Disaster Preparedness and Recovery for Wastewater Treatment Systems by zxg15325

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									Are We Ready?
2006 Storm Season is here!
Disaster Preparedness and
Recovery for Wastewater
    Treatment Systems

     June 23, 2006-San Antonio Texas
     Chuck Luther, R.S., C.E.H.P.
     State of Florida-DOH, Volusia CHD
Keeping a sense of humor is a must after
           a major disaster…
Too Many Alligators?
2005 Problem-Ran out of Storm Names!
  Course Objectives-To Learn:
• What are the major issues and problems encountered by
  wastewater treatment systems/utilities due to disasters?
• What are the problems faced by citizens with their own
  private sewage treatment system?
• What can be done ahead of time to minimize or mitigate
  problems with public and private wastewater systems?
• What can be done after the storm to assist and facilitate
  recovery from damage to public and private wastewater
We’re here today to give you specific tools to
  use for Environmental Health emergency
response as it relates to wastewater systems
Disaster Recovery-Wastewater

                    County Health


    Emergency Operations Coordination Groups
         Three keys of EH Response

One . . . EH is bigger than EH.

 In an emergency, there are no separate
“agencies”. The EH response is one response.
           Three keys of EH Response

Two . . . EH is a response NEXUS.


A nexus is a connection that gets
things done.
       Three keys of EH Response

Three . . . EH is primarily recovery,
not response.
The EH response is ONE response.

EH is a response NEXUS.                                              E

                                  Pre                   -disaster
                                            Disaster Post


                                                            O IS
                                                        H ER


                                                                        IL US
                                                                        IL US

EH is focused on recovery.


                                             1 - 3 Days                                 1 – 3 Years
                               DEEP Center/U of Miami School of Medicine
Recent Events - What Have We Learned?

         Hurricane Season
             We Learned…
• First, the 2004 storm season returned water
  levels in rivers, lakes, and flood prone areas
  in many parts of the state to levels not seen in
  nearly 80 years! Areas that environmental
  health specialists had never seen a water
  table issue in, or flooded, were now under
             We Learned…
• Florida was not prepared for four major
  hurricane strikes in such a short time frame
  (Who is?). Some areas of the state
  experienced three storms to some degree,
  including Volusia County. All within a six week
  time frame!
               We Learned…
• 2005 not as bad for Florida, but Katrina and Rita
  eclipsed all previous storms for devastation….. A
  recent article in “Onsite Wastewater Treatment”
  indicated that it would be at least one year before
  many wastewater systems could be back on-line
  and operating. The storm surge hit with such
  force, that septic tanks were seen 10 miles from
  their original location, floating like buoys off the
                               FEMA Helps those with
                              Onsite Systems and Wells
FEMA to provide sewer, septic tank reimbursement
Washington, Nov 7, 2005 - Disaster News
BATON ROUGE, La. — Louisiana residents in disaster-declared parishes whose wells or septic systems were
damaged as a result of Hurricanes Katrina or Rita may be eligible for financial assistance from The U.S. Department
of Homeland Security’s Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to complete necessary repairs.

Homeowners in declared areas may be eligible for grant funding to pump septic tanks, perform required repairs or
replace the system as needed. Damaged private wells that are the sole source of water for the home also may be
repaired or decontaminated. "We don't want anyone living in a house with contaminated water or raw sewage," said
FEMA Deputy Federal Coordinating Officer Scott Wells. "Applicants for state and federal disaster assistance should
advise the FEMA inspector they have a private well and septic system." Home-repair grants are designed to restore
the home to a safe, secure and functional condition. To qualify for this disaster assistance, applicants must own their
home, and the home must be their primary residence. Grants are not intended to restore a home to pre-disaster
condition and cannot be used for cosmetic repairs or repairs covered by insurance. Any Louisiana resident in a
declared parish who suffered damage or losses from the recent hurricanes can register for disaster assistance by
calling the FEMA toll-free registration number 1-800-621-FEMA (3362). The number for people with hearing or speech
impairment is (TTY) 1-800-462-7585. Individuals may also register for disaster assistance at the FEMA Web site

FEMA prepares the nation for all hazards and manages federal response and recovery efforts following any national
incident. FEMA also initiates mitigation activities, trains first responders, works with state and local emergency
managers, and manages the National Flood Insurance Program and the U.S. Fire Administration. FEMA became part
of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security on March 1, 2003.
Editors: For more information on Louisiana disaster recovery, visit www.fema.gov or www.ohsep.louisiana.gov.
            We Learned…
• Brief Review of 2004-05 wastewater system
  problems encountered in Florida after the
Utilities and power companies were not prepared for
               such large scale outages
Not near enough back up generators of the proper size
            and capacity were available
 Not enough vacuum trucks were available and not always able to access
 Not enough vacuum trucks were available and not always able to access
lift stations due to road blockage from debris or the road was washed out
lift stations due to road blockage from debris or the road was washed out
Many hundreds of lift stations were flooded
Collection systems damaged by road washouts
         and by trees being uprooted
  Many WWTPs were flooded, allowing partially treated sewage to be
  Many WWTPs were flooded, allowing partially treated sewage to be
released into surrounding neighborhoods, properties, and flood waters
released into surrounding neighborhoods, properties, and flood waters
Some coastal WWTPs were affected by large amounts of
      saltwater intrusion from tidal storm surges
 Large utilities were best prepared with contingency plans for
power outages and flooding vs. small or private utility operators
                  We Learned…
• Temporary generators either set up until power was
  restored or moved frequently from lift station to lift station
• Vacuum trucks were utilized to pump down lift stations
• Some lift stations were so flooded, that they were not able
  to be pumped at all
                 We Learned…
•   Generators had inadequate capacity to operate lift
•   Lift stations did not possess proper connections in
    wiring for temporary generator hook up
•   Inadequate lift station identification and/or location for
    power company to repair
•   Septage pumping companies could not leave pump
    trucks at lift stations long because of other customers
                We Learned…
More Problems:
• Pumping one flooded lift station through the lines to the
  next lift station overloaded the down line station
• Shortage of replacement power poles!
• Residences did not heed warnings to minimize water
  usage adding to sewage flows and exacerbating the
• Gravity lines had substantial storage capacity in
  freeboard of pipes, manholes, etc., but with infiltration
  and flooding, manholes and L.S. overflows occurred
  within 24 hours usually
Onsite System
Onsite System Flooding
     Onsite System Flooding
Onsite System Problems:
• Rushing water eroded mound systems
• Repair vehicles and trucks crushed tanks and/or
• Homeowners used small pumps to pump tanks to
•   Some areas experienced floating tanks and tanks that
    collapsed altogether
•   Flooded drainfields
•   Pumping of tanks caused floatation or collapse of tank
•   Trees uprooted drainfields/trenches
• Tree destroys septic tank
Many press releases and public health advisories were issued
What have local government
  entities learned in the
     past two years?
              We Learned…
• Failed wastewater systems are a potential public
  health hazard and sanitary nuisance
• Potential for contamination of surface water and
  drinking water sources and systems
• During and after a major storm event, the failure
  of private and public wastewater treatment and
  disposal systems is a problem magnified many
  times over
• It occurs when the citizens are most vulnerable,
  and when the public agencies and local
  government are usually overwhelmed dealing
  with a myriad of problems considered more
  important, i.e., immediate saving of lives and
  property and search and rescue operations
             We Learned…
• Need to work with the utilities and other state
  and local agencies ahead of time to best prepare
  all public and private wastewater systems for a
  major storm event or other natural disaster.
• Permitting procedures and standards for
  systems serving emergency housing
• Finding an available discharge location for
  portable toilet waste
• Portable toilets that are moved or stolen and
  being ordered in insufficient quantity
• Nearest available WWTP accepting portable toilet
  waste and septage.
             We Learned…
• DEP line listing of WWTPs
• Current utility listing of lift station locations
• List of RV parks that have sewage dump stations
• Printout of septage and portable toilet companies
  with emergency contacts
• Verify emergency plans and contact information
  with portable toilet operators and septic tank
• Contact information for key HQ staff, WWTP
  emergency contacts and electric utility contacts
Electric Utility Map
      Helping Property Owners Who
          Have Onsite Systems

• What can we do to help owners of onsite
  systems before and after a disaster??
             Citizens Priorities
What do you think are the most important priorities of a
private citizen/home owner before, during, and after the

Gee, “I hope my septic system will work”? Or “my sewer
line won’t back up”? Maybe, “I hope I don’t see any sewage
running over into my yard from my neighbors house”...
possible, but not likely……
           Citizens Priorities
Priorities of residents in your community will be
reflective of your own priorities for your families’
well being and the concern of the loss of property
and possessions, some of which can not be
             Citizens Priorities
• Safety of family
   – (protection of property and family after the storm too!)
• Hope my home stays in one piece
• If it does, I hope there is no roof damage or leaks
• No windows broken or doors compromised
• No flooding of my home or property - can I drive some
  place if I need to?
          Citizens Priorities
• No electrical shortages or fires!
• No power outage…at least not too long!
• No loss of water service due to broken water
  mains or damaged or destroyed Water Treatment
  Plants (or if on well and lose power… or the well
  becomes flooded)
Citizens Priorities

   •   Power
   •   Drinking Water
   •   Food
   •   Ice
Inspectors needed to be careful
and carry proper identification
after the storms! In Florida, E.H.
staff work in pairs for safety
              Secondary Concerns:
              Wastewater System(s)

•   Hope my septic system won’t get flooded
•   If it does, hope nothing backs up into my home!
•   Hope my drainfield does not float away!
•   Hope my septic tank does not get ripped out of the
           For Those on Public Sewer
• Hope sewer line does not get damaged
• Hope lift station does not lose power
• Hope lift station does not flood
• Hope WWTP does not get damaged or destroyed by
  storm surge or winds etc.
• For those living near or adjacent to WWTP, hope it does
  not flood over!
     Helping Onsite Systems Owners
     (Before Storm/Disasters Occur)

• Information on your agency’s web site
• Brochures and hand outs at disaster
  preparedness events
• Information phone lines
• Attend Homeowner Association meetings to
  discuss strategies with residents
• Pump system tanks prior to storm? Why?
   Helping Onsite System Owners

• Have a list or portable toilet companies
• Advise on the proper use of lime for sewage
  overflows etc.
• Advise on proper procedure for disinfection and
  cleaning of personal property and interior of
Pre-Hurricane Activities
        Helping Onsite System Owners
              GROUP EXERCISE

• Your county has experienced a natural disaster…..
  Environmental Health staff have been working on daily
  “Sit-Reps” on all issues of public and environmental
  health….your E.H. Director decides that a Press
  Release/Public Health Advisory is necessary for owners
  of onsite systems in your county………
            Group Exercise:
What items of information should you
consider to include in a Public Health Advisory
(Press Release) for the owners of onsite
systems adversely affected by a disaster such
as a major storm event which experienced
power loss and flooding?
       Public Health Advisory
• Minimize use of household water (Consider doing laundry
  at a commercial facility if available until system is
  functioning properly and/or repaired)
• Do not pump septic tank until ground water levels recede
  to normal levels (Why?)
• Do not allow children to play in flood waters - sewage
  contaminated water causes many diseases
• If you also have a private well for drinking water, and the
  well casing is flooded, boil your water per Health
  Department recommendations before drinking
• Have well water tested for bacteria levels after flood
  waters recede
    Public Health Advisory

• If sewage has backed up into your home, secure the
  affected areas from access
• Keep children out of wet areas affected by sewage
• If your entire home has been saturated, move to
  temporary housing until all carpeting, rugs, sheetrock
  and baseboards etc., have been properly cleaned and
Public Health Advisory

• When making repairs to the outside of your home
  after the flooding or storm has passed, do not
  allow any vehicles to be parked on top of your
  septic tank system! (Do you know where your
  onsite system is on your property??)
• Have your system professionally inspected by a
  licensed septic system contractor as soon as
  possible after the storm (All electrical
  components and pumps should be thoroughly
  inspected for possible damage)
• Contact your local health department for
  information regarding your onsite system and
  repair permitting procedures
     Public Health Advisory

• Wear rubber boots and gloves when cleaning
  up affected areas
• Discard any items that cannot be disinfected
  or cleaned properly (Advise on how to make a
  proper disinfecting solution)
• After cleaning, help the drying process by
  using fans, air conditioning units and
  dehumidifiers if possible
• Wash all clothing contaminated with flood or
  sewage water in hot water and detergent
       Public Health Advisory

• Ensure that the manhole cover is secure and that
  inspection ports have not been blocked or
• Repair erosion, especially in mound systems,
  shoulders and slopes need to be stabilized (re-
  sod or seed with a mulch cover) to re-establish
  system pre-storm conditions and prevent
  sanitary nuisance
Jeb Bush                                                             John O. Agwunobi, M.D., M.B.A.
Governor                                                                        ______ Secretary



To Local Residents:

Due to the hurricane you may be experiencing difficulties with your septic system not
functioning properly. If your system is operated by a dosing tank, it will not function without
electricity. You should refrain from using water in your home as much as possible until
electricity is restored. The tanks will fill up without dosing water to the drainfield. This may
cause backups of raw sewage in your home.

If a sewage backup has occurred in your home, secure the areas affected from access.
Keep children out of wet areas that are affected by sewage. If your entire home has been
saturated, abandon the home until all affected areas, including but not limited to carpets,
rugs, sheetrock, drywall, and baseboards, have been remediated.

If sewage has overflowed in open areas or streets, etc., avoid these areas and keep
children out of the these areas.

Do not let children play in flood waters as these waters may be affected by sewage also.

If you live in a low lying or flood prone area, be advised that the ground in your area may
already be saturated due to the heavy rainfalls during and after the hurricane. You should
use household water as little as possible to prevent backups of sewage in your home.

If you are having problems in areas served by sewer systems, please contact your utility
company to insure they are aware of problems in your area.

If you have questions, please contact the Volusia County Health Department office nearest
Jeb Bush                                                                           John O. Agwunobi, M.D., M.B.A.
Governor                                                                                      ______ Secretary

With the recent heavy and frequent rains, there has been some flooding and standing water in many areas of
the county. The Volusia County Health Department recommends that certain health precautions be taken
where septic tanks or private drinking water wells are flooded.

In the areas where septic systems are used for sewage disposal, residents may not be able to flush toilets, do
laundry, shower, etc., for some time. Until such time as floodwaters recede, it is advised that residents with
septic systems that are experiencing flushing problems minimize their use of water in the home. Residents
should consider washing their laundry at a commercial laundromat and using a portable toilet, which can be
rented locally.

Children should be restricted from playing in flooded areas, especially where there are submerged septic
systems. Besides bacteria and virus contamination, there may be chemicals from stormwater runoff, snakes,
or other unseen hazards in the floodwater.

Residents are advised to not use the water from flooded or nearly flooded wells, especially if there is a
nearby flooded septic tank. If the well pumps discolored water or water with unusual taste, the water should
not be used for drinking purposes.

Water from wells, in which the casings have been submerged, should not be used until after the floodwater
has receded and the well has been bacteriologically tested and found to be safe for drinking water purposes.
When well water is questionable, residents should use bottled water or boiled water for consumptive
purposes. To properly boil water, so that it is free from any disease-causing bacteria, boil the water
vigorously (at 212 degrees Fahrenheit) for three minutes and then cool prior to usage.

Bacteriological testing can be done by a private certified laboratory or the County’s Environmental Health
laboratory, at a cost of $15.00 per sample. For information on availability of bacteriological testing, call the
Volusia County Health Department laboratory at (386) 248-1781 or your nearest Environmental Health office
                                   Daytona                     (386) 274-0692
                                   DeLand                      (386) 822-6250
                                   Orange City                 (386) 775-5289
                                   New Smyrna Beach            (386) 424-2061
                 Sewage Spill Clean-Up
Sewage Spills Cleanup Criteria
Brief Description of Objective: To establish a soil clean-up criteria to protect public health from sanitary
sewage spills in all areas where the public may come into contact with the wastewater spill.
Statement of Criteria: Access Control, disinfecting and clean-up procedures: Evaluate the extent of the
contaminated area and properly barricade to restrict public access. Post approved Warning signs in the
affected area. Remove as much contaminated wastewater and sewage bearing solids from the contaminated
area as feasible. Apply disinfectant over the contaminated areas (lime or chlorine commercial products are
acceptable). Allow surface to dry before removing posted signs and barricades. In addition to the criteria listed
above for recreational areas where public contact is likely, such as parks, playgrounds, beaches, school
grounds and other such facilities, the following additional disinfection and clean up criteria is recommended
prior to allowing any access: Disinfectant must be evenly dispersed over the contaminated areas to prevent
possible safety hazards to the public during normal use of the facility. Disinfectant must be applied in
accordance with safety label instructions, Surface soil samples shall be less than 1,000 MPN Fecal Coliform
per gram of total solids, dry weight, prior to allowing access to the facility or area. If lime is used as
disinfectant, maintain a pH >12 for at least 72 hours in the contaminated area, Soil samples must be taken to
demonstrate proper disinfection prior to reopening a contaminated recreational area.
Fecal Coliform Test Procedure: Most Probable Number (MPN) multiple-tube procedure (9221 E) determined
from three dilutions, according to EPA/625/R-92/013 Environmental Regulations and Technology: Control of
Pathogens and Vector Attraction in Sewage Sludge.
NOTE: In cases where sewage overflows impact surface waters no disinfectant is to be applied. Only aeration
and solids removal is recommended in those cases.
Code Authorization: Section 24-26 MDCC; Recommendations in the Miami-Dade Unpermitted Discharges
Contingency Plan Update, October 10, 1997. The 40 CFR Part 503 regulations published in 1993. USEPA
Class sludge requirements for public distribution.
               Sewage Spill Clean-Up
•   Typical Site Clean Up and Remediation Procedure for Septage Spills
    The person(s) responsible for the spill shall take the following actions.
•   Determine the limits of the spill. If possible, contain the spill by means of barricades or berms of sand or
    earth. Using powdered lime, spread it over the entire spill area as soon as possible to control odors and
    mitigate pathogens. Any spill containment devices and structures including berms and fabric shall be
    installed immediately following the spill and shall remain intact until otherwise directed by the
    department. Spill control supplies should be accessible in the vehicle and ready to use.
      – Use rubber, latex or similar water-resistant gloves while cleaning up the septage. Use care not to
          touch uncontaminated items with the gloves once the gloves have come into contact with the
      – Clean up as much of the liquid as possible. Let the area air dry.
      – Pick up any solids, plastics and any other non-biodegradable items, and place the items in a
          container or sealable plastic bag. Store the containers in a safe place, while awaiting disposal.
•   Native materials underlying the area of the spill shall be excavated to a depth sufficient to remove spilled
    and leached materials, as directed by DES.
•   All material removed from a spill site shall be properly disposed and may not be treated and returned to
    the spill site.
•   Clean material shall be used to replace any material excavated and the site shall be restored as close as
    possible to its condition prior to the spill, as directed by DES.
•   Previously vegetated areas shall be loamed, regraded, limed, fertilized and reseeded to restore
•   Erosion control netting, or hay, or both, shall be utilized on erodible slopes.
•   For graveled areas, the gravel shall be excavated and replaced with similar or better quality
    materials and properly compacted.
•   Smooth, hard surfaces such as asphalt or concrete should be treated with lime or a
    bleach/water solution (consisting of 1 part household bleach to 9 parts water) after all
    material is removed from the spill site.
            Temporary Housing Protocol Connected
                     to Onsite Systems
From:       Briggs, Gerald R
Sent:       Friday, November 19, 2004 1:11 PM
To:         DL DOH CHD Directors 2; DL EHDIR; DL EHENGINEERS
Cc:         Conti, Lisa; Sorensen, Bonita J; Koch, Thomas; 'dfinn@myflorida.com'; 'al.bragg@dca.state.fl.us'; Brad Croft; Dale
            Holcomb; David Hammonds; Eberhard Roeder; Ed Barranco; Ed Williams; Edwin Harriss; Mark Hooks; Paul
            Booher; Richard McNelis; Robert Kuhn; Sonia Cruz
Importance: High
            In agreement with the Governor's Office and the Division of Emergency Management the following protocol will be
            used for placement of FEMA emergency housing (Travel Trailers and Mobile Homes) on individual lots and is
            effective through December 31, 2004. Please implement immediately.
            Travel Trailers - intended as temporary housing for 6 months not to exceed 18 months. RV style unit with no more
            than 2 bedrooms, measuring 32’ x 8’6". FEMA will provide written notification to the county health department of the
            intent to place a temporary trailer on an individual lot and connect it to the existing onsite sewage system on that lot.
            FEMA inspector / contractor is responsible for ensuring trailer is not placed over any part of onsite system and that
            there is no visible damage to onsite system. Trailers will not be connected to an onsite system where there is
            indication that a sanitary nuisance will be caused. County health departments will not assess any fees or conduct
            any inspections of these installations. If a failure should occur after connection, county health departments will
            follow standard repair procedures and fees. Standard procedures and fees will apply to reviewing repair or
            modification of the permanent residence.
            Mobile Homes - generally intended as permanent replacement units. Applicant will complete page 1, DOH Form
            4015 (application for construction permit), attach written documentation from FEMA of intent to place mobile home
            on their lot and pay $50 application fee to county health department before placement of mobile home. County
            health department will provide written notification to applicant that application is incomplete and that remaining
            documentation and fees must be submitted within 45 days of application. Immediate placement of the mobile home
            on the lot and connection to existing system is allowed. FEMA inspector / contractor is responsible for ensuring that
            mobile home is not placed over existing onsite sewage system and that there is no visible damage
            to system. Units will not be connected to an onsite system where there is indication that a sanitary
            nuisance will be caused, such as exposed drainlines or ruptured septic tank. Applicant must submit
            remaining documentation and fees within 45 days of original application. County health departments
            will follow rule requirements for permitting repair or modification of existing system (including fees).
            Please direct any questions on this protocol to me at 850-245-4075 or SC 205-4075.
  Wastewater at
Emergency Shelters
    Craven County Health Department
     Division of Environmental Health

                                   Waste Disposal
While this topic may be uncomfortable to discuss, it is nevertheless something for which shelters must be
prepared. While most shelters will be connected to a public sewer system, some shelter locations may have
individual sewage treatment facilities or individual on-site septic systems. During a natural disaster or emergency
event, it is conceivable that high water tables, physical damage, electrical outages, or interruption of the water
supply may render these systems inoperable. If the waste disposal system is operating normally, continue to use
it as usual. However, if it is not working, or if the shelter's water supply is cut off so that there is no water
pressure with which to flush toilets, the following options should be used:
       I.     PORTABLE TOILETS: Vault-type portable toilets (e.g. "porta-potties") are sometimes provided by
              emergency service personnel or the military as a temporary means of sewage storage/disposal.
              However, these types of toilets require a service company to be able to reach the shelter locations
              every 24 to 48 hours (depending on usage) to service and pump out the holding tanks, which may
              prove difficult during or after a natural disaster or emergency.

     II.   HOW TO FLUSH A TOILET WITH NO WATER SUPPLY: If the shelter is on public sewer or an
           individual wastewater system, but the water supply has been interrupted so that there is no water
           pressure with which to flush the toilets, the toilets may be able to be flushed manually. Try the
             1. Do not let waste accumulate to the point of clogging or stoppage. However, since water
                  conservation during the emergency is a high priority, it may be possible to use the commode
                  more than once before flushing.
             2. Pour one to two gallons of water all at once into the bowl, the toilet should flush itself down.
                  Alternatively, if the toilet has a water closet (water tank) on the back with a removable lid, you
                  may be able to pour the water into this and use the handle to flush as usual.

NOTE: You should try this on an unused commode first to make sure it works. Keep in mind that the water used
      to flush the toilet does not need to be potable (drinkable) water. Collected rain water, salt water, etc. can
      be used for this purpose to conserve potable water.
                                 Waste Disposal
III.   AS A LAST RESORT: If the above methods and resources are not available, and the emergency event
       continues, more severe methods may become necessary. A "field toilet" may be improvised by taking a
       container such as a large bucket or small garbage can and double-lining it with two sturdy plastic
       garbage bags. The inner bag should be tightly closed and twist-tied after each use, while the outer bag
       serves as backup protection and as a support for the inner bag. Make sure that the bags have no rips or
       holes in them. The inner bag should be removed when full or every few hours and placed in a larger,
       tightly sealed garbage can for storage. If the waste disposal system becomes functional again during or
       very soon after the emergency event, then the stored waste can be dumped from the bags into the
       functioning toilets and flushed away. The empty bags should then be re-sealed and removed to a
       sanitary landfill. Otherwise, the bathroom waste must be treated as "septage" and go to a septage hauler
       (such as a septic tank pumper) where it can be lime stabilized and properly disposed of. The method
       described above may also prove useful for diapers and personal hygiene products, since these items
       cannot be disposed by flushing down the toilet, particularly if the disposal system is not completely
       functional. However, a separate "field toilet" and storage container distinct from that used for bathroom
       waste should be used. The bags containing the diapers and hygiene items should be removed to a
       sanitary landfill as solid waste when the disaster event is over.
                Facility Assessment Report
Volusia County Health Department Environmental Health Assessment Form
Name of Facility:            ID/CENTRAX:
Address: ______________________________
Contact Person:              Phone Number:
Type of Facility (please circle): Shelter Comfort Station Mobile Kitchen Staging Area
Nursing Home        ALF        Hospital     MHP         MLC       Other:
Number of Occupants/Residents present:
Is facility open?: yes no       Does Facility have power?: yes no
 Municipal Supply            Name of System:
 Private Well Aware of Boil Water Notice: yes no
               System Operational?: yes no
Samples taken:               Chlorine Residual:
 Municipal System            Name of System:
 Septic Tank
Overall Structure Condition:
Satisfactory Minor Damage                   Major Damage
Bathroom Facilities Operational:
Toilets         yes           no          Condition:
Bath Tubs       yes           no          Condition:
Showers         yes           no          Condition:
Hand Sinks yes                no          Condition:
Sanitary Nuisance Present:
 Resident       Flies         Roaches Mosquitoes       Sewage     Odors Solid Waste   Garbage
 Other: Explain
Needs:          Portable Toilets            Handwashing           Garbage Disposal    Other:
EH Support contacted to order need: yes no
Conditions Found and Action taken:

Date:       Health Official/Team:
                                 “Hot Wash” Report
Charlie Hot Wash, Issues and Lessons Learned
Lots of thing went well for us during our response. However, while the Charlie disaster is still fresh in my mind I'm offering some lessons learned in
hopes that we can refine the process before the next hurricane. Dale Holcomb added to the list too.
Issue: Health department staff may not know how the water supply systems are interconnected in their area:
Lesson learned: Understand the interconnectivity of public water systems and supply plants in order to plan for the lifting of boil water advisories (can't
lift the boil water advisory for a water system when the upstream system is still experiencing problems).
Issue: Medium to small drinking water system operators may be overwhelmed after a storm and need assistance in monitoring for total coliform, Fecal
coliform and chlorine residuals.
Lesson learned: Environmental Health Officials can be invaluable in helping get the drinking water systems off of boil water advisories. Need to plan
for additional staff for water sampling, lab support, and specialized equipment such as a Hach Colorimeter for chlorine residuals. Close coordination
between EH, the water system operator, PIO and the CHD Director is critical. Providing these services allows the utility to focus their staff resources
on fixing breaks and flushing contamination from the system.
Issue: There was mass confusion about whether ESF1 or ESF 8 was responsible for portable toilets and handwash stations.
Lesson learned: The SEOC plan currently identifies ESF 8 as the responsible entity. Many DOH ESF 8 staff were trained that they were not
responsible for this. We need to get the word out that ESF 8 logistics is the contact for this.
Issue: CHD staff may not have emergency contact numbers available for water system operators and sewage system operators.
Lesson Learned: During a disaster recovery is not a good time to get to know them. Get this info in advance and keep it updated. This contact list is
necessary to address many of the issues in this email.
Issue: Portable toilets are being ordered without having accompanying hand washing station.
Lesson Learned: Assure that all portable toilet orders are accompanied by hand wash stations at a ratio of one hand wash station per 10 portable toilets.
The ESF 8 logistics team must have clear direction on this activity. Written instructions should be posted in the Logistics team facility so that this is
done consistently across shift changes.
Issue: Portable toilets are not being serviced because they have been moved from the original deployment location without prior knowledge of the
Issue Learned: Information should be disseminated to recovery workers not to move the portable toilets without notifying the vendor or to order more
Issue: Ordering of additional portable toilets and hand washing stations ceased while the logistics team was relocated from Tallahassee to the affected
Lesson Learned: There needs to be a separate logistics person available in Tallahassee to order portable toilets and hand wash stations while the
logistics team deploys to the affected area.
Issue: Emergency food station workers were observed using a common bucket for hand washing.
Lesson Learned: Assure that all emergency food preparation stations have a hand wash station located adjacent to the food prep area (note: this is in
addition to the requirement above).
Issue: Inland sewer utilities do not have backup generators for lift stations without power. Large volume sewage nuisances were experienced with over
200 overflowing lift stations in Orange County.
                          “Hot Wash” Report
Lesson Learned: There needs to be a quickly deployable source of backup generators to power lift stations. Care must be exercised in how these are
connected so that utility workers are not electrocuted (when the generator is connected to the lift station it must be disconnected from the permanent
power source). Use pumper trucks for a temporary fix while generators are being deployed (Bureau of OSTDS has a list of licensed vendors).
Recommend that CHD directors initiate a mission to have a pump truck or two at their disposal for them to dispatch as needed to eliminate sanitary
Issue: RVs are replacing damaged mobile homes in parks without holding tank dump stations.
Lesson learned: Improvised dump stations need to be made available for temporary RV usage in mobile home parks. Where sewer systems are
available, I recommend working with the local sewer system operator to see if manholes can be converted to dump stations temporarily. The provision
of washdown water and dump site cleanliness needs to be dealt with. Security and safety around the open manholes is an issue. It is advisable to have
a temporary dumpstation overseer. Where OSTDS systems are all that is available we need to see if there is a way to temporarily discharge RV
holding tanks into the system (through the septic tank???, I'm looking for better ideas here, stockpile thousands of blueboys? :-) ).
Issue: Carbon monoxide poisonings and deaths.
Lesson learned: People will kill themselves in order to stay cool. We need to assure that every generator sold is accompanied by an inexpensive
household carbon monoxide detector. This applies to all retail stores in the state as the Tallahassee Home Depot sold out of generators the morning
after Charlie hit. Customers should be advised to buy a lock and chain to secure their generator rather than securing it by putting it inside the house.
Issue: Some ESF 8 computers in the SEOC do not support access to the DOH users data. This info is needed to address missions. For the computers
that do allow
access to DOH users, you must log out as ESF 8 to log back in on the personal user name.
Lessons Learned: We need to make sure all of the computers in esf 8 can support logins that allow access to the DOH users info.
Issue: In some areas (i.e. west Charlotte County, Hardee County) Household waste was not collected in a timely enough fashion to prevent rodent
Lesson Learned: Know your county solid waste coordinator and their emergency contacts. Find out if they have contracts in place to collect the
massive amounts
of waste generated after a storm.
Identify available landfills.
Have each bureau have a list of files and other background information…(whatever they see fit to include) in a resource site on the intranet.
Have one of the resources on the intranet be the listing of network drives so that we can map to our networks and have access to our resources.
Lets not forget there is more to disaster response training than waiting for a bioterrorism incident.
If Hurricane Francis heads our way it would be a good idea to get these comments to the EH directors. There is still time to do some planning if we
act now.
                 “Sit-Rep”Daily Situation Reports)
SITREP - Orange City Geographical Area
Situation Report for Orange City EH
Public Water Systems
From 8/14/04: visited by Kurt Jennings and Scott Chambers
Florida Methodists Children’s Home – The generator was working. Water and refrigeration are connected to generator.
Paradise Lakes RV Park – They do not have power, therefore, water system is not working. Provided boiled water notices to
office to give residents for when power comes back on and advised them to remain on boiled water until contacted by
Environmental Engineering.

From 8/16/04: visited by Brian Volkman and Scott Chambers
Water line break at Country Village Mobile Home Park in Orange City has left 3 homes without water. According to the park
manager, Orange City Utilities has been previously at the sites and notified the residents.
Lift Stations, Mobile Home Parks

From 8/16/04: visited by Brian Volkman and Scott Chambers or Albert Royster and Kurt Jennings
Orange City EH received a report that the lift station was not working at Sunburst RV Park resulting in sewage on the ground.
There was not a sanitary nuisance at park. Park employee said alarm had been disconnected by utility.
Orange City EH received a report of sewage on the ground on Kentucky Avenue in Orange City due to a lift station not working.
There was not a sanitary nuisance on Kentucky Avenue. Visited Country Village Mobile Home Park which is off of Kentucky
where park manager said all lift stations have been working.
Orange City EH received a report that there was sewage on Howland Blvd in Deltona. Drove the entire length of Howland Blvd
and there was not any sewage on Howland Blvd.
While at the lift station at Dupont Lakes spoke with Deltona Water employee, Carol Cranick. She said that they have not
experienced any overflow at their lift stations without power at this time (1:30 pm). They have been able to keep up with demand
by pump trucks and generators. There was a pump truck at site.
Land O’ Lakes Mobile Home Park – According to park manager, lift station has not overflowed. They currently have power and
lift station is working.
DeBary Elementary School – Lift station malfunction resulted in backup into cafeteria, classroom, and offices.
Cleanup has already taken place. Stop sale notice issued to kitchen manager.
Highbanks Marina – Package plant was operational.
Lake Villa Estates – Package plant was operational.
Lift station at Publix near intersection of Providence/Doyle in Deltona – Lift station was overflowing ~3:00 pm. Deltona
Public Works was notified.
All other lift stations that were visited were not creating sanitary nuisances.
Public Sewer System
 Why Should Public Health Officials Worry About Public
Wastewater System Operations During/After a Major Storm?

• In Florida, the failure of lift stations, especially
  privately owned lift stations, was a major public health
  issue….state regulatory agencies did not have the
  human resources to address local storm related
  problems like the county health department staff
  can……and will have to! (Who usually gets called by
  citizens about anything health related??)
• Owners of private lift stations, e.g., at mobile home
  parks, may live out of state. Local management does
  not have much or any authority for emergency fund
  spending or repairs
 What have public wastewater system utilities
   learned in the past two storm seasons?

• Smart utilities: joined a “WARN”–Water and
  Wastewater Agency Response Network (CalWarn,
  TxWARN, and FlaWarn)
• Budgeted for and purchased adequate number of high
  capacity generators for lift stations
• Purchased extra mobile generators and sewage
  pumping equipment
• Contracted with private septage pumping companies
  to assist
  Daytona Beach News-Journal, Last update: June 02, 2005
  By MELISSA GRIGGS, Staff Writer

  City settles effluent claim
ORMOND BEACH -- City officials have agreed to pay a woman for damages to her home after it
was flooded with raw sewage during Hurricane Frances. Barbara Sandberg, who lives in the 500
block of Riverside Drive, settled her claim with the city for $7,455, according to city records. The
flooding on Sept. 17 damaged her floors, carpets, furniture and other personal property. City
Attorney Randy Hayes said the city's claim committee denied Sandberg's request for
reimbursement but she appealed to the City Commission, which approved a settlement.
   Hayes determined the city had not been negligent and the sewer backup was caused by a loss
of power to a lift station during the hurricane. Sandberg argued the city should have installed a
backup generator at the lift station.
   Another city resident, Charles Folcik, also has filed a claim against the city after sewage
damage to his home. "Somebody from the city was working on the sewer lines and somehow the
sewer backed up into our home," said Folcik, who lives in the 400 block of Ocean Shores Blvd. "A
member of our family was in the bathroom at the time and got sprayed with backed up sewage."
Folcik submitted a claim for $9,539 in damages from the Sept 13 incident.
   "We had to tear out our carpets," he said. "They were soaked to the floor. The bathroom
erupted. Our washroom erupted. The walls were soaked."
   Folcik said his repair expenses will be even more now because the house has developed mold.
   "I want the city to live up to its obligations," he said.
   Hayes said the city is waiting to receive receipts and other information to document the claim.
He said Folcik's claim is not related to the same lift station failure that caused the damage to
Sandberg's home.
   "We need to get additional information to further evaluate his claim," said Hayes. "The claim
committee has reviewed his claim. It hasn't been approved or denied. We simply don't have
enough information. "Hopefully we will be able to work with him to get it resolved soon," said
         What Can We Learn Here?
            GROUP EXERCISE
Your group consists of the managers and
operators of a local county/municipally owned
sewer treatment system

Question: What are some Pre-Disaster activities
that wastewater utilities should do?
      (These apply to Drinking Water Systems Also)

 Identify and schedule emergency operations and cleanup crews.
 This could consist of heavy equipment and extra personnel to assist
 in clean-ups after the storm.
 Adjust work schedules so that key staff members are onsite or can be reached
 to keep all services operational if the facility remains online or to shutdown and
 startup facilities if and when necessary.

Notify State and Federal Agencies (Federal Emergency Management Agency
(FEMA) and others) of location and telephone numbers of the emergency
personnel owner/operator for the water system operations. For public water
systems, be sure to line up contacts to request emergency water supply, if

 Review your emergency response plan and make sure it and all contacts are current

 Notify, ahead of time, and set up clear lines of communication with local police
 and fire department, in case of an injury or other emergencies. Request that
 local law enforcement check on any water staff that remain onsite at the water
 system. If communication channels are down with these sites, this check
 needs to continue on a routine basis until communication channels are

Establish contacts to request emergency water supply, if necessary. This may
include trucking in of purchased water from another potable water supply.

Make arrangements with the local power utility to be prepared to restore power
to the water system as a priority customer.

Pre-arrange to purchase materials and supplies and to borrow/lease heavy
equipment needed to make repairs to the water system. This could include
piping, valves, chemical feed-line tubing, and hydrants.

Make arrangements to have materials and chemicals delivered to your location
as soon as it is safe and you are ready for operation.

 Establish which media you will use for customers to access information
 and press advisories. Be sure to prepare customers for possible boil water
 advisory status:

 a: Have a “Boil Water Notice” prepared, including

 b: Have emergency disinfection of drinking water procedures
 prepared for customers.

 c: Have “Shelter-in-Place” guidelines ready in case of release of
 hazardous materials. This is information to be provided to the public that
 may need to remain indoors.

 Stock up on first-aid supplies, batteries, flashlights, and cellular phones
 or other wireless communication devices. Check all normal and

 Stock an adequate supply (one week) of non-perishable food and
 water for any essential persons that remain on site or are
 considered first responders to the water system.

 Establish alternative transportation strategies for rotating in core
 employees to the facility if high water prevents travel. Personnel should
 bring a jump bag with them, which contains change of clothes, sleeping
 bag, flashlights, extra batteries, medications, and other essentials.

 Make sure all essential personnel are trained to shut down and start up
 system in case of emergency.

 Notify the Emergency Management Agency (EMA) and the Water/wastewater
 primacy agency for your State if a plant is taken off-line or you are unable to
 operate the water system. Be sure to obtain EMA and primacy locations
 before any potentially known disasters occur such as a hurricane.

 Review distribution maps to ensure they are up-to-date with isolation
 valves properly identified. Extra copies may be necessary for staff
 working in the field.

              Grounds and Common Areas
 Inspect water system source and treatment facility for security
 concerns. Test backup lights and generators.

 For all water systems, check backup pumps and controls.

 In addition to regular preventive maintenance, all systems (surface, ground
 and purchased) should check backup chemical feeders and all pumps and
 motors. Verify that spare pumps, motors and other necessary spare parts
 are available.
 Check manual controls and oil levels.

 Fuel and service vehicles. Stock service vehicles with equipment and
 supplies, and move service vehicles to high ground or temporarily
 locate them out of the threat of damage.

 Have sufficient supplies of sand bags available and sandbag the
 entrances, the area around critical equipment, and other critical

              Grounds and Common Areas
 Ensure that emergency electrical generators are not located in flood-prone
 areas of the facility. Obtain extra fuel for generators. Ensure adequate
 number of generators for water systems that require generators for
 wastewater and water pumping operations.

 Board up all windows and doors to prevent wind damage.

 Shut down exposed pipes at waterway crossings to prevent loss or
 contamination of potable water if the pipes break.

 Isolate/valve-off portions of the water system that appear to be more prone
 to damage. This should be performed as a last measure since service may
 still be needed immediately prior to the storm event.

Administration and Laboratory Buildings:
(relocation of movable assets may be necessary)

  Secure important records in a well-protected location, including plant
  operations manual and water system mapping.

  Remove all sensitive laboratory equipment from the flood zone, where possible.

  Remove portable electrical equipment and small motors from the flood zone.

  Protect computers from potential damage.

Administration and Laboratory Buildings:
(relocation of movable assets may be necessary)

  Check bacteriological sampling materials -- be prepared for increased
  or special monitoring after the storm.

  Remove or store furnishings in a safe place, when practical.

  Disconnect electrical power to the water system building,
  workshops, or offices if possible.

     Treatment Plant and Pumping Stations
 Run diagnostic tests on Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition
 (SCADA) and control systems.

 All pump stations should be in a well-drained area and be designed to
 remain in operation during flood events. If not, the pumps should be shut
 down and protected from electrical damage if they should become
 submerged. After any major storm event, check raw water intakes to
 minimize any debris or other materials which could enter. Ensure
 operators and staff are familiar with manual operations within the system
 should SCADA become inoperable
 Any wells that become submerged must be disinfected prior to returning
 to service. Check with your State Primacy Agency for additional
 requirements prior to lifting any boil water notices.

 Check that all chemical bulk storage tanks are properly labeled to
 include chlorine cylinders and chemical mix tanks. This will help in
 identification should these items be washed or wind-blown away.

     Treatment Plant and Pumping Stations
 Be sure all dry chemicals are stored off the floor in a dry room that is
 protected against flooding and water from floors, walls and ceilings.

 Check chemical inventory. A storm event could cause a greater demand for
 disinfectant to address broken waterlines and increases in turbidity, so
 more disinfectant and coagulant chemicals may be required. Verify that the
 current supply of calcium hypochlorite (if used) is adequate for this
 potential increased use.
 Fill all storage tanks with water to prevent floating or falling from wind
 forces. This will also help in maintaining pressure throughout your
 distribution system.

 Remove or move chemicals to a safe area. If chemicals are removed from an
 underground or above ground tank, fill the tank with water, if possible, to
 prevent floating.

     Treatment Plant and Pumping Stations

 Remove fuel from underground storage tanks to prevent contamination and
 loss of the fuel. If possible move above ground fuel storage tanks to a safe,
 high area. Fuel will be needed for emergency and plant vehicles until new
 supplies arrive. Prepare for one week supply, if possible.

 Remove electrical motors, where possible. If not, wrap the motors in
 plastic and seal as tight as possible, in order to protect the motor from
 silt, mud, and dirt. Any electrical motors that are submerged, should be
 cleaned and dried prior to start up to prevent damage.

 Remove shop tools and electrical hand tools from water system facilities.

 Monitor tank levels. Fill elevated and ground storage tanks to full capacity.
 Storage tanks should be valved off from the distribution system immediately
 prior to the storm event to prevent loss of water during the storm.
   What Can We Learn Here?

• What are some Post-Disaster activities that
  wastewater utilities can do?

  Line up and schedule emergency operations and cleanup

  Maintain contact with State and Federal Agencies (FEMA and others)
  of location and telephone numbers of the emergency operating
  center or command post for the utility.

  For public water systems, be sure to line up contacts to request
  emergency water supply, if necessary.

  Consult public health officials and your primacy agency for public
  notifications (i.e., boil water, do not drink).

  Notify customers and media where to access information and press

  Arrange for food and water for the

 Maintain clear lines of communication with local authorities,
 such as police and fire in case of an injury or other emergency.

 Make arrangements with the local power utility to restore power
 as a primary customer.

 Make arrangements with local companies to purchase materials
 and supplies and to borrow/lease heavy equipment needed to
 make repairs to the plant.

 Confirm with local companies that materials and chemicals can be
 delivered to the plant as soon as it is safe and units are repaired and
 ready for operation.

 Plan for appropriate disposition of personal protection equipment
 (PPE) and other equipment.

           Grounds and Common Areas
 If possible, re-supply inventory of emergency repair equipment and
 supplies (i.e., sand and sandbags, hand shovels, power equipment, fuel,
 batteries, flashlights, portable radio, first aid kits, etc.).

 Keep service vehicles stocked with equipment
 and supplies.

 Keep all vehicles and emergency generators fueled.

 Keep service vehicles on high ground (above expected flood crest).

            Grounds and Common Areas

 Maintain communications equipment and charge or replace
 batteries (i.e., two-way radios, cell phones, walkie-talkies, pagers,

 Sandbag critical areas.

 Coordinate debris removal.

 Shut down exposed pipes at river crossings to prevent discharge of raw
 sewage or to prevent loss or contamination of potable water if the pipes

   Administration and Laboratory Buildings
 Keep portable electrical equipment and small motors from the flood zone.

 Keep all sensitive laboratory equipment from the flood zone, where possible.

 Keep or store computers in a safe area.

 Keep or store all important records in a safe area.

 Keep vital records such as built drawings, wiring diagrams, etc. to the
 emergency operations center or command post until normal operations
 If electrical power has been disconnected, make arrangements with the
 local power company to restore as a primary customer.

   Treatment Plant and Pumping Stations
 Once flood waters recede, work with the power company to restore power.
 Keep chemicals in a safe area.

 Sample appropriate system elements (storage tanks, filters, sediment
 basins, solids handling) to determine if residual contamination

 Inspect electrical motors for damage caused by silt, mud, and dirt getting
 into the windings. Replace electrical motors if damaged in the storm.

 Submerged motors should be washed with clean water and dried, and
 in most cases restored to service.
         What is a “WARN”?
• Water/Wastewater Agency Response Network:
  Consists of a group of utilities that have agreed
  to assist each other in times of emergencies.
• Share generators and other equipment
• Send staff and crew to assist with recovery and
  to get the plants up and running again as quickly
  as possible
• Utilizes a secure website to disseminate
  information and is responsive to the evolving
  needs of the participating agencies
      Advantages of Participation
•   Recovery coordination
•   Resource inventory and availability status
•   Information exchange
•   Vulnerability assessment tools
•   Preparation protocols
•   ERP (Emergency Response Plan) updates
•   Updated BMPs and status reports
Some Final Thoughts…..
After Action Recommendations
         It is Recommended that:
• A creation of mutual aid agreements between public
  and private wastewater utilities in order to exchange
  equipment and manpower if necessary
• A meeting with power supply companies is
  scheduled before storms to prioritize which lift
  stations are critical to restore/repair first
• It is understood that to a property owner, the
  damage to his roof, or home and property from
  winds, flooding, lightning etc., will be of more
  importance than some sewage contaminated flood
  water outside his home.
       It is Recommended that:
• Sequencing the pumping of lift stations is done
  to avoid pumping wastewater to a downstream
  flooded lift station
• Coordination of the restoration of drinking
  water with the restoration of sewage collection
  and treatment systems
• Temporary easing of rules for land application
  of pumped sewage at more places
        It is Recommended that:
• Sewage lift station owners should be required
  by state statute to have and properly maintain
  back up power generators at all times
• It is critical for group care facilities, nursing
  homes etc., to have permanent back up
  generators that are properly maintained
• There should be a listing of the power meter I.D.
  number for the utility companies at the EOC so
  they may better triage the priority of electric
  service restoration
       It is Recommended that:
• It is recognize that sewage spills are
  preventable even following a hurricane
• Agencies need better coordination before the
  storms on who will do what and how to better
  work together to protect public health
• All lift stations need a common/universal
  generator connection, or even better,
  permanent back up generator installed
      Top Ten Reasons You Know You
           Are Living in Florida
10. You find the hum of a generator erotic
 9. There’s a “No Wake” sign posted at the end of
    your driveway
 8. Having a tree in the living room does not mean it is
 7. You consider plywood a window treatment
 6. A battery powered T.V. is considered an
    entertainment center
 5. You know exactly how long two bags of ice will
    last in your cooler
 4. You go to work early and stay late just to enjoy the
    air conditioning
 3. You’ve been laughed at over the phone by a
    roofer, tree service company, and fence builder
 2. You actually have seen pigs fly
And the number one reason you know you are
living in Florida is……………….

You actually like talking to your insurance agent!!
           Thank You!
For a copy of this presentation visit:

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