Volume 4 Issue 3

Document Sample
Volume 4 Issue 3 Powered By Docstoc
					          BOARD

       Richard L. Bond
       Tyson Foods, Inc.
                                  NEWSA quarterly update on research, education and information
                                  July 2002                                                                                Volume 4                                                            Issue: 3
      J. Patrick Boyle            ○    ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○

    American Meat Institute

       William Buckner
       Excel Corporation
                                  Possible Government Actions To Reduce U.S.
       Philip Clemens
                                  BSE Risks Could Be Expensive, Ineffective
    Hatfield Quality Meats
                                     A new AMIF analysis shows that                                                                       Under option one, USDA would
          Ivo Cozzini
          Cozzini, Inc.
                                  risk reduction actions outlined in a                                                                 designate brain, spinal cord and any
                                  USDA “thinking paper” on bovine                                                                      material contaminated with brain
        Henry A. Davis            spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)                                                                      and spinal cord from cattle 24 months
Greater Omaha Packing Co., Inc.
                                  could cost hundreds of millions of                                                                   or older as “specified risk materials”
        Timothy T. Day            dollars a year with few risk reduction                                                               or SRMs. This designation would
        Bar-S Foods Co.
                                  benefits because the U.S. is already                                                                 prohibit their use for human food.
       William Fielding           BSE-free and has strong firewalls in                                                                    Under option two, USDA would
   Farmland Industries, Inc.
                                  place to prevent the cattle disease.                                                                 prohibit the use of the vertebral
         Neil Genshaft            The analysis was done for AMIF by                                                                    column from non-ambulatory cattle,
        Fresh Mark, Inc.          Sparks Companies, Inc.                                                                               and possibly from any cattle 24
    William A. Geoppinger            In November 2001, a risk assess-                                                                  months or older, as a source material
        Sara Lee Foods            ment for USDA by Harvard University                                                                  in advanced meat recovery (AMR)
          John Griffin
                                  showed that the chance of BSE                                                                        systems, which use pressure to trim
     Griffin Industries, Inc.     occurring in U.S. herds is extremely                                                                 meat from bones.
      James H. Hodges
                                  small and that if it did occur, safe-                                                                   The third option would prohibit
    American Meat Institute       guards would rapidly contain the                                                                     cheek meat from cattle 24 months or
                                  animal disease. In Spring 2002,                                                                      older and all non-ambulatory cattle
      Joel W. Johnson
   Hormel Foods Corporation       USDA published a “thinking paper”                                                                    from human food if the meat is not
                                  detailing three key policy options that                                                              removed before the skull is split.
      Carl W. Kuehne
    American Foods Group
                                  might reduce the small risk even
                                  further.                                                                                                                                         Continued on page 5
     Kenneth E. Leonard

                                  Pediocin Combined With Thermal Pasteurization,
    L& H Packing Company

     Joseph W. Luter, III
     Smithfield Foods, Inc.
                                  Irradiation Shows Promise
          Bo Manly
   Premium Standard Farms         AMIF Study Shows Treatments Delay Listeria Growth
         David Miniat                An Iowa State University study                                                                    packaging. A five-strain cocktail of
         Ed Miniat, Inc.
                                  funded by the AMI Foundation reveals                                                                 L.m. was added just before vacuum
        Daniel Ochylski           that treatments of pediocin on frank-                                                                sealing. Frankfurters were packaged
     Pinnacle Food Group
                                  furters, when combined with either                                                                   in arrangements of 10 links in two
      Stewart K. Owens            irradiation or pasteurization, can                                                                   rows of five, five links in one row, and
    Bob Evans Farms, Inc.         significantly reduce the presence                                                                    in single link packages.
         Rick Searer              Listeria monocytogenes (L.m.) and                                                                      Treatment combinations included
      Oscar Mayer Foods           inhibit future L.m. growth during                                                                    Alta 2341® with post-packaging
        John Simons               storage. Pediocin is a bacteriocin                                                                   thermal pasteurization at 81 degrees
    ConAgra Beef Company          produced by Pediococcus acidilactici.                                                                                                            Continued on page 6
                                     The project, conducted by a team of
         Fritz Usinger
       Fred Usinger, Inc.         researchers at ISU led by Dr. Joseph                                                                 Inside this Issue...
                                  G. Sebranek, was published in April
       W. Dan Wright
   Wright Brand Foods, Ltd.       2002.                                                                                                Science Soundbites                                                                      2
                                     In the study, Alta 2341®, a com-                                                                  Equipment Design Task Force                                                             2
                                  mercially available pediocin source,                                                                 Antibiotic Resistance Issues                                                            3
                                  was sprayed on the frankfurters in                                                                   USDA Listeria Research                                                                  5
                                  two arbitrary-unit concentrations
                                                                                                                                       Ongoing Research                                                                        7
                                  after peeling and before vacuum
                                           AMI Foundation News



AMI Equipment Design Task Force Sets Sanitary Design Principles
   The AMI Equipment Design Task Force (EDTF)            maintenance, cleaning and/or sanitation.
has established a list of sanitary design principles       • Made of Compatible Materials: Construction
and recommended a certification process to ensure        materials should be compatible with the product,
the equipment meets these criteria.                      environment, cleaning and sanitizing chemicals
   The EDTF, chartered by the Listeria Task Force, is    and the methods of cleaning and sanitation.
comprised of representatives from eight meat and           • No Product or Liquid Collections: Equipment
poultry processing companies. Equipment design           should be self-draining to ensure that the food
principles were established in an effort to inhibit      product, water or product liquid does not accumu-
the growth of Listeria on plant equipment. AMI and       late, pool or condense on the equipment.
the EDTF have worked in consultation with equip-           • Hollow Areas Hermetically Sealed: Hollow
ment manufacturers and government officials to           areas of equipment must be eliminated where
establish the following 10 design principles:            possible or permanently sealed. Bolts, studs,
   • Cleanable to a Microbiological Level: Food          mounting plates, brackets, junction boxes, name-
equipment must be designed to ensure effective and       plates, end caps, sleeves and other such items must
efficient cleaning and sanitation over the life of the   be continuously welded to the surface of the equip-
equipment.                                               ment.
   • Accessible for Inspection, Maintenance,               • Sanitary Operational Performance: During
Cleaning and Sanitation: All parts of the equip-         normal operations, equipment must perform so as
ment should be easily accessible for inspection,                                          Continued on page 6

Science Soundbites
Hydrodynamic Shock Waves Can Enhance Meat Tenderness
  A new meat tenderization process via electri-            Dioxin is a natural by-product of man-made and
cally generated hydrodynamic shock waves im-             natural chemical reactions. Scientists have con-
proves tenderness in lower grade beef by 20 to 30        cluded that dioxin tends to accumulate in fat and
percent, according to meat scientist James Claus         that excessive long-term exposure may cause
of the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The              adverse health effects, including cancer. Experts
technology also works in pork and chicken.               estimate that about 95 percent of human dioxin
  In this new process, shock waves travel through        exposure comes from food.
the meat, breaking some of the tiny fibers in the          Although U.S. and EU foods currently have similar
muscle cells. This tenderizes the meat and im-           dioxin levels, analysis of U.S. data indicates that
proves its ability to absorb and retain moisture.        U.S. agricultural exports unavoidably will surpass
Claus found that meat tenderized with this process       the maximum EU dioxin limits for consumption.
and injected with marinade afterward retained five       Much of the food will also fail to pass the “action
percent more marinade than untreated meat.               level” at which a food is consumable, but triggers an
  Data have shown that the process can have an           investigation to identify its dioxin source in the food
antimicrobial effect. The process could significantly    chain.
shorten broiler processing by significantly improv-        A low initial sampling rate of 1,500 per year for
ing the tenderness of chicken breasts removed from       the entire EU and the entire variety of affected foods
the bone before broiler storage on ice.                  ensures that rejection rates initially will be low, but
  Hydrodyne Inc. of San Juan, Puerto Rico, provided      a rejection from this small sample pool could lead to
the small-truck-sized machine Claus evaluated.           a negative image for the sampled food and country of
Hydrodyne Inc. holds patents for tenderizing meat        export, U.S. experts say.
with electrically generated hydrodynamic shock             The U.S. objected to the dioxin testing during a
waves.                                                   comment period provided by the EU in accord with
                                                         World Trade Organization (WTO) rules. U.S. officials
   The European Union (EU) began enforcing a new         said there is insufficient evidence of a public health
dioxin restriction on food and feed July 1. Al-          threat from dioxin and questioned the EU’s unclear
though most U.S. meat products have already been         implementation guidelines. There is no evidence
eliminated from export to the EU by other EU health      that the EU will reconsider its dioxin restriction.
restrictions, dioxin restrictions could impact U.S.
exports of livestock byproducts, other foods and
feeds.


Page 2
                                             AMI Foundation News



Antibiotic Resistance Issues Move Into Spotlight
Animal Health Institute Expert Richard Carnevale, VMD, Offers Latest Science on Issue
  Many questions surround human and animal                 resistant foodborne pathogens to affect public health
antibiotic use and the issue of antibiotic resistance.     is declining.
AMIF Newsletter staff posed a series of questions to
Richard Carnevale, VMD, vice president, regulatory,           Q: To what degree are antibiotics overpre-
scientific and international affairs at the Animal         scribed in the human population?
Health Institute. Dr. Carnevale’s responses follow.           A: It’s a good question and there are many esti-
                                                           mates. Clearly, there is widespread agreement that
   Q: To what degree do you believe the public             spread of resistant pathogens in hospitals, nursing
understands or misunderstands the issue of                 homes and other institutional facilities combined
antibiotic resistance?                                     with overuse of certain antibiotics are the major
   A: We know from consumer research that the              causes of antibiotic resistance problems in hu-
issue of antibiotic resistance, as it pertains to          mans. The other problem is not from over-prescrip-
meat, is not a top-of-mind issue for consumers.            tion, but from lack of patient compliance in finish-
Consumers generally associate resistance with the          ing a prescribed regimen of therapy, leading to a
issue of human use of antibiotics. We also know            greater likelihood that resistant strains will arise.
from research that the simplistic story that some
groups have tried to communicate – that antibiotic            Q: We hear conflicting information about the
use in animals results in resistance in human              proportion of veterinary antibiotics used to treat
pathogens – has confused consumers, and to the             illness and the proportion used for growth promo-
extent they tie meat to resistant bacteria in hu-          tion. What is your best estimate?
mans, they mistakenly believe it comes as a result            A: AHI annually surveys its members – producers
of antibiotic residues in meat.                            of animal health products – about the amount of
                                                           antibiotics sold for animal use each year. Each
   Q: What does the science show are the roots of          year, results consistently show about 87 percent of
antibiotic resistance for microorganisms associ-           antibiotics sold to the veterinary market are for the
ated with human illness?                                   treatment, control and prevention of disease, and 13
   A: First of all, the serious problems with resistant    percent for growth promotion.
pathogens in humans primarily occur with those                Antibiotics are approved and used for four specific
infections that are not linked to animal antibiotic        purposes: treating disease, controlling disease,
use – things like tuberculosis, MRSA and VRE.              preventing disease and enhancing growth. The
   We know that use of antibiotics in animals will         latter purpose is more accurately described as
select for resistant bacteria residing in animals,         maintaining the health of the animal by shifting
just as the use of antibiotics in people will select for   the balance of harmful bacteria in favor of beneficial
resistant bacteria in the human body. The question         bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract, resulting in
is, do those resistant bacteria in animals transfer to     better nutrient utilization measured by feed effi-
humans, through food, in large enough doses to             ciency and average daily gain.
cause diseases that lead to treatment that doesn’t
work? The answer is that there is no evidence it             Q: Is the use of selected antibiotics for growth
has ever happened, and the opportunity for it to           promotion safe? Or are we creating bacteria with
happen is declining.                                       resistance to too many antibiotics that are also
   While foodborne pathogens can cause illness in          used for human disease intervention?
humans, doctors don’t treat the vast majority of             A: Absolutely the use is safe. Safety to the ani-
these infections with antibiotics. Fluids, antidiar-       mal, humans and the environment has to be dem-
rheal medicines, and time is usually all that is           onstrated as part of FDA’s approval process. Other-
necessary to cure the illness. Scientific evidence         wise, these products would not be on the market.
is conflicting as to whether antibiotics even affect       Antibiotics have been used for these purposes in
the course of recovery, and, in some cases, they can       animals for more than 40 years with no evidence
make things worse. And, government data shows              that they pose a significant threat to public health.
the prevalence of pathogens in meat and poultry is         On the contrary, the use of these products has
declining, due in large part to successful implemen-       helped to provide an abundant and safe meat and
tation of improved meat processing and government          poultry supply to consumers. Moreover, nearly 50
inspection programs. So with pathogens in meat             percent of antibiotics used in animal feed have little
declining, and the trends in resistant foodborne           or no relationship to those drugs used in human
bacteria in humans declining, the opportunity for          medicine.                        Continued on page 4
                                                                                                       Page 3
                                           AMI Foundation News


Antibiotic Resistance
Continued from page three                                turkeys and only under the order of a licensed
  Available government data demonstrates the             veterinarian. It is used sparingly in about one to two
margin of safety is growing. The National Antimi-        percent of birds in a given year. It is never used to
crobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS), a          promote growth.
collaborative effort of CDC, FDA and USDA, shows            FDA has recently granted the sponsor of the
the trend in the incidence of resistant foodborne        product a hearing on the proposed withdrawal, a
pathogens in humans is generally declining.              strong indication that they do not have a clear
                                                         scientific case. FDA’s proposed withdrawal was in
  Q: We now have antibacterial soaps and other           large part based on the fact that NARMS data
products aimed at creating “clean” environments.         showed human resistance to ciprofloxacin (a human
Are we too clean for our own good?                       fluoroquinolone) rose from 13 percent in 1998 to 18
  A: Any use of antimicrobials creates resistance        percent in 1999. However, the recently-published
pressure. We do need to be careful and cautious in       2000 data shows a decrease to 14 percent. There is
our use of these products. That’s why in the veteri-     no evidence that use of fluoroquinolones in poultry
nary medical community we continue to educate            is a threat to public health. Withdrawal of use is a
and promote the need to adhere to prudent use            threat to the health of poultry and the safety of food
principles.                                              and their use should be continued.

   Q: Some groups have suggested that potential             Q: What is the future of the use of selected
antibiotic residues in meat and poultry will cause       antibiotics as growth promotants?
antibiotic resistance in humans. Since the issue            A: All of the products currently marketed have
really pertains to antibiotic resistance of microor-     met all of the requirements FDA has mandated to
ganisms that may be present both in animals and          assure their safety including tests to assess bacte-
in humans, doesn’t this imply that better educa-         rial resistance concerns. Will the U.S. adhere to
tion of media and consumers is needed?                   science or follow Europe’s example of implementing
   A: Residues are highly regulated and monitored        the precautionary principle? Scientific evidence
by the federal government and do not pose a health       shows these products to be safe and effective. If we
risk to consumers. As a result, consumers do not         continue to make decisions based on science,
develop resistant pathogens as a result of antibiotic    veterinarians and livestock and poultry producers
residues in meat. It is important for people – and       will continue to use these tools that are important
the media – to understand that animals and people        to producing healthy animals.
do not develop resistance; bacteria develop resis-
tance. This is an education challenge for all of us.       Q: Can you address the impact on animals if
Educating the media is a key component, and FDA          subtherapeutic antibiotic use was eliminated?
also has a strong platform and credibility that should     A: We know from the European experience it
be used for this kind of education.                      would increase animal disease and thus decrease
                                                         our food safety protections.
  Q: A very limited study in late 2001 suggested           In Denmark, where some growth promotion
that meat and poultry purchased in the Washing-          products were banned, therapeutic use increased 30
ton, DC, area was widely contaminated with               percent in one year – a clear indication of increased
antibiotic resistant bacteria. If cooking destroys       animal disease. Similar evidence from Sweden,
all bacteria, how concerned should consumers and         France, Holland, Germany, Switzerland and the UK
policymakers be about this issue?                        shows the same story – the ban on growth promoters
  A: You are right – an important public policy goal     has resulted in greater use of antibiotics to treat
should be educating consumers on proper cooking          disease in animals. In general, therapeutic com-
methods. Groups that are truly concerned about           pounds are more important in human medicine
human health and not media platforms should also         than growth promotion compounds, so there are
focus on consumer education. In addition, wide-          significant questions about the benefits of this
spread irradiation could be a valuable tool in eradi-    tradeoff.
cating foodborne pathogens.                                Sick animals increase pressure on other links in
                                                         the food chain to reduce pathogen contamination.
  Q: What is your reaction to the FDA’s effort to        For instance, we know that the intestinal tract of
withdraw approval for fluoroquinolones in poul-          chickens is more likely to burst and spread patho-
try?                                                     gens in the processing plant due to increased
  A: First of all, this drug is used only to treat       prevalence of subclinical diseases that antibiotics
serious life-threatening infections in chickens and      used in the feed prevent. Removal of these products
                                                                                          Continued on page 8
Page 4
                                           AMI Foundation News


AMIF’s Huffman to Address International Meat Conference
   AMIF’s Vice President of Scientific Affairs Randy       In his address and journal article, Huffman will
Huffman, Ph.D., will address the International           discuss how more intense microbiological testing
Congress of Meat Science and                             and improved microbiological methods have led to a
Technology in Rome, Italy, August                        greater awareness by industry and government of
25-30. Huffman will deliver a                            the levels of pathogens on meat carcasses and
paper “Current and Future Tech-                          products. The increased awareness has spurred
nologies for the Decontamination                         research and development into new anti-microbial
of Carcasses and Fresh Meat,”                            technologies.
which will be published in the                             A copy of Huffman’s paper will be available from
journal Meat Science.                                    AMIF upon request after publication.




AMIF BSE Risk Analysis
Continued from page one                                  these exports in 2001 exceeded $33 million. Option
                                                         1 would effectively eliminate this market. In
  According to AMI Foundation President Jim              addition, if these materials are designated SRMs
Hodges, “The options in USDA’s thinking paper            and cannot be rendered into animal feed, the
would only be effective to protect public health if we   packer will incur enormous disposal fees estimated
had BSE in this country, which we do not. BSE poses      at $54 million per year. Additional recordkeeping
no risks via the meat supply because we do not           and segregation costs also would be incurred.
have BSE in U.S. herds.” Hodges said the beef
industry supports contingency planning, but said            Analysis: Option 2
the economic analysis by Sparks underscores the             Under option two, AMR systems likely could not be
fact that the options outlined would be extremely        used in any beef slaughter plants because it is
costly in a BSE-free nation without achieving any        impossible to determine the age of cattle at the
significant risk reduction.                              time of slaughter and therefore vertebral columns
                                                         from all cattle would be excluded. Under this
   Findings                                              scenario, plants would not only lose their invest-
   In its analysis, Sparks noted that USDA’s think-      ment in existing AMR systems, they would also
ing paper targets animals that USDA believes to be       incur costs in retrofitting the plant with alternative
at the highest risk of developing BSE - cattle 24        auto knife technology, higher labor expenses to
months or older and non-ambulatory cattle. USDA          hand trim what was previously removed through
also suggests that the economic impact of this           AMR systems and a direct reduction in meat yield.
position is relatively small because they represent a    In addition, worker injuries – particularly cumula-
small percentage of all cattle slaughtered.              tive trauma disorders — likely would increase as a
   According to Sparks, there is currently no reliable   result of repetitive hand trimming. Total costs of
and precise method to determine the age of cattle at     this option are estimated at $190 million.
the time of slaughter. The risk analysis by Harvard
University suggested that as many as 34 percent of         Analysis: Option 3
all steers and heifers are slaughtered at or beyond        Most meat packers in the U.S. currently remove
24 months of age, while breeding cattle like cows        cheek meat prior to splitting the skull. Industry-
and bulls overwhelmingly are slaughtered beyond          wide impact is estimated to be minor and limited to
this age limit. Therefore, a “zero tolerance” policy     some smaller packers who may incur costs of
would require meat packers to apply these regula-        reconfiguring their slaughtering processes.
tions to all cattle entering the facility, even though     “This study concludes that additional regulation of
such an action would provide a negligible reduction      meat packing practices will cause real and signifi-
in what has already been deemed a very low risk of       cant economic shocks and dislocations throughout
human exposure to BSE.                                   the livestock complex,” the report says. “Even
   According to Sparks, consumers, plant workers         though these costs will be distributed widely, their
and livestock producers all would be impacted by the     impacts will not disappear; they are more likely to
costs of these regulations.                              be amplified in the forms of reduced meat supplies
                                                         to consumers and reduced profitability to firms in
  Analysis: Option 1                                     the livestock sector.”
  While the domestic market for cattle brains and          The complete analysis may be viewed at
intestines for human food is very small, the value of    http://www.amif.org.

                                                                                                      Page 5
                                            AMI Foundation News


Pediocin Spray Study                                      AMI Equipment Design Task
Continued from page one
C for 60s, 96 degrees C for 60s and 120s respec-          Force
tively, and Alta 2341® with post-packaging irradia-       Continued from page two
tion at 1kGy and 2.3kGy respectively. Samples             not to contribute to unsanitary conditions or the
were stored at 4 degrees C, 10 degrees C and 25           harborage and growth of bacteria.
degrees C for up to 12 weeks. All three packaging            • Validated Cleaning and Sanitizing Protocols:
arrangements underwent the same combination               Cleaning and sanitation procedures must be clearly
treatments.                                               written and designed and proven to be effective and
   The study found that irradiation had a strong          efficient. Recommended cleaning and sanitizing
synergistic effect when combined with pediocin            chemicals must be compatible with the equipment
treatment. Post-packaging irradiation at 2.3kGy           and manufacturing environment.
combined with pediocin in both concentrations                • No Niches: Equipment parts should be free of
virtually eliminated L.m. over the 12-week growth         niches such as pits, cracks, corrosion, recesses,
period and greatly reduced growth during the stor-        open seams, gaps, lap seams, protruding ledges,
age period.                                               inside threads, bolt rivets and dead ends. All welds
   Although the presence of pediocin in thermally         must be continuous and fully penetrating.
pasteurized packages lengthened the initial lag              • Hygienic Compatibility With Other Plant
phase before L.m. growth began, pediocin and ther-        Systems: Equipment design must ensure hygienic
mal pasteurization combinations did not show a            compatibility with other equipment and systems.
synergistic effect. Pediocin presence in these               • Hygienic Design of Maintenance Enclosures:
samples lengthened the lag phase before L.m.              Maintenance enclosures and machine controls
growth began, but later growth was dependent on           must be designed, constructed and maintainable to
time and pasteurization method. Higher pasteur-           ensure food product, water or product liquid does not
ization temperatures were found to produce slower         penetrate into, or accumulate in or on, the enclo-
L.m. growth than lower pasteurization temperatures        sure and interface. The enclosures also should be
applied for longer time periods.                          sloped or pitched to prevent use as a storage area.
   Pediocin plus pasteurization treatments were              These principles will be discussed in detail at the
partly affected by packaging as frankfurter-to-           AMI Annual Convention and Innovation Showcase
frankfurter contact was found to protect L.m. from        in New Orleans, October 24-26, 2002.
the heat process of pasteurization. Consequently,
pasteurization was not as effective in the five and
10-link packages as in single-link packaging.
   Frankfurter quality factors were virtually unaf-
fected by the anti-listerial treatments. All treat-
ments, however, produced a slightly darker and
redder color than the control samples. Sensory
panelists found the texture score was firmer for
                                                                    Upcoming AMIF Events
thermally pasteurized frankfurters, but this score
was not confirmed by instrumental texture mea-             October 24 - 26, 2002
surements. Purge, odor, pH and TBA (an indicator of        AMI Annual Convention
oxidation) were not significantly affected by any          New Orleans Hilton, New Orleans, LA
treatments.
   AMI Foundation Vice President of Scientific             October 24 - 26, 2002
Affairs Randall Huffman, Ph.D., emphasized that            Meat Industry Research Conference (MIRC)
implementing a combination of anti-Listeria treat-         Part of the Innovation Showcase
ments at the packaging stage can significantly             New Orleans Hilton, New Orleans, LA
reduce the likelihood of contamination on RTE
products.                                                  December 4 - 5, 2002
   “This research provides important data on three         Implementing Listeria Intervention & Control
potential food safety tools that ready-to-eat (RTE)        Workshop
meat and poultry manufacturers may be able to              Hilton Cincinnati, Netherland Plaza
implement in the ongoing battle to eradicate L.m.          Cincinnati, OH
from RTE products,” Huffman said.
   The full research report is available for viewing at    February 27 - 28, 2003
the AMI Foundation web site, http://www.amif.org.          Animal Handling and Stunning Conference
   Pediocin is available commercially from Quest           Kansas City Marriott, Kansas City, MO
International.
Page 6
                                        AMI Foundation News



                  Ongoing Research - Listeria monocytogenes
Investigator            Institution                 Project Title
Amy C. Lee Wong         University of Wisconsin     Reduction of Listeria monocytogenes Biofilm
                        -Madison                    Formation in RTE Meat Processing Environments
Kalidas Shetty          University of               Elite Herb Extracts Containing High Rosmarinic
                        Massachusetts               Acid and Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes in
                                                    Meat and Poultry Products
James Dickson           Iowa State University       Optimum Radiation Dose to Eliminate Listeria
                                                    monocytogenes in Packaged RTE Processed Meats
                                                    and Survival of Listeria monocytogenes in RTE
                                                    Processed Meats after Irradiation Processing
Harshavardhan           Kansas State University     Control of Listeria monocytogenes in Ready-to-Eat
Thippareddi                                         Meats Using Cetyl Pyridinium Chloride (CPC) and
                                                    Shelf Life Extension of RTE Meats Treated with
                                                    CPC
Michael Doyle           University of Georgia       Control of Listeria monocytogenes in Food
                                                    Processing Facilities by Competitive Exclusion
                                                    Microorganisms
Jimmy Keeton            Texas A&M University        Antimicrobial Effects of Surface Treatments and
                                                    Ingredients on Cured RTE Meat Products
Jack Losso              Louisiana State             Pathogen Inhibition and Shelf-Life of Raw and
                        University                  Precooked Meat with Protamine
Jeffrey Kornacki        University of Georgia       Recovery, Development and Validation of
                                                    Appropriate Surrogate Microorganisms in Meat
                                                    and Poultry Emulsions for In-plant Critical
                                                    Control Point Validation Studies
Jeffrey Kornacki        University of Georgia       The Role of Aerosols in Transmission of
                                                    Microorganisms (including Listeria) to Ready-to-
                                                    Eat Meat/Poultry Products
Ferencz Denes           University of Wisconsin     Plasma-Enhanced Disinfection of Surfaces, Air
                        -Madison                    And Water in Ready-To-Eat (RTE) Meat and
                                                    Poultry Processing Environments
Robert Vinopal,         University of               Development of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS)
Dick Jadamec            Connecticut                 Applications for Listeria Detection and Monitoring
                                                    In-Plant Food Processing Plants


                      Ongoing Research - E. coli O157:H7
Investigator            Institution                 Project Title
Andrew Benson           University of Nebraska      Distribution of Virulent and Avirulent Subclones
                                                    of E. coli O157:H7 in the U.S.
Dale Hancock            Washington State            Evaluation of Efficacy of a Bacteriophage System
                        University                  in Preventing or Modulating E. coli O157:H7
                                                    Infection of Cattle
Alison O’Brien          Uniformed Services          E. coli O157:H7 Intimin Expressed by Transgenic
                        University of the Health    Plant Cells as a Candidate Oral Vaccine for Cattle
                        Sciences
Michael Doyle           University of Georgia       Methods to Control E. coli O157:H7 in Drinking
                                                    Water for Cattle
Chobi DebRoy            Pennsylvania State          Competitive Exclusion of Escherichia coli O157
                        University                  using Non Pathogenic Colicin Producing
                                                    Escherichia coli Strains
Charles Kaspar          University of Wisconsin     The Use of Egg Yolk Anti-O157:H7
                        - Madison                   Immunoglobulin to Clear E. coli O157:H7 from
                                                    the Intestinal Tracts of Cattle

                                                                                             Page 7
                                                  AMI Foundation News



Antibiotic Resistance
Continued from page four                                     of resistance in foodborne pathogens. We cannot
would make it harder for processors to reduce                make informed management decisions without a
pathogens in their establishments, which compro-             sound knowledge base about the trends and occur-
mises food safety.                                           rence of resistance.
                                                                Second, we need sound risk assessment. We
   Q: Could you also estimate the impact of                  know antibiotic resistance CAN be transferred. The
elimination of subtherapeutic antibiotic use on              big question is, DOES it transfer with sufficient
the cost of food?                                            frequency to cause a public health threat? So far,
   A: Someone will absorb the increased cost.                we believe the answer is no, due to careful govern-
There have been many studies estimating this                 ment control over the approval of products combined
impact. We know there is extreme sensitivity in              with prudent use by veterinarians and producers.
the supply chain to any cost increase – witness              We should set policy not on theoretical risks, but
McDonald’s recent decision to begin importing lean           rather on an informed and deliberate process to
beef because of cost differences. More importantly,          really define the potential impact or non-impact.
it is elitist to dismiss small price increases, as           Risk assessment is the way to answer that ques-
many do. While many in our society can absorb                tion.
increased costs, it is those who can least afford it
who will be hurt most by any increase in food costs.           Q: What is the climate worldwide on the sub-
Our food policy should not be “survival of the fittest.”     ject of antibiotic resistance as well as antibiotic
   Moreover, no one need absorb increased costs              use and overuse in both human and animal
that removal of antibiotics will lead to if there is no      populations?
demonstrable public health benefit.                            A: Antibiotic resistance is an even more pressing
                                                             problem in many places around the world because of
  Q: Looking into the crystal ball to 2012, what             the indiscriminate use of antibiotics in humans
government policies do you anticipate we will see            and animals. That has important implications for
in effect to address antibiotic resistance of micro-         the U.S. because of the increased frequency of
organism that may be present in humans and                   foreign travel. It is clear that foreign travel is one of
animals?                                                     the major risk factors for contracting an antibiotic-
  A: There are two policies that we should see in            resistant foodborne disease. As a result, we cannot
order to effectively address antibiotic resistance.          solve the problem of resistance by taking action only
First, NARMS needs to be fixed. We need better,              here; any solution must be global in nature.
more robust, more scientifically valid surveillance
                                                                Q: Consumers are hearing a great deal of
                                                             advertising about the availability of meat and
                AMIF Contacts                                poultry produced without the use of antibiotics,
                                                             which in turn raises questions and concerns.
All AMIF staff can be reached at 1700 North Moore            What is your best advice to the concerned con-
Street, Suite 1600, Arlington, VA, 22209, phone 703/         sumer?
841-2400, or at the email addresses listed below.               A: Be very careful and please be informed. In
                                                             almost every instance “antibiotic-free” products will
James H. Hodges, president, jhodges@meatami.com              cost more—without providing any additional benefit.
                                                             It is by no means any safer.
Randall Huffman, Ph.D., vice president, scientific              In one study conducted in Denmark, organic
affairs, rhuffman@meatami.com                                chicken – raised without antibiotics – was three
                                                             times more likely to contain a disease-causing
Sara J. Lilygren, senior vice president, information,        foodborne pathogen than chickens raised in a
slilygren@meatami.com                                        conventional way using antibiotics and other ani-
                                                             mal medicines.
Patricia L. Pines, vice president, education,                   Consumers should know that “antibiotic free,”
ppines@meatami.com                                           “hormone free,” or other such claims are marketing
                                                             based. The government agencies that assure the
Janet M. Riley, vice president, public affairs,              safety of our meat and poultry supply do not support
jriley@meatami.com                                           such claims as offering any real benefits to consum-
                                                             ers over conventional products.
Susan Backus, project manager,
sbackus@meatami.com

Page 8