Session 1 Goals and Evidence_savings

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Session 1 Goals and Evidence_savings Powered By Docstoc
					 WOMEN’S EMPOWERMENT
         through
SUSTAINABLE MICRO-FINANCE

        Session 1

     WHY GENDER?
PARADIGMS, ASSUMPTIONS
     AND REALITIES
                  international rights
MORAL             agreements

                                                                      WHY
    women’s demands                                                 GENDER?
    and voice


  traditional
  rights                     ORGANIZATIONAL
                             MANDATES
inequality in                                                cost-effective
 basic needs                                                 implementation



   WOMEN ARE NOT                                     poverty
   A MINORITY BUT A                                  reduction:

    MARGINALISED
       MAJORITY
                                         economic
                                         growth     INSTRUMENTALIST
Increasing evidence of high female repayment rates and
the rising influence of gender lobbies within donor
agencies.
                                                                           MICRO-FINANCE
                                                                                AND
Mushrooming of donor, government and NGO-                                  EMPOWERMENT:
sponsored credit programmes in the wake of
the 1985 Nairobi women’s conference.
                                                     1990s female      AN OLD ROAD
Self- Employed Women’s                               targeting for
Association (SEWA). with                              financial sustainability
origins in the traditions of
unionisation identified                 1980s
credit as a major
constraint in their work
                                poverty-targeted         credit               Large minimalist poverty-
                                                                               targeted micro-finance
with informal sector                                                          institutions like Grameen
women workers.               1975                                            Bank, FINCA and ACCION
              first International
                   Women’s
                                                         Women’s access to credit was given particular
                Conference in                            leading to the setting up of the Women’s World
                     Mexico                                              Banking network

      Early 1970s                                          Attempts by women’s movements to gain
                                                          access for women to poverty-targeted credit
                                                                programmes and cooperatives
                    MICRO-FINANCE
                     AND WOMEN’S
                    EMPOWERMENT




MULTILANE HIGHWAY
 OR INCOMPATIBLE
   PARADIGMS?
FEMINIST EMPOWERMENT
       PARADIGM                                            Definition of
                                                          empowerment
                                                        transformation of
      Main policy focus :                                power relations
micro-finance as an entry point                        throughout society
for women’s economic, social
  and political empowerment




                                         Underlying assumption:
                                   women’s empowerment requires both
                                  fundamental change in the macro-level
                                     development agenda and explicit
                                  support for women to challenge gender
                                     subordination at the micro-level
     POVERTY
    REDUCTION
    PARADIGM                                       Definition of
                                                  empowerment
                                               increased wellbeing,
                                             community developmen
                                                and self-sufficiency

   Main policy focus :
  part of an integrated                              Underlying
 programme for poverty                              development
reduction particularly for                            paradigm
the poorest households                             interventionist
                                                 poverty reduction
                                                  and community
                                                    development




                                     Underlying assumptions:
                             • women’s empowerment, household
                               level poverty reduction and
                               community development are
                               inherently synergistic
                             • increased well-being and group
                               formation will automatically enable
                               women to empower themselves.
        FINANCIAL
      SUSTAINABILITY
        PARADIGM                            Definition of
                                           empowerment
                                      economic empowerment,
                                       expansion of individual
                                      choice and capacities for
                                            self-reliance



     Main policy focus :
    increasing access to                        Underlying
financially self-sustainable                   development
micro-finance programmes                        paradigm
 for large numbers of poor                    neo-liberal
 people, including women                      market growth




                                     Underlying assumption:
                                increasing women’s access to
                                micro-finance will automatically
                               lead to economic empowerment
                                  without other complementary
                                 interventions or change in the
                                     macro-economic growth
                                             agenda.
EMPOWERMENT ASSUMPTIONS:
VIRTUOUS SPIRALS
                                                  SAVINGS AND
                                                                           REPAYMENT
                                                    CREDIT

                                      WOMEN'S DECISION ABOUT SAVINGS AND CREDIT


           INCREASED
        HOUSEHOLD INCOME                              WOMEN'S                             INCREASED STATUS
         UNDER WOMEN'S                               ECONOMIC                              AND CHANGING
            CONTROL                                   ACTIVITY                                 ROLES




                                            INCREASED                                WOMEN'S         INCREASED
                                           INCOME FROM            INCREASED       NETWORKS AND     CONFIDENCE AND
 CHILDREN'S
                          WOMEN'S            WOMEN'S              ACCESS TO                            SKILLS
 WELLBEING                                                                           MOBILITY
                          WELLBEING         ACTIVITIES             MARKETS         (POWER WITH)      (POWER TO)

        HOUSEHOLD
        WELLBEING                                WOMEN'S                             WOMEN'S SOCIAL
              Nutrition                         ECONOMIC                             AND POLITICAL
               Health                         EMPOWERMENT                            EMPOWERMENT
              Literacy
              Happiness                   INCREASED                                       POWER TO CHALLENGE
                                                                   INCREASED
               MEN'S                    CONTROL OVER              INVESTMENT               AND CHANGE GENDER
              WELLBEING                 INCOME, ASSETS               AND                       RELATIONS
                                        AND RESOURCES            PRODUCTIVITY                ( POWER OVER)




               POVERTY                               ECONOMIC                                WOMEN'S
              REDUCTION                               GROWTH                               HUMAN RIGHTS
                       Amna is from the Beja tribe. She is about 35 years of
                       age and married with four young children. She studied to
                       Class 6 and has recently started studying again to learn
                       more. She chose her husband because ' It is my life, I
                       have to choose '.

                       Her first business was soap-making which she started
                       with a PASED loan in 1993. She has been borrowing
                       regularly every six months and repaying since then.

AMNA                   In 1999 she started a furniture business. Now she also
Trader in colour TVs   deals in colour and satellite televisions. She earns about
LEAP, Sudan            SL 2 million a month and has over 200 current clients.
                       She only sells to women because she says women are
                       more trustworthy than men. She varies the repayment
                       period depending on her assessment of the client's
                       ability to repay.

                       She has built her own house in her own name, spending
                       SL8 million. Her husband gives her all his income for the
                       household. He goes to the market and helps her with her
                       business.
EMPOWERMENT
ASSUMPTIONS:
VIRTUOUS SPIRALS




                                  SAVINGS AND
       ??Men may take loan          CREDIT
   but!!!
                                                            REPAYMENT

        ??Women may give
        the loan to men
                      WOMEN'S DECISION ABOUT SAVINGS AND CREDIT
QUESTIONING
ECONOMIC
EMPOWERMENT                             SAVINGS AND
                                                                        REPAYMENT
                                          CREDIT

                           WOMEN'S DECISION ABOUT SAVINGS AND CREDIT


   ?Diversion of loan to
                                                 WOMEN'S
   other uses                                   ECONOMIC
                                                 ACTIVITY




                                                                             ??Women may
                               INCREASED                    INCREASED
                               INCOME FROM                  ACCESS TO        work from home with
                                WOMEN'S                      MARKETS
    ??Incomes may be           ACTIVITIES                                    marketing by men
    very low
                                          WOMEN'S
                                         ECONOMIC
                                       EMPOWERMENT
                                  INCREASED
                                CONTROL OVER                  INCREASED             ??All women’s
     ??Men may                                               INVESTMENT
                               INCOME, ASSETS
                                                                 AND                income
     control income            AND RESOURCES
                                                            PRODUCTIVITY
                                                                                    May go for
                                                                                    consumption
                                                ECONOMIC
                                                 GROWTH
QUESTIONING
 WELLEBING
??Men may withdraw                                 SAVINGS AND
                                                                          REPAYMENT
                                                     CREDIT
their contribution
to the household
                                       WOMEN'S DECISION ABOUT SAVINGS AND CREDIT

            INCREASED
         HOUSEHOLD INCOME
          UNDER WOMEN'S
             CONTROL

                                                                       ??Women’s decisions may
                                                                       replicate gender inequality
  MEN'S
                          CHILDREN'S
 WELLBEING
                          WELLBEING

        HOUSEHOLD
        WELLBEING                                                             ??Girls may suffer
             Nutrition
              Health
             Literacy
             Happiness
             WOMEN'S
              WELLBEING




              ??POVERTY
                                                                      ??Women may forego
             REDUCTION                                                own consumption
QUESTIONING SOCIAL                                                              ??May replicate
AND POLITICAL                                                                   and reinforce
EMPOWERMENT                      SAVINGS AND                                    existing roles
                                                        REPAYMENT
                                   CREDIT
                                                                                      ??Debt may
                                                                                      decrease
                     WOMEN'S DECISION ABOUT SAVINGS AND CREDIT
                                                                                      confidence

                                                                         INCREASED STATUS
                                                                           AND CHANGING
                                         ??Women                               ROLES

                                         may work
                                         from home
                                                                    WOMEN'S           INCREASED
                                                                 NETWORKS AND       CONFIDENCE AND
                                                                   MOBILITY             SKILLS
                                                                                      (POWER TO)


                                                                    WOMEN'S SOCIAL
                                                                    AND POLITICAL
                                                                    EMPOWERMENT
                                                                           POWER TO CHALLENGE
                                                                           AND CHANGE GENDER
                                                                                 RELATIONS
                                                                              ( POWER OVER)



                                            ??May divert
                                            attention from                    WOMEN'S
                                            wider change                   HUMAN RIGHTS
                                                                                          EMPOWERMENT IS NOT
 ALL ASSUMPTIONS                                                                             AN AUTOMATIC
MUST BE QUESTIONED                                                                          CONSEQUENCE OF
                                                   SAVINGS AND                               MICRO-FINANCE
                                                     CREDIT                       REPAYMENT      PER SE

                                      WOMEN'S DECISION ABOUT SAVINGS AND CREDIT


           INCREASED
        HOUSEHOLD INCOME                                    WOMEN'S                            INCREASED STATUS
         UNDER WOMEN'S                                     ECONOMIC                              AND CHANGING
            CONTROL
                                 ???                        ACTIVITY
                                                                                ???                  ROLES




                                              INCREASED                                                     INCREASED
 MEN'S                                      INCOME FROM    ???           INCREASED
                                                                                         WOMEN'S
                                                                                      NETWORKS AND       CONFIDENCE AND
                         CHILDREN'S            WOMEN'S                   ACCESS TO                            SKILLS
WELLBEING                                                                                MOBILITY
                         WELLBEING            ACTIVITIES                  MARKETS                          (POWER TO)
                                                                                       (POWER WITH)

       HOUSEHOLD
       WELLBEING                                   WOMEN'S                                WOMEN'S SOCIAL
            Nutrition                             ECONOMIC                                AND POLITICAL
             Health                             EMPOWERMENT                               EMPOWERMENT
            Literacy
            Happiness                       INCREASED                    INCREASED             POWER TO CHALLENGE
            WOMEN'S                       CONTROL OVER                  INVESTMENT              AND CHANGE GENDER
             WELLBEING                   INCOME, ASSETS                     AND                      RELATIONS
                                         AND RESOURCES                 PRODUCTIVITY               ( POWER OVER)




             ??POVERTY                                     ECONOMIC                                 WOMEN'S
            REDUCTION                                       GROWTH                               HUMAN RIGHTS
        OPPORTUNITIES

Micro-finance programmes can
make a significant contribution to                                                       WAYS
women’s empowerment and gender
equality
                                                                                       FORWARD
                                                     What are the implications for
Gender equality                                     macro-level policy advocacy?
and women’s empowerment
are central to achievement of all         What are the implications for
other development goals.
                                           organisations themselves?
In micro-finance important for
financial sustainability,              How can micro-finance              RISKS
poverty reach and                   support men’s role in change?
 poverty reduction                                                        •   Credit equals debt
                        How can micro-finance
                        build on and strengthen                           •   Savings may come from
                       women’s own strategies?                                necessary consumption or
                                                                              productive investment
    What sorts of products,
     services and policies                                                •   Contribution of micro-finance
are needed for empowerment?                                                   alone appears to be most
                                                                              limited for the poorest and
       KEY                                                                    most disadvantaged women.
    QUESTIONS
  YOUR
QUESTIONS
 SO FAR
    ??

				
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posted:5/30/2010
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