Electrical installations, 434.22, 461.1.3(c)
         underground structures, 434.6(c)                           Electrical interference, corrosion control, 461.1.6
         underwater construction, 434.13.l(a)                       Electrical isolation, corrosion control, 461.1.4
       Currents, dynamic effects, 401.5.6                           Electrical test leads for corrosion control, 461.1.5
       Curved segments of pipe, 404.2                               Emergency plan, 450.2(c), 454
       Cutting and welding, safe practices in, 434.8.1(c),          Expansion, allowable stresses, 402.3.2(c)
            451.6.1, 451.6.2(~)(1),452.7(c)                         Expansion, fluid effects, 401.4.2
                                                                    Expansion, thermal, 401.7
                                                                    Expansion and flexibility, 419
       Dead loads, 401.6.2                                          Expansion coefficient, 419.6.1
       Definitions, 400.2                                           External corrosion, 434.19, 453, 460, 461, 463
       Derating, operating pressure, 45 1.7                         External design pressure, 401.2.3, 404.1.3
       Design                                                       Extruded outlet headers, 404.3.1(b)
          auxiliary and other specific piping, 422
          conditions, 401
         criteria, 402,403                                          Fabrication (construction), 434
         expansion and flexibility, 419                             Fencing, 434.20.2, 434.21.2, 452.5
         external pressure, 401.2.3, 404.1.3                        Ferrous pipe, 405.2.1
         factor, 402.3.1                                            Fillet welds, 434.8.6(b)
         internal pressure, 401.2.2, 404.1.2                        Fire protection, 434.20.7
         loads on pipe supporting elements, 420                     Firewalls, dikes or, 434.21.5
         pipe supporting elements, 421                              Fish tails and flat closures, 406.6.3
         pressure design of piping components, 404                  Fittings
            curved segments of pipe, 404.2                             design, 404.2.2, 404.3.1(a), 404.5, 404.6, 404.7
            flanges, 404.5                                             dimensions, 426
            intersections,404.3                                        flexibility and stress intensification factors,
            reducers, 404.6                                                 419.6.4(c)
            straight pipe, 404.1                                       installation, 434.7
            other pressure containing components, 404.7                materials, 423
         selection and limitations of piping components                selection and limitations, 406, 408
            fittings, elbows, bends, and intersections, 406         Flanged joints, selection and limitation, 412
            flanges, facings, gaskets, and bolting, 408             Flanges
            pipe, 405                                                  attachment, welding details for, 434.8.6(b)
            valves, 407                                                bolting, 408.5, 425.4
         selection and limitation of piping joints                     bolting specifications, Tables 423.1 and 426.1
            flanged, 4 12                                             cast iron, 408.l.l(c)
            sleeve, coupled, and other patented joints, 418            facings, 408.3
            threaded, 4 14                                            pressure design, 404.5
            welded, 4 1 1                                             selection and limitations, 408
         temperature, 401.3.1                                         specifications, Tables 423.1 and 426.1
       Dikes or firewalls, 434.21.5                                 Flattening, pipe bends, 434.7.1(b)
       Dimensional requirements, 426                                Flattening test for pipe, 437.6.2(a)
       Disposal piping, 422.6                                       Flexibility, expansion and, 419
       Ditching, 434.6                                              Flexibility factors, 419.6.4(c)
       Dynamic effects, 401.5                                       Fluid expansion effect, 401.4.2


             dynamic
       Earthquake,          effect, 401.5.3                                     and
                                                                    Gaskets, selection     limitation, 408.4


                                                              100




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             ASME B31.4-199% Edition                                                                                             Index


             Gas pockets, welds, 434.8.5(b)                                Internal pressure design equation for pipe, 404.1.2
             General corrosion, 45 1.6.2.(a)(6)                            Interpass temperature for welding, 434.8.8(a)
             General statements, 400                                       Intersections
             Girth welds, 434.8                                              design, 404.3
             Gouges in pipe, 434.5, 436.5.1(a)(2), 451.6.2                    selection and limitations, 406.5
             Grooves in pipe, 434.5, 436.5.l(a)(2), 45 1.6.2               Iron, cast, malleable, and wrought, 423.2.4
             Groove type, butt welds, 434.8.6(a)
             Grooving allowance, 402.4.2
                                                                           Joint factor E for weld seam of pipe, 402.4.3
                                                                             determination of, 437.6.4
             Hangers and supports, 421                                     Joint selection and limitations
             Headers, extruded outlet,404.3.1 (b)                            flanged joints, 412
             Highway crossings, 434.13.4, 451.9                              sleeve, coupled, and other patented joints, 418
             Holder (storage), pipe, 434.21.3(d)                             threaded joints, 414
             Hot taps, 451.6.1, 45 1.6.2(b), (c)                             welded joints, 4 11
             Hydrostatic test, 437.1.4(a)(2), 437.4.1, 45 1.6.3(a)

                                                                           Lapped flanges, 408.1.1 (b)
             Ignition, prevention of accidental, 452.7                     Leak records, 455
             Impact, dynamic effect, 401.5.1                               Leak repairs, 451.6.2(b), (c)
             Imperfections, limits and disposition, 451.6.2(a)             Leak tests for pipelines to operate at 20% or less of
             Inland coastal water construction, 434.14                          SMYS, 437.1.4(a)(3), 437.4.3
             Inquiries, App. B                                             Limitations
             Inspection                                                      fittings, elbows, bends, and intersections, 406
                during construction, 434.2, 436                              flanges, facings, gaskets, and bolting, 408
                operation and maintenance                                    materials, 423.2
                   pipelines, 451                                            pipe, 405
                   pump stations, terminals, and tank farms, 452             valves, 407
                welding, 434.8.5, 45   1.6.3                               Limits of imperfections, 45 1.6.2(a)
             Inspector qualification, 436.2                                Line markers, 402.1, 434.18, 451.3
             Installation                                                  Loads
               connections to main lines, 434.16                             currents, dynamic effects, 401.5.6
               electrical facilities, 434.22.3, 461.1.3(c)                   dead, 401.6.2
               electrical test leads, 461.1.5                                external, 434.13.4(c), 45 1.9(b)
                instrument and other auxiliary piping, 435.5                 live, 401.6.1
                line markers, 434.18, 45   1.3                               occasional, 402.3.3
                liquid metering facilities, 434.23                           pipe supporting elements, 420
                liquid strainers and filters, 434.24                         sustained and thermal expansion, 402.3.2
                manifolds, 435.4                                             waves, dynamic effects, 401.5.6
                pipe in the ditch, 434.1 1                                   wind, 4015 2
                protective coatings, 461.1.2, 463.1                        Localized corrosion pitting,45 1.6.2(a)(7)
                pumping unit piping, 435.3                                 Location of
                pump station, tank farm, and terminal facilities,            pump stations, 434.20.2
                      434.20                                                 storage and working tankage, 434.2 1.2
                scraper traps, 434.17                                        valves, 434.15
                special crossings, 434.13                                  Longitudinal stresses, 402.3.2(d)
                storage and working tankage, 434.21                        Longitudinal weld seam joint factor E for pipe, 402.4.3
                valves, 434.15
             Instruments and other auxiliary piping, 422.3, 435.5
             Intensification factors, Fig. 419.6.4(c)                      Maintenance
             Internal corrosion, 434.19, 453, 460, 462                      pipeline, 45 1
             Internal design pressure, 401.2.2                              plans and procedures, 450

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        Index                                                                                         ASME B31.4-1998Edition

          pump stations, terminals, and tank farms, 452                  design and protection of special assemblies,
          relief valves, pressure limiting devices, etc., 452.3                A402.3.10
          valves, 45 1.7                                                 design
        Malleable iron, 423.2.4                                             conditions, A401
        Markers, line, 402.1, 434.18, 451.3                                 general, A401.1
        Materials, 423                                                      criteria, A402
          limitations, 423.2                                                expansion and flexibility, A402.3.6
         qualification of, 423.1(b)                                         clamps and supports, A402.3.7
          specifications,423.1                                              connectors and flanges, A402.3.8
        Maximum steady state operating pressure, 401.2.2,                   factors for offshore pipeline systems, Table
            451.1, 451.7, 456(b)                                                  402.3.5(a)
        Meters, 434.23                                                      flexible pipe, A402.3.11
        Mitered bends                                                       load classifications
         fabrication, 434.7.2                                                  hydrostatic test, A401.1 l. 1
         limitations, 406.2.2                                                  installation, A401.9.1
        Modulus of elasticity, 419.6.2                                         operational, A40 l . 10.1
        Monitoring, corrosion control, 461.3, 462.3, 463.3                 other design considerations, A4 10
        Monitoring, flow, 452.l(b)                                             pressure components, A404
        Multiple openings, reinforcement, 404.3.1 (e)                      pipe supporting elements, A421
                                                                           pipeline crossings, A402.3.12
                                                                           structural riser protectors, A402.3.9
        Nominal wall thickness, 404.1.1                                 disposition of defects, A45 1.6.2
        Normal operating conditions, 402.2.3                            ditching, A434.6
        Normal operation, variations from, 402.2.4                      electrical interference, A461.1.6
                                                                        electrical isolation, A461.1.4
                                                                        emergency plan, A454
                                                                        environmental loads
        Offshore                                                           during hydrostatic test, A401.11.3
          allowable stresses and other stress limits, A402.3               during installation, A401.9.3
          allowances, A402.4                                               during operation, A401.10.3
          backfUing, A434.11                                            expansion and flexibility, A4 19
          bends, pipe                                                   fencing, A452.5
             bends, miters and elbows, A406.2, A434.7                   fittings, elbows, bends, and intersections, A406
             made from pipe, A434.7.1                                   flanges, facings, gaskets and bolting, A408
          bottom soils, A401.9.4                                           flanges, A408.1
          branch connections, A404.3.1                                         facings, A408.3
          cathodic protection system, A461.1.3                                general, A408.1.1, A408.3.1
          closures, A406.6                                              flexible pipe, A405.3
             fabricated, A406.6.4                                          repair, A451.6.4
          construction, A434                                            general statements, A400
             inspection, A434.2                                         handling, hauling, stringing, and storing, A434.4
          corrosion control                                             hydrostatic test design considerations, A401.11
             external corrosion control, A461, A463                     hydrostatic test loads, A40 l. 11.2
                new installations, A46 l . 1, A463.1                    inspection, A436, A45l. 11
                offshore piping systems exposed to atmospheric             offshore pipeline risers, A451.10
                     conditions, A463                                      type and extent of examination, A436.5
                offshore submerged pipelines, A46 1                        visual, A436.5. I
             general, A460, A461.l. 1                                   installation, design considerations, A401.9
             internal corrosion control, A462                              loads, A40 1.9.2
          definitions, A400.2                                              procedures and equipment selection, A434.14.2
          derating a pipeline to a lower operating pressure,            intersections, A404.3
                A45 1.7                                                 leak testing, A437.4.3

                                                                  I02




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                 ASME B31.4-1998 Edition                                                                                             Index

                    limitations on materials, A423.2                               testing, A437
                   line markers, A434.18                                              general, A437.1
                   markers, A45 1.3                                                   pressure, A437.4
                   materials, A423                                                    testing after new construction, A437.1.4
                        acceptable materials and specifications,A423. I            threaded joints, A414
                   mitered elbows, A406.2.2                                           general, A414.1
                   monitoring, A461.3, A462.3                                      used piping components and equipment, A409
                   movement of existing pipelines, A434.14.3                       valves, A407
                   offshore                                                          block and isolating valves, A434.15
                       design conditions, A401.1.1                                   general, A407.1, A434.15.1
                       pipeline construction, A434.14                                maintenance, A451.8
                       platform, pump station, terminal and tank farm              water crossing, A434.13.1
                             operation and maintenance, A452                       welding, A434.8
                   operational, design considerations, A401.10                       weld joint factors, A402.4.3
                       loads, A40l. 10.2                                             welding qualifications, A434.8.3
                   orange peel swages, A406.4.2                                      welding quality, A434.8.5
                   patrolling, A45 1.5                                          Operating pressure, 401.2.2, 451.1, 45 1.7, 456
                   pigs and internal inspection tools, A410.1                   Operation and maintenance
                   pipe, A405                                                     pipeline, 45 1
                       ferrous pipe, A405.2.1                                     plans and procedures, 450.2
                       general, A404.1.1                                          procedures affecting safety, 450
                       metallic pipe, A405.2                                      pump station, terminal, and tank farm, 452
                       straight pipe, A404.1                                      qualifying for a higher operating pressure, 456
                  pipe depth and alignment, A434.14.1                             records, 455
                  pipeline operation and maintenance, A45 1                     Orange peel bull plugs, 406.6.3
                       plans and procedures, A450.2                             Orange peel swages, 406.4.2
                      procedures affecting the safety of liquid                 Organizations, standards and specifications of, App. A
                            transportation piping systems, A450                 Overpressuring, protection against, 402.2.4
                  pipeline repairs, A45 1.6
                      general, A45 1.6.1
                  prevention of accidental ignition, A452.7                     Patrolling, 45 1.5
                  protective coating, A46 1.1.2                                 Pipe, steel
                  qualification                                                    bends, 404.2.1
                      of inspectors, A436.2                                        buckles, 434.5, 436.5.1(a)(2)
                      tests, A437.6                                               coated or lined, 405.2. I(e)
                  railroads and highways crossing existing pipelines,             cold worked steel, special limitations, Table
                         A45 1.9                                                        402.3.1(a), 402.3.1(d), 434.7.1(a), 405.2.l(d)
                 records, A437.7                                                  dents, 434.5, 436.5.1(a)(2), 451.6.2
                 reductions, A406.4                                               design, 404.1
                 repair of flexible pipe, A45 1.6.4                               end of preparations, standard, 434.8.6(a)
                 right of way, A434.3                                             expansion and flexibility, 419
                 right of way maintenance, A45 1.4                                flattening, test for, 437.6.2(a)
                 route selection considerations, A40 1.12                         gouges and grooves, 434.5, 436.5.l(a)(2), 45 1.6.2
                 scope, A400.1                                                    handling, hauling, stringing, and storing, 434.4
                 special components, A410.2                                       hangers, 42 1.1(e)
                 special crossings, A434.13                                       holder for storage, 434.2 1.3(d)
                 strength criteria                                                inspection, 436
                     during installation and testing, A402.3.4                    installation of, in the ditch, 434.10
                     during operations, A402.3.5                                  installation of, special crossings, 434.13
                 stress relieving, A434.8.9                                      joint factor E for weld seam, 402.4.3
                 survey and staking or marking, A434.3.3                          limitations of design values, 402.3.1(g)
                 test leads. A46l . 1.5                                           protection from unusual external conditions, 402.1

                                                                          103




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       Index                                                                                                 ASME B31.4-1998 Edition

          protective coatings, 436.5.1(b), 45 1.6.2(c)( lo),               Procedures, operation and maintenance, 450
                46 1.1.2, 462. ](c), 463.1, 464(a)(3)                      Procedures, pipe bending, 434.7.1
          qualification of specification ASTM A 120,                       Procedures and welders, qualification of, 434.8.3
                405.2.1(c)                                                 Proof tests, 404.7
          reuse of, 405.2.1(b), (c)                                        Proprietary items, 400.1.2(g)
          selection and limitations, 405                                     limitations, 423.2.4(b)
          specifications, list of, Tables 423.1 and 426.1                  Protection of pipelines against unusual external
          specified minimum yield strength, Table 402.3. I(a)                   conditions, 402.1
          supporting elements, loads and design, 420,421                   Protective coatings, 436.5.1(b), 45 1.6.2(c)(IO), 461.1.2,
          surface requirements, 434.5                                           462.1(c), 463.1, 464(a)(3)
          testing, 437, 45 1.6.3, 456(b)                                   Pump stations, tank farms, and terminals, 434.20
          threads, 414.1, 426.3                                              building installation, 434.20.3
          unidentified or used, limitations, 405.2.1(b), (c)                 corrosion control, 46 l. l.(b), 46 1.2(b)
                                                                                                         1
          unidentified, S value, 402.3.l(c)                                  electrical facilities, 434.22
          used, S value, 402.3.1(b)                                          fenced areas, 434.20.2, 452.5
          welding, 434.8                                                     fire protection, 434.20.7
       Pipeline repairs, 45 1.6                                              location, 434.20.2
       Pipelines on bridges, 434.13.3                                        operation and maintenance, 452
       Pipe-type holders (storage), 434.2 1.3(d)                             piping, 434.20.5
       Piping                                                                pressure disposal piping, 422.6
          abandoning of, 457                                                 pumping equipment and prime movers, 434.20.4
          anchorage for                                                      safety devices, 434.20.6
             buried, 419.l(b), (c), 419.7.3(e)                               testing, 437, 456(b)
             exposed, 419.l(d), 419.7.3(e), 421.1
          control, instrument, and other auxiliary, 422;3, 435.5
          hangers, 42l.l(e)
                                                                           Qualification
          pressure disposal, 422.6
                                                                             inspectors, 436.2
          supports for, 420, 421
                                                                             materials, 423
          testing, 437, 45 1.6.3
                                                                            procedures and welders, 434.8.3
          welding, 434.8
                                                                             records, welding, 434.8.3(d)
       Pitting, localized corrosion, evaluation of, 45 1.6.2(a)(7)
                                                                           Qualifying system for higher pressure, 456
       Plan, emergency, 450.2(c), 454
       Plans and procedures, operation and maintenance, 450
       Platform risers, 45 . 1O
                             I
       Plugs, orange peel bull, 406.6.4                                    Radiograph examination
       Pneumatic, testing, 437.4.3                                           crossings, 434.8.5
       Poisson’s ratio, 419.6.3                                              field welds, 434.8.5, 451.6.3
       Preheating, and interpass temperature for welding,                    procedures, 434.8.5(a)(2)
             434.8.8                                                         tie-ins, 434.8.5, 437.1.4(b), 451.6.3
       Pressure                                                            Radius, pipe bends, 406.2.1(b)
          derating, 45 1.7                                                 Railroad crossings, 434.13.4, 45 1.9
          design, 401.2, 404                                               Railroad transportation of pipe, 434.4
         disposal piping, 422.6                                            Ratings, pressure, 402.2
          limiting devices                                                 Records
             capacity of, 402.2.4                                            corrosion of pipelines, 455, 465
             installation, 434.20.6                                          design, construction, and testing, 437.7
             testing, 437.1.4(c), 452.2                                      inspections, 455(e), 465(b)
          maximum steady state operating, 401.2.2, 45 1.1, 456               pipeline leaks, 455(d)
         qualifying for higher operating, 456                                pipeline patrol, 455(b)
          ratings, 402.2                                                     qualifying system for higher pressure, 456(d)
         testing, 437, 45 1.6.3, 456(b)                                      welders qualification tests, 434.8.3(d)
       Prevention of accidental ignition, 452.7                              welding procedures, 434.8.3(d)

                                                                     104



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               ASME B31.4-1998 Edition                                                                                           Index

               Reducers                                                       Stress
                 design, 404.6                                                   analysis (flexibility), 419.7
                 selection and limitations, 406.4                                calculations, combined, 419.6.4
               Reference standards, App. A                                       intensification factors, Fig. 419.6.4(c)
               Reinforcement                                                     limits, 402.3
                 extruded outlets, 404.3. I(b)                                      occasional loads, 402.3.3
                 welded branch connections, 404.3.1(c), (d), (e)                    sustained loads and thermal expansion, 402.3.2
               Relief valves                                                    relieving, 434.8.9, 435.4.3, 435.4.4
                 inspection and testing of, 437.1.4(c), 452.2                 Stresses, allowable, 402.3
                 installation, 434.20.6                                       Subsidence, dynamic effect, 4013.5
               Removal or repair of defects or imperfections                  Supports, braces and anchors, 42 1,l
                 arc bums, 434.8.7(a), 451.6.2                                Surface defects, 434.5, 436.5.1
                 welds, 434.8.7(b), 45 1.6.2                                  Surveying and staking or marking, 434.3.3
                 other, 434.5, 434.8.7(c), 451.6.2                            Swages, orange peel, 406.4.2
               Repairs, pipeline, 45 1.6
               Repairs, testing, 45 1.6.3
               Responsibility for qualification of procedures and
                    welders, 434.8.3(e)
               Reuse of steel pipe, 405.2.l(b), (c)                           Tankage, 434.21, 452.3
               Right of way, 434.3, 451.4                                     Tank farms, pump stations, and terminals, 434.20, 452
               Risers, platform, 45l. 10                                      Taps, hot, 451.6.1, 451.6.2(b), (c)
               Road and highway crossings, 434.13.4, 451.9                    Tees
                                                                                design, 404.3.1(a)
                                                                                selection and limitations, 406.5
                                                                              Temperature, 40 1.3
               Safety devices                                                 Terminals, pump stations, tank farms, 434.20, 452
                  installation, 434.20.6                                      Testing, 437
                  maintenance, 452.2                                            after construction, 437.1.4
                  testing, 437.1.4(c), 452.2                                    fabricated items, 437.1.3
               scope, 400.1                                                     leak, 437.4.3
               Scraper traps, 434.17                                            pressure limiting devices, 437.1.4(c), 452.2
               Signs, 452.6                                                     qualifying for higher operating pressure, 456(b)(2)
               Slag inclusions, welds, 434.8.5(b)                               records, 437.7, 456(d)
               Smoking, 452.7                                                   repairs, 45 1.6.3
               Spacing of valves, 434.15.2                                      systems or parts of systems, 437.1.4(a)
               Specification ASTM A 120 pipe, qualification,                    tie-ins, 434.8.5, 437.1.4(b), 451.6.3
                     405.2.1(c)                                                 unidentified or used steel pipe, 437.6
               Specifications                                                   welding, 434.8.5
                 electrical installations, 434.22,46 l . 1.3(e)               Test leads, corrosion control, 461.1.5
                 list of, App. A                                              Test pressure, 437.4
                 material, 423.1                                              Test requirements, 437, 451.6.3, 456(b)
                 pipeline construction, 434.1                                 Tests
                 pump station construction, 434.20                              corrosion control, 461.3, 462.3, 463.3
                 storage and working tankage, 434.21                            leak, for pipelines to operate at 20% or less of
               Specified minimum yield strength, Table 402.3.l(a)                     SMYS, 437.1.4(a)(3), 437.4.3
               Spiral weld seam joint factor E for pipe, 402.4.3                qualification, unidentified or used steel pipe, 437.6
               Standards, dimensional, 426.1                                    welding, 434.8.5, 45 1.6.3(b)
               Standards and specifications, Tables 423.1 and 426. I,         Thermal expansion, 4 19
                     APP A                                                      coefficient of, 419.6.1
               Standards of acceptability of welds, 434.8.5(b)                Thickness, steel pipe
               Storage and working tankage, 434.21, 452.3                       design, 404.1
               Storage of combustible materials, 452.4                          determination, unidentified or used, 437.6.3

                                                                        1o5




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       Index                                                                                             ASME B31.4-199% Edition

       Tie-ins, 434.8.5, 434.9, 437.1.4(b), 45 1.6.3                    details for openings
       Tolerances, wall thickness and defect, 402.4.5                      with encirclement, Fig. 404.3.1(~)(1)
       Transition nipples, 434.7.3(b), 434.8.6(a)                          with localized reinforcement, Fig. 404.3.1(~)(2)
                                                                           without reinforcement, Fig. 404.3.1(~)(3)
                                                                        end treatment, acceptable
       Undercutting welds, 434.8.5(b)                                      equal thickness, Fig. 434.8.6(a)-( 1)
       Unidentified or used steel pipe                                     unequal thickness, Fig. 434.8.6(a)-(2)
         limitations, 405.2.1(b), (c)                                   filler metal, 434.8.2
        qualification tests, 437.6                                      general, 434.8.1
           bending properties, 437.6.2                                  inspection and tests, 434.8.5(a), 436.5.1(b)(4), (b)(5),
           minimum yield strength value, 437.6.7                              436.5.2(a), (b), 451.6.3
           visual examination, 437.6.1                                  maintenance, 451.6
           wall thickness, 437.6.3                                      preheating and interpass temperature for, 434.8.8
           weldability, 437.6.5                                         procedure, 434.8.3
           weld seam joint factor E, 437.6.4                            processes, 434.8.2
           yield strength determination, 437.6.6                       qualification of procedures and welders, 434.8.3,
                                                                              451.6.2(c)( I), (c)(2)
                                                                       qualification records, 434.8.3(d)
       Valves                                                          responsibility for qualification, 434.8.3(e)
         dimensional requirements, 426                                 safe practices in cutting and welding, 434.8.l(c),
         installation and location, 434.15                                    451.6.1, 451.6.2(~)(1),452.7(c)
         maintenance                                                   standards of acceptability, 434.8.5(b)
            pipeline, 45 1.8                                            stress relieving, 434.8.9
            relief valves, etc., 452.2                                 terms, 434.8.1(b)
         materials, 423                                                tests, 434.8.5(a), 436.5.2(a), (b), 451.6.3
         selection and limitations, 407                                variables, 434.8.3(b)
         spacing, 434.15.2                                            Welds
         specifications and standards, Tables 423.1 and 426.1          bum-through areas, 434.8.5(b)
         testing relief valves, etc., 437.1.4(c), 452.2                cracks in, 434.8.5(b)
       Vibration, dynamic effect, 401   S.4                            discontinuities in, 434.8.5(b)
                                                                       fillet, 434.8.6(b)
                                                                       gas pockets, 434.8.5(b)
                                                                       inadequate penetration and incomplete fusion,
       Wall thickness, steel pipe
                                                                              434.8.5(b)
        allowances and tolerances, 402.4
                                                                       porosity, 434.8.5(b)
        least nominal, 404.1
                                                                       removal or repair of defects, 434.8.7(b)
        unidentified or used steel pipe, 437.6.3
                                                                       slag inclusions, 434.8.5(b)
       Waves, dynamic effects, 401.5.6
                                                                       tack, 434.8.6(c)
       Weight effects, 401.6
                                                                       types of, 434.8.6
       Weldability, unidentified or used steel pipe, 437.6.5
                                                                       undercutting, 434.8.5(b)
       Welded branch connections, 404.3.1(c), (d), (e)                Wind, dynamic effect, 401.5.2
       Welders                                                        Wrinkle bends, 406.2.4
        qualification of, 434.8.3
        requalification requirements, 434.8.3(c)
       Welding, 434.8                                                 Yield strength
        arc burns, 434.8.7(a), 436.5.1(a)(2), 45 1.6.2(a)(3),           specified minimum, steel pipe, Table 402.3.l(a)
              (b)(4),                                                   unidentified or used steel pipe, 437.6.6, 437.6.7




                                                                106



COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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                S T D - A S M E B 3 1 - 4 - E N G L L778 R 0 7 5 9 b 7 0 Ob09304 T 8 4 m




                                                  ASME CODE FOR PRESSURE PIPING. B31



             B31.1         Power Piping ................................................................       1998
             B31.2'        FuelGasPiping ..............................................................        1968
             B31.3         ProcessPiping ...............................................................       1999
             B31.4         Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid Hydrocarbons and Other Liquids .......   1998
             B31.5         RefrigerationPiping ..........................................................      1992
             B31.8         Gas TransmissionandDistributionPipingSystems       ..............................   1995
             B31.9         BuildingServicesPiping ......................................................       1996
             B31.11        Slurry Transportation Piping Systems ...........................................       (R1998)
                                                                                                               1989

             B31G          Manual for Determining the Remaining Strength of C r o e Pipelines: A
                                                                             ordd
                           Supplement to ASME B31 Code for Pressure Piping .............................       1991




                available USAS B31.2-1968 as an historical document for a period of time.




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