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Irish Seafood Industry Training Needs and Skills Analysis by vjz16565

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									Appendix 5.1




Irish Seafood Industry Training Needs and Skills Analysis

5.1.0 Introduction

Objectives
In anticipation of the Task Force on Training & Employment, BIM implemented separate Training Needs surveys
of the Catching, Aquaculture and Processing & Retail sectors of the Seafood Industry during 1999. The objectives
of the surveys were to:

s    Evaluate the current training status of seafood industry personnel.

s    Evaluate the job skills and certifications required in each sector.

s    Assess the industry’s specific training needs in each sector.

s    Determine industry attitudes to training.

s    Enable BIM to target national and sectoral training needs and priorities.


Survey Methodology
A detailed questionnaire was drawn up, tailored to the individual needs and composition of each sector. The
questionnaires for each sector were slightly different in design, reflecting the types of jobs and skills in each sector
of the industry. Standardisation was used wherever possible to provide comparable information from each sector.

Each questionnaire was designed to elicit information on a number of key issues, beginning with questions to
cover business size, employment, nature of the activities undertaken etc. The questions then progressed to
addressing other key areas of training, for example:

s    Details of skills required

s    Staff/crew with qualifications and qualifications required

s    Recruitment requirements and expected difficulties

s    Employers attitudes to training

Surveys were implemented in each sector by way of face-to-face interviews with respondents. This approach was
favoured above the postal survey method to secure both the quality and the statistical significance of the responses.


Scope of the Survey
The three training needs surveys interviewed people throughout Ireland at fishing ports, fish farms and
in processing facilities. A summary of the geographical dispersion of the survey is shown in Table 5.1.1.




42
     Table 5.1.1: Number of Respondents Surveyed by Sector and Region
                       Region                                   Catching      Aquaculture           Processing
                                                                                                    and Retail
     North             Counties Louth & Donegal                         98                      5           6
     East              Dublin, Wicklow, Wexford
                       (to Wexford Town)                                41                  16              5
     South             Kilmore Quay, Co. Wexford
                       to Union Hall, Co. Cork                         111                  21             10
     West              Baltimore, Co. Cork
                       to Co. Mayo                                      76                  41              5
     Nationwide        Multiples                                         -                      -           3
     Total                                                             326                  83             29
     As a Percentage of Industry Total                                 16%                 15%            19%*

     * % Processing Sector only.




Seafood Industry Labour Age Profile
Figure 5.1.1 below illustrates the age profile and thus the inflows and outflows of the industry. In the short term
it would appear that, on average, potential industry outflow (the over 40 age group) is almost matched by the
inflow of new personnel (the under 25 age group) in each sector. However, taking the medium term view, there
is considerable cause for concern in all sectors as the middle group (25-39 years) is the largest in each sector.
As this group ages, there is a possibility of a labour shortages in each sector. The Catching sector is likely to be
most severely affected by this development, 52% of the respondents in this sector were in the 25-39 age category,
while the Aquaculture sector with 44% and the Processing & Retail sector with 43%, will each feel the affects of
an increasingly ageing workforce.



      Figure 5.1.1: Age Profile of the Seafood Respondents

                      AGE
               CATEGORIES
                   (YEARS)
                                                                                 39
                   Under 25                                       26
                                                                  26

                                                                                       43
                       25-39                                                               44
                                                                                                     52


                                                     19
                    Over 40                                             30
                                                           22

                               0          10               20            30           40             50          60
                               Percentage in each Age Group

                                   Processing and Retail           Aquaculture         Catching




                                                                                                                      43
Appendix 5.1.1




Catching Sector Training Needs and Skills Analysis

Profile of Respondents
A total of 326 fishing vessels (comprising 16% of the Fishing Fleet) plus 23 aquaculture licensed vessels were
surveyed at ports throughout Ireland. The numbers surveyed are summarised in Tables C.1 and C.2.

Figure C.1 below illustrates the size of vessel surveyed. The vessels ranged from 6 metres in length to a maximum
of 106 metres. The majority of vessels (32%) were in the 17-24 metre category, twenty-seven percent were under
12 metres in length, and twenty-three percent were between 12 and 17 metres. Seventeen percent of vessels
surveyed were 24 metres or more in length. One percent of respondents did not indicate vessel length.



      Figure C.1: Size of Vessel Surveyed (vessel length metres)

                            Unspecified Length 1%


                                                            Less then 12 metres 27%
                   24 metres + 17%




                  17-24 metres 32%
                                                            12-17 metres 23%




A significant proportion of the Irish fishing fleet was surveyed: the survey comprised 16% of the total fleet; 64%
of the vessels in the 12m - less than 17m range were surveyed, 52% of the vessels in excess of 24 metres, 54%
of the 17m - less than 24m and 5% of the vessels less than 12 m. A small number, 1%, did not indicate the size
of the vessel.



     Table C.1: Percentage of Irish Fleet (Year 2000) Surveyed
                              Total                                      Total        Fishing Vessels
     Vessel                Number        Aquaculture       Fishing     Fishing         surveyed as a
     Size                of Vessels          Vessels       Vessels       Fleet         Percentage of
     (metres)             Surveyed         Surveyed      Surveyed         Size         Size Category
     Less
     than 12m                    96                 14         82        1,650                   5%
     12m - less
     than 17m                    81                  2         79          123                  64%
     17m - less
     than 24m                  109                   2        107          200                  54%
     24m
     and over                    59                  5         54          104                  52%
     Unspecified
     Length                          4               -           4             -                    -
     Total                     349                  23        326       2,077                   16%




44
Tables C.2. and C.3 below detail the wide geographical spread of the survey.



     Table C.2: Number of Vessels Surveyed by Region
                                                                  Fishing      Aquaculture
     Region                                                       Vessels          Vessels
     North         Counties Louth & Donegal                           98                11
     East          Dublin, Wicklow, Wexford
                   (to Wexford Town)                                  41                 2
     South         Kilmore Quay, Co. Wexford
                   to Union Hall, Co. Cork                           111                 3
     West          Baltimore, Co. Cork to Co. Mayo                    76                 7
     Total                                                           326                23




     Table C.3: Main Operating Ports of Surveyed Vessels
                                     Number                                        Number
     Main Operating/               of Vessels        Main Operating/             of Vessels
     Home Ports                     Surveyed         Home Ports                   Surveyed
     Arklow                               10         Greencastle                        34
     Balbriggan                           11         Helvic Head                         3
     Ballydavid                               1      Howth                              22
     Ballyglass                               2      Killybegs                          23
     Ballywhoriskey                           1      Kilmore Quay                       15
     Baltimore                                7      Kilronan                            2
     Belmullet                                2      Kinsale                            10
     Brandon                                  2      Leenane                             4
     Burtonport                               5      Lettermullan                        2
     Carrigaholt                              1      Maharees                           14
     Castletownbere                       28         Malin Head                         15
     Cleggan                                  4      Moville                             2
     Clogherhead                              4      Portmagee                           9
     Cobh                                     2      Porturlin                           5
     Courtown                                 4      Redcastle                           1
     Dingle                               21         Rinroe                              2
     Downings                                 3      Rossaveal                          19
     Duncannon                                6      Schull                              4
     Dun Laoghaire                            1      Skerries                            4
     Dunmore East                         12         Union Hall                         16
     Fenit                                    1      Warren Point                        1
     Galway                                   4      Waterford                           2
     Glengad                                  4      Wicklow                             4




                                                                                              45
Eighty percent of respondents indicated that their fishing operation could be considered a family business.



        Figure C.2: Types of Fishing Undertaken by Respondents

                  TYPES OF FISHING
                    Pelagic Trawling                            15

                  Demersal Trawling                                                            32
                            Seining        2
                     Beam Trawling         2
                          Demersal                      11
                        Gill Netting
                             Surface                      12
                       Drift Netting
                             Potting                           14

                        Long Lining 1

                              Other                       12
                   (eg. Aquaculture)
                                       0          5     10          15       20       25      30         35
                                       Percentage



Figure C.2 above profiles the fishing activities of the respondents, showing the majority of vessels were engaged
in Demersal Trawling, (32%), followed by Pelagic Trawling, (15%) and Potting, (14%). Aquaculture and Surface
Drift Netting each accounted for 12% and 11% of vessels surveyed were engaged in Demersal Gill Netting.


Catching Sector: Current Labour Profile
To provide a comprehensive overview current and future labour trends, respondents were asked questions
relating to:

s    The number of crew working on the vessel (including the respondent)

s    The numbers engaged part time on the vessel

s    Age profile of the crew on the vessel

s    Job categories in which recruitment is anticipated in the next 12 months

s    Job categories in which recruitment is expected to be difficult in the next 12 months.

Many of those working seasonally on aquaculture vessels also crewed on fishing vessels. In total, the
respondents surveyed employed 1,362 people, accounting for 22% of the total catching sector labour force.



       Table C.4: Respondents as a Percentage of Catching Sector Employment
                                                                 Total            Respondents as a %
       Employment                    Survey            Catching Sector             of Catching Sector
       Number                   Respondents              Labour Force                   Labour Force
       Total                                   1,362                 6,100                         22%




46
Figure C.3 below shows that 50% of vessels surveyed carried between 4 and 6 persons. A further thirty-five percent
of vessels had smaller crews of one to three persons on board.



      Figure C.3: Average Number of Crew on each Vessel

                 NUMBER
                 RANGES

                      1-3                                                       35


                      4-6                                                                   50


                     7-11                         13


                    12-21           1


                     22+        0


                            0                10             20             30         40        50
                            Percentage



Over half of the respondent’s crews (52%) were in the 25-39 years age category, 26% were under 25 years
old and the remaining 22% are over 40 years of age. This age profile is clearly illustrated in Figure C.4 below.



      Figure C.4: Age Profile of Respondents’ Crews

                AGE CATEGORIES
                        (YEARS)


                   New Entrants                                       26
                      Under 25



                    Experienced
                      Crewmen                                                              52
                          25-39



                      Potential
                     Departures                                  22
                       Over 40


                                        0              10        20        30        40    50        60

                                        Percentage



The need to recruit new entrants to the catching sector in the medium terms is clearly shown: in the short term,
the numbers potentially at risk of leaving the industry, 22%, are approximately matched by those entering, 26%.
However, this apparent balance in inflow and outflow from the industry is overshadowed by a majority (52%) in
the middle age group of experienced crew aged 25-39 years. As this significantly larger group ages in the medium
term and leaves the industry, it is imperative to recruit sufficient persons to replace them. Also any significant
departures from this middle group to other industries would have grave consequences for the manning of Irish
fishing vessels.

In an effort to evaluate the immediate short-term recruitment, and by definition future training, requirements,
respondents were asked to indicate the job categories they expected to recruit during the next 12 months.



                                                                                                             47
Figure C.5, shows the results in each category. The strongest demand, at 58%, is for Fishing Deckhands, followed
by a 16% demand for Trainee Deckhands. Thus the total industry demand for Deckhands (trainee or experienced)
is a crucial 74%.

Respondents were further asked whether they expected to have any difficulty in recruiting in the following
12 months, the results are also shown in Figure C.5.

This graph clearly shows that the exceptional demand for experienced Fishing Deckhands is matched by the
expected difficulty in recruiting them. In total, 75% of respondents expected to have difficulty in recruiting either
experienced (67%) or trainee deckhands (8%) in the next 12 months.



        Figure C.5: Forecast Recruitment by Job Category

                  JOB CATEGORY
                                       3
                         Skipper
                                        4
                           Mate             6
                                           5
                        Engineer                 9
                                                 9
                       Deckhand                                                                        67
                                                                                           58
                           Cook        3
                                       3
                         Trainee       4
                        Engineer        5
                         Trainee                8
                       Deckhand                           16

                                   0                 10        20     30      40      50          60        70   80
                                   Percentage of Responses in each Job Category

                                                Expected Difficulty        Expected Recruitment




In other job categories a similar picture emerges, demand for a particular employee is matched by an expected
difficulty in recruiting that person.

Nine percent of respondents required Engineers and 5% required Trainee Engineers, while a comparable number
expected to have difficulty in recruiting experience Engineers (9%) and trainee Engineers (4%).

Mates were demanded by 5% of respondents and 6% anticipated recruitment difficulties. There was a 4% demand
for Skippers and 3% expected to have problems recruiting Skippers. Demand for and anticipated difficulty in
recruiting Cooks was 3%.


Catching Sector: Training Needs and Skills Analysis
The training needs survey focussed on three essential areas:

s    Skills required of crew (as distinct from certification)

s    Certification already held by crew members

s    Certification required by crew members

The objective was to develop an understanding of the skills and competencies expected of crews and quantify
future training requirements.




48
Figure C.6 below shows the type of skills typically required of crew on the surveyed vessels. This chart also
represents the respondents’ awareness of the skills needed to operate the vessel efficiently and safely.



      Figure C.6: Skills Required on Vessels

                                    SKILLS

                         Net Mending and
                        Gear Maintenance                                                            13

                  Fishing Gear Technology                 3
               Operation and Maintenance                                                       12
                       of Deck Machinery
                         Care of the Catch                                                               14
                    Deck Supervision and
                Navigation/Watchkeeping                                                             13
                  Engine Room Operation
                         and Maintenance                                         9
                     Electronic Equipment
               Operation and Maintenance              1

                         Radio Operations                                                           13
                   Safe Working Practices
                      (Health and Safety)             1
                  Information Technology
                            (Computers)               1

              Business Skills: Book-keeping           1

                 Business Skills: Personnel       0

                       Basic Food Hygiene                                                10

                                  Cooking                                    8

                                              0               3       6              9          12            15

                                              Percentage of Responses Identifying Skill Need



The emphasis on fish quality is rated most highly: 14% of respondents demanding this skill in Care of the Catch
and 10% in Basic Food Hygiene, closely followed by 8% in cooking.

Core fishing skills such as Deck Supervision & Navigation/Watchkeeping (13%), Net Mending & Gear Maintenance
(13%) and Radio Operations (13%) and Operation and Maintenance of Deck Machinery (12%) are the next most
highly demanded skills. It is interesting to note that, although 80% of the fishing operations surveyed consider
themselves a family business, there is little consideration given to the need for business skills. Information
technology (computer skills) and book keeping skills are each considered necessary by only one percent of
respondents, with ironically personnel skills meriting zero.

Recognition of the need for skills/training in Safe Working Practices (Health & Safety) is extremely low at one
percent of respondents. This may indicate a lack of awareness of the implications of having a Safety Statement
to comply with the Safety, Health and Welfare at Work Act 1989. It is clear that such skills are less valued than
practical skills in net mending and radio operations for example.




                                                                                                                   49
From a different perspective, the numbers of crewmembers with certification in each category are represented
in Figure C.7 below.



      Figure C.7: Crew Members with Certification

                            QUALIFICATIONS

                                Skipper Full 1
                          Second Hand Full     2
                            Skipper Limited    2
                       Second Hand Special                      8
                                                                         16%
                       Second Hand Limited 1
                            Engineer Class I 0
                             Engineer Class II 1
                            Engineer Class III 1
                       BIM Fishing Deckhand            4
                                 Fish Farming 0
                       Restricted R/T or VHF                                    17
                      Long Range Certificate     2
                 Short Range Cert. Module 1 1
                 Short Range Cert. Module 2 0
               Electronic Navigation Systems                6
                  Navigation Control Course            4
                           Basic Sea Survival                                             26
                          4-Day Fire Fighting 1
                          2-Day Fire Fighting                       11
                                      First Aid                          13
                                       Other       0

                                               0           5        10         15    20   25   30

                                               Percentage



The results of BIM’s safety training initiatives are evident with 26% of crewmembers surveyed holding Basic
Sea Survival Certificates, 13% with First Aid Certificates and 11% having completed the Two-day Fire Fighting
Certificate course.

Basic radio skills are highly represented; the Restricted Radio Telephony Certificate or VHF Certificate (discontinued)
is held by 17% of respondent’s crews. Electronic Navigation Systems Certificates are held by 6% and 8% hold
Second Hand Special Certificates of Competency, which entitles them to skipper a vessel up to 24 metres in
length. Sixteen percent of respondents’ crews (highlighted above) are in possession of Skippers, Second Hands
or Engineering Certificates, implying that 84% do not hold certification. However, almost 50% of respondents’
vessels were below the 17 metre threshold for holding certificates of competence.




50
Respondents were further asked to identify their crew’s certification requirements and the results are shown in
Figure C.8 below.



      Figure C.8: Certification Required by Crew

                            QUALIFICATIONS

                                 Skipper Full       0
                           Second Hand Full         0
                             Skipper Limited        0
                       Second Hand Special 1
                       Second Hand Limited 0
                             Engineer Class I       0
                            Engineer Class II       0
                            Engineer Class III 1
               Commercial Fishing Certificate       0
                                Fish Farming        0
                      Long Range Certificate                         19
                 Short Range Cert. Module 1                 7
                 Short Range Cert. Module 2 1
               Electronic Navigation Systems 1
                  Navigation Control Course 1
                           Basic Sea Survival                                               48
                          4-Day Fire Fighting       0
                          2-Day Fire Fighting                   11
                                    First Aid           6
                                       Other        3

                                                0               10        20   30     40         50

                                                Percentage



Paradoxically, despite the 26% level of certification being held in the areas of Basic Sea Survival Training
(Figure C.7), this was highlighted again as a priority by 48% of respondents, 11% require Two-day Fire Fighting
and LRC radio certification was required by 19% of crewmembers.

It is clear that the training and skills requirement for the crews lay in distinct areas:

Radio Training:
Emphasised in Figures C. 6 and C.8, particularly in relation to LRC training.

Core Manual Skills and Competencies:
Net mending, Deck Supervision & Navigation/Watchkeeping are highlighted in Figure C.6. These are core
elements of the FETAC Commercial Fishing Certificate and the Skippers and Second Hand Certificates of
Competency courses. The demand for core skills and competencies is reflected in the combined demand for
Deckhands and Trainee Deckhands (74%,) including product quality reflected in the requirement for Care of
the Catch and Basic Food Hygiene Skills.

Safety Training and Awareness:
Especially highlighted in Figures C.7 and C.8 is the fact that most crewmembers require training in Basic Sea
Survival. Paradoxically however, Safe Working Practices is not considered as desirable a skill required aboard
the vessels surveyed as respondents placed more emphasis on practical skills.




                                                                                                           51
Certificates Least in Demand are:                                 Skills Least in Demand are:
s    Skipper Full                                                 s   Safe Working Practices
s    Second Hand Full                                             s   Electronic Equipment
s    Skipper Limited                                              s   Business Skills: Accountancy & Personnel
s    Engineer (Classes I, II and III)                             s   Information Technology
s    SRC Module 2
s    Electronic Navigation Systems
s    Navigation Control Course
s    Commercial Fishing Certificate

The most unexpected inclusion in this list is the entry level Commercial Fishing Certificate (formerly BIM Fishing
Deckhand Course). With demand for Deckhands (both trainee and experienced) at 74%, the requirement for such
personnel is not in doubt. Yet completion of a suitable recognised training course in preparation for the job is not
rated highly among respondents.


Catching Sector: Attitudes to Training
The survey asked respondents questions relating to training and planning and what factors encouraged them to
initiate training for themselves and their crew. Levels of support for training and optimal training delivery methods
were also surveyed.

Respondents were asked what was their prime reason for undertaking training and two alternatives were offered:
legal and operational. Figure C.9 below shows that 53% of respondents cited compliance with legal requirements
(e.g. certification and health and safety) as their prime reason for training. The remaining 47% of respondents
cited response to changes in fishing operations such as changing to new fishing gear, or techniques as a
motivation factor.



         Figure C.9: Respondents’ Reasons for Training

                    RESPONSE CATEGORIES


                          Compliance with
                        Legal Requirements                                              53




                       Response to Changes                                         47
                       in Fishing Operations


                                               0        10   20       30      40        50     60

                                               Percentage



Once again a paradox arises, Figure C.6 apparently shows the respondent’s limited acknowledgement of the
requirement for Safe Working Practice skills (Health & Safety) on their vessel, yet Figure C.9 indicates that
compliance with legal requirements is a major contributory factor in the respondents’ decision to train
crewmembers. However, despite agreement with these reasons for training, only 25% of respondents stated
that they had a Training Plan for themselves and their crew and Figure C.7 shows that only 26% of respondents’
crewmembers had completed their Basic Sea Survival Certificate.




52
Likewise, levels of support for crewmembers wishing to undertake training are severely limited to either paid time
off, which would be offered by 21% of respondents, or course fees which would be paid by 16% of those surveyed.
This leaves a gap of 63% of vessels surveyed that would be unwilling to provide training support for crew
members, in Figure C.10.



      Figure C.10: Training Support

                                               Course Fees 16%




                None 63%
                                                                 Paid Time Off 21%




Bearing in mind that most respondents were employers, a Modular Training approach was deemed to be the form
of training delivery most appropriate to the needs of respondents, shown in Figure C.11 below. Thirty-five percent
of those surveyed chose this method over Evening Classes (23%) and Weekend Courses (27%). On-board or task
based training was suited to the needs of 10% of respondents. BIM is using this method in the work practice module
of the new Commercial Fishing Certificate. Least interest was shown in Distance Learning Technology at 1%.



      Figure C.11: Types of Training Delivery Required by Respondents
                     TYPES OF
                     TRAINING
                     DELIVERY

                       Evening                                                    23
                        Classes

                      Weekend                                                           27
                       Courses

                       Modular
                       Training                                                                   35

                      Distance
                      Learning         1

                     On Board
                    Task Based                        10


                           Other           3

                                   0           5        10          15       20        25    30    35
                                   Percentage



Eighty-five percent of respondents indicated that they had no difficulty in obtaining access to training in BIM’s
National Fisheries College, Regional Fisheries Centre or either of the two Coastal Training Units. Of the remaining
15% who had experienced problems, 44% of these had problems associated with the training location and 56%
had problems with the timing of the courses in their area. BIM’s Coastal Training Units provide accessible and
flexible training delivery in remote areas and offer short duration certificated examination modules in radio
communications and safety training, responding to industry’s demand for modular training. However, the Coastal
Training Units have not got the facilities to provide long duration Skippers and Second Hand courses or Navigation
Control Course, Electronic Navigation Systems courses etc. which require specialist facilities only available in the
main centres; National Fisheries College, Greencastle and the Regional Fisheries Centre, Castletownbere.


                                                                                                          53
A respectable fifty-five percent of respondents indicated that they were aware of the full range of courses available
for themselves and their crew and 97% requested further course information. Figure C.12 below shows the
respondents interest in other courses, should they be made available.



      Figure C.12: Additional Courses of Interest to Respondents

                             COURSE TYPE


                              Small Vessel
                           (less than 12m)                                             35
                      Boatmans Certificate



                    Small Vessel (less than
                       750 kW) Motorman                                                                51
                    Engineering Certificate



                         Conservation and
                    Fisheries Management                     12



                                              0              10             20    30             40    50

                                              Percentage



The most popular choice would be the Motorman Engineering Certificate accounting for 51% of respondents’
demand, closely followed by the Boatman Certificate at 35%. Knowledge of Conservation and Fisheries Management
was rated at 12%. The demand for Motorman and Boatman Certificates reflects a need for hands-on training,
while the demand for Conservation and Fisheries Management issues shows a growing interest in the key factors
for achieving sustainable development in the catching sector.

Figure C.13 summarises the respondents attitudes to training and shows that, although 85% of respondents
indicated that they would have very little difficulty in accessing training, the majority (75%) still have no training
plans and 63% do not offer tangible support to personnel seeking training.



      Figure C.13: Summary of Respondent’s Attitudes to Training
               TRAINING ACCESS,
                  SUPPORT AND
                      PLANNING

                                                                                                  85
                        Problem
                       Accessing
                        Training          15



                        Training                                                 63
                        Support
                                                                  37


                                                                                            75
                        Training
                            Plan
                                                   25

                                   0              20                   40        60              80         100

                                   Percentage

                                       No              Yes




54
Comments made by Catching Sector Respondents
A number of general responses were made relating to course availability and training requirements and a number
of recurring themes emerged:

“Crisis in Crews”
Strong words, yet typical of the serious nature of the recruitment difficulties currently being experienced by
respondents. The survey has identified the demand for crews, particularly deckhands, and shown the anticipated
difficulty in recruitment. Crew shortages emerged again in comments relating to recruitment and incentives and
strong emotions were evident, e.g.

s   “Stop dole in every port until each vessel has a crew”

Respondents identified solutions to the employment problems, the majority focusing on tax and wage incentives.
Typically, respondents seek tax incentives to train crews and consider the volatility of the industry
a disincentive to attracting new entrants. At the outset, trainees should have better allowances, in the opinion of
those surveyed, and there should be a wage supplement for those who have completed training.

Safety Training: Basic Sea Survival/Fire Fighting and First Aid
Comments in this area were extremely positive as these examples show:

s   “Everybody using boats should be compelled to do Basic Sea Survival”

s   “Basic Sea Survival and Fire Fighting should be made a legal requirement”

s   “Every vessel should be compelled to do monthly muster practice”

Timing/Availability and accessibility of courses
Eighty-five percent of respondents had no difficulty in accessing courses, reflecting the expanded nature of
BIM’s training facilities. However the request for courses to be run locally is made repeatedly and the timing of
courses was also mentioned, winter courses are requested and respondents indicated that more consultation with
fishermen on the timing of courses would help make them more accessible. Respondents also commented that
port courses should be continued.

From the point of view of maintaining crew levels, releasing people for training posed problems for some skippers.




                                                                                                           55
Appendix 5.1.2




Aquaculture Sector Training Needs and Skills Analysis

Overview of All Aquaculture Respondents (Shellfish and Finfish)
Profile of Respondents
A total of 83 aquaculture fish farms were surveyed throughout Ireland in 1999, the numbers surveyed
are summarised in Table A.1 below. The respondents represented 15% of the industry in both the finfish
(10 respondents) and shellfish (73 respondents) sub-sectors.



     Table A.1: Number of Fish Farming Operations Surveyed by Region
     Location                                                    Finfish   Shellfish   Total
     Counties Louth & Donegal
     (INTERREG zone)                                                  0           5       5
     Dublin to Kilmore Quay                                           4          12      16
     Kilmore Quay (Co. Wexford)
     to Union Hall (Co. Cork)                                         2          19      21
     Baltimore, Co. Cork to Co. Mayo
     (Excluding Galway)                                               2          14      16
     Galway                                                           2          23      25
     Total Surveyed                                                  10          73      83
     Surveyed Farms as a Percentage
     of the Industry Total                                         15%         15%      15%
     Total Number of Aquaculture
     Operations in Ireland*                                          65         476     541

     * Does not include 8 operations with unspecified species.




The aquaculture operations surveyed ranged in size from 1 site to more than 4 sites as shown in Figure A.1 below:



      Figure A.1: Number of Sites Operated by Respondents

                     Four or More 11%                One 51%


                  Three 13%




                  Two 25%




Just over half (51%) of the aquaculture operations surveyed operated one site, twenty-five percent of respondents
operated two sites and thirteen percent had three sites and a minority of eleven percent operated four or more sites.




56
The company structure of the operations surveyed were variously described as Limited Liability Company (56%),
Sole Trader (27%), Other (14%) and Partnership (4%). These findings are illustrated in Figure A2 below:



       Figure A.2: Company Structure

                   COMPANY TYPE


                        Sole Trader                                27



                        Partnership         4



                            Limited                                                    56
                            Liability


                        Other (e.g.
                      Co-operative)                  14


                                        0        10           20        30   40   50        60

                                        Percentage



Elaborating on the “Other” category, most respondents indicated that their farms were operated as part of a
co-operative. Forty-nine percent of respondents indicated that their aquaculture operation could be considered
a family business.

Figure A.3 profiles the fish farming activities of the respondents, showing the majority of respondents were
engaged in shellfish cultivation, (88%). Twelve percent of respondents were engaged in finfish farming.



       Figure A.3: Fish Farming Categories of Respondents

                                                Finfish 12%




                  Shellfish 88%




Aquaculture Sector: Current Employment Profile – An Overview
To provide a comprehensive overview of current and future employment, respondents were asked
questions relating to:

s   The number of people working on their farm (including the respondent).

s   The numbers in part time employment on their farm.

s   Age profile of the staff on their farm.

s   Job categories in which recruitment is anticipated in the next 12 months.

s   Job categories in which recruitment is expected to be difficult in the next 12 months.


                                                                                                          57
In total, the respondents surveyed employed a total of 744 people on 83 farms, accounting for 28% of the total
aquaculture sector employment. At the time of the survey in 1999, aquaculture employed a total of 2,630 persons.
(Employment in the sector in 2000 had expanded by 22% to 3,207 persons). Tables A.1 and A.2 indicate that the
survey findings are statistically significant, accounting for approximately 28% of the total industry employment
and 15% of operational units.



     Table A.2: Respondents as a Percentage of Aquaculture Sector Employment
                                                                  Total            Respondents as
                                                            Aquaculture              a Percentage
                                                                 Sector               Aquaculture
     Employment                            Survey           Employment                     Sector
     Status                           Respondents                 1999               Employment
     Full Time                                  322                  1,070                         30%
     Part Time                                  422                  1,560                         27%
     Total                                     744                   2,630                     28%


Figure A.4 shows that the average aquaculture operation surveyed, (either shellfish or finfish), employed between
1 and 3 persons (49% of respondents). A further thirty-nine percent of farms employed smaller staff of between
4 and 15 persons. Aquaculture operations employing 16-30 persons and in excess of thirty persons accounted
for 6% of respondents respectively.



      Figure A.4: Average Number of Staff on each Aquaculture Operation

                 NUMBER
                 RANGES


                      1-3                                                                49



                     4-15                                                    39



                    16-30         6



                     30+          6


                            0           10             20       30                40          50

                            Percentage in each Range



Almost half of the staff surveyed (44%) were in the 25-39 years age category, 26% were under 25 years old and the
remaining 30% are over 40 years of age. This age profile is clearly illustrated in Figure A.5. In the medium term this
may be indicative of a potential staff shortage problem, where the numbers leaving the industry (the Over 40
category with 30%) are not fully replaced by new entrants to the industry (Under 25 category with just 26%).




58
     Figure A.5: Age Profile of Respondents’ Staff

             AGE CATEGORIES
                     (YEARS)


                   Under 25                                                      26




                       25-39                                                                                     44




                     Over 40                                                               30



                               0                   10                       20              30              40                50

                               Percentage in each Category



In an effort to evaluate the short term recruitment requirement, and hence estimate future training requirements,
respondents were asked to indicate the job categories they expected to recruit during the next 12 months.
Respondents were further asked whether they anticipated any difficulty in recruiting in the following 12 months.
The results are shown in Figure A.6.



     Figure A.6: Forecast Recruitment and Anticipated Difficulty by Job Category
                          JOB CATEGORY
                                                   2
                                   Manager
                                                       3

                                Supervisor                     5
                                                   2

                                   Biologist                       8
                                                               5

                                      Diver            3
                                                           4

                     Fish Farm Operative                                                                                 46
                                                                                                                        45

                                     Driver            3
                                                               5
                                                   2
                                    Skipper
                                                       1

                                   Engineer            3
                                                       1

                   Fish Handling/Filleting                             12
                                                                                                27

                         Clerical/Admin.               3
                                                               5
                                                                       12
                                     Other
                                                   2

                                               0                       10             20             30           40               50

                                               Percentage of Responses in each Job Category

                                                               Expected Difficulty               Expected Recruitment




The strongest demand, at 45%, is for Fish Farm Operatives, followed by a 27% demand for persons working in Fish
Handling/Filleting. Biologist, Driver and Clerical/Administrative personnel have a demand of 5% closely followed
by Divers at 4%. Managers and Supervisors rate 3% and 2% demand respectively. The categories least in demand
with a mere 1% are Skippers and Engineers.

                                                                                                                                        59
The graph illustrates the labour market shortages in the aquaculture sector. The demand for Fish Farm Operatives
and the anticipated difficulty in recruiting in this job category are self-evident. In total, 46% of respondents expected
to have difficulty recruiting operatives over the next 12 months. The need for skilled personnel in Fish Handling/
Filleting is also clearly shown: as before, the demand for Fish Handling/Filleting personnel is linked to expected
difficulty in recruiting people in this job category. Though the nature of their work is not specifically identified by
respondents, the category “Other” has been identified by respondents as a area of recruitment difficulty.

Biologists are considered difficult to recruit by 8% of respondents followed closely by the skills of Supervisors (5%).
Similarly the demand for the other job categories is closely matched by expected difficulty in recruiting in these
areas: Divers, Engineers, Drivers and Clerical/Administration meriting 3% and Managers and Skippers getting 2%.


Aquaculture Sector: Training Needs and Skills Analysis
The training needs survey focussed on three essential areas:

s    Skills required of aquaculture staff (as distinct from certification)

s    Certification already held by staff

s    Certification required by staff

The objective of this questioning was to develop an understanding of the skills and competencies expected of staff
and quantify their future training requirement.

Figure A.7 below shows the type of skills typically required of staff on surveyed farms. This chart also represents
the respondents awareness of the skills needed to manage farming activities efficiently and safely.



        Figure A.7: Skills Required on Farm Operation
                                      SKILLS

                                      Diving                               5

                          Forklift Operation                                       7

                          Tractor Operation                                                        10

                           Crane Operation                    3
                           Load Slinging and                                                   9
                           Manual Handling
                              Boat Handling                                        7

                       Fish Farm Husbandry                                         7
                              Handling, QC                                                     9
                             and Processing
                              Fish/Shellfish                                                             12
                      Handling and Hygiene
                   Engine Room Operations                          4

                       Electronic Equipment                        4

                     Safe Working Practices                                            8

                    Information Technology                                 5

               Business Skills: Book Keeping                                       7

                   Business Skills: Personnel                              5

                                                0         2            4       6           8        10    12

                                                Percentage of Respondents Identifying Skill Need




The emphasis on quality is rated most highly: 12% of respondents demanding this skill in Fish/Shellfish Handling
& Hygiene and 9% in Handling, Quality Control (QC) & Processing. Skills in Fish Farm Husbandry are required by
7% of respondents.


60
Practical skills are much in demand among respondents: Tractor Operation (10%); Load Slinging & Manual
Handling (9%); and Forklift Operation (7%) and Boat Handling (7%), Crane Operation (3%) and Diving with 5%.
Skills in Safe Working Practices in the farm environment are well regarded with 8% demand among respondents.

The business side of the farming operation is not ignored with Business Skills in Book keeping demanded by 7%
of respondents and Personnel and Information Technology each having 5% demand. This is very much in keeping
with the nature of the businesses surveyed, as almost half of respondents (49%) considered the farming operation
to be a family business. Engine Room and Electronic Equipment skills (each 4%) were less in demand by respondents.

Respondents were further asked to define the training needs of staff in terms of certification requirements and
the results are shown in Figure A.8. The responses are indicative of the nature of the aquaculture sector with
Figures A.7 and A.8 both illustrating respondents’ emphasis on quality, practical skills and basic safety.



     Figure A.8: Categories where Certification is Required

                               QUALIFICATIONS

                                Skipper Limited                          5

                           Second Hand Special              2

                          Second Hand Limited               2

                                Engineer Class II           2

                               Engineer Class III           2

                            *Fish Farm Practice                          5

                         *Practical Fish Farming                             6

                                *Salmon Quality                      4
                                *Oyster Quality                                                    13
                                 and Husbandry
                                      *Shellfish                                                        15
                               Quality, Hygiene
                            *Salmon Harvesting 0
                                   Long Range
                                   Radio Cert.                       4
                                  Short Range                                    7
                                   Radio Cert.
                          Electronic Navigation                 3

                      Navigation Control Course             2

                              Basic Sea Survival                                         10

                             4-Day Fire Fighting        1

                             2-Day Fire Fighting        1

                                        First Aid                                             12

                                          Other                          5

                                                    0            3           6       9         12        15

                                                    Percentage
                      *Existing BIM Short Courses



Figure A.8 demonstrates the respondents’ recognition of the need for training to maintain product quality (and in
the case of shellfish, consumer safety too). Fifteen percent of respondents stated that certification in Shellfish
Quality & Hygiene is required by staff, with a further 13% requiring certification in Oyster Quality & Husbandry
(both courses presently conducted by BIM). Safety training is again well represented with First Aid courses needed
by 12% of staff and Basic Sea Survival by 10%

The Short Range Certificate in Radiocommunications is required by 7% of respondents, the Long Range
Radiocommunications Certificate (4%), with the Electronic Navigation Systems Certificate (3%) and the Navigation
Control Course (2%). The Skipper Limited Certificate and Other categories each merited 5%.

                                                                                                              61
Other practical courses required to cover the day-to-day operations of fish farms included BIM short courses:
Practical Fish Farming (6%), Fish Farm Practice (5%) and Salmon Quality, Hygiene & Grading (4%). Courses least in
demand included: Second Hand Special, Second Hand Limited, Engineer Classes II and III all with 2% requirement.
The Fire Fighting courses showed a mere 1% requirement while the BIM Salmon Harvesting course had zero
requirement among the respondents.


Aquaculture Sector: Attitudes to Training
The survey asked respondents questions relating to training and planning and what factors encouraged them
to initiate training for themselves and their staff. Levels of support for training and optimal training delivery
methods were also surveyed.

Respondents were asked what was their prime reason for undertaking training and two alternatives were offered:
legal and operational. Figure A.9 below shows that 58% of respondents cited compliance with legal requirements
as their prime reason for training. The remaining 42% of respondents cited response to changes in farming
operations as a motivation factor.



      Figure A.9: Aquaculture Respondents’ Reasons for Training

               RESPONSE CATEGORIES


                    Response to Changes
                   in Farming Operation                                42




                      Compliance with
                    Legal Requirements                                              58


                                          0        10       20    30   40      50        60

                                          Percentage




In keeping with the respondent’s acknowledgement of the requirement for Safe Working Practice skills (Health
& Safety) on their farm (see figure A.7), Figure A.9 indicates that compliance with legal requirements is a major
contributory factor in the respondents’ decision to train staff. However, despite agreement with these reasons
for training, only 20% of respondents stated that they had a Training Plan for themselves and their staff.

Despite this, levels of support for staff members wishing to undertake training are encouragingly high. Seventy-
seven percent of respondents offered training support to staff: either paid time off, which would be offered by
37% of respondents, or course fees which would be paid by 40% of those surveyed. This leaves a gap of 23% of
aquaculture operations surveyed that would be unwilling to provide training support for staff members, as shown
in Figure A.10.



      Figure A.10: Training Support

                                                Course Fees 40%


                  None 23%




                Paid Time Off 37%



62
Bearing in mind that most respondents were employers, Weekend Courses were deemed to be the form of training
delivery most appropriate to the needs of respondents, shown in Figure A.11. Thirty-five percent of those surveyed
chose this method over Evening Classes (33%) and Modular Training (14%).

The category “Other” was chosen by 11% of respondents, some of whom elaborated on the type of training
delivery most appropriate for their staff: many indicated that on the job training would best suit their
organisations. Surprisingly, least interest was shown in Distance Learning at 7%.



      Figure A.11: Types of Training Delivery Required by Respondents

                     TYPES OF
                     TRAINING
                     DELIVERY

                      Evening                                                                                33
                       Classes

                     Weekend                                                                                      35
                      Courses

                      Modular
                      Training                                  14


                      Distance
                      Learning                     7


                        Other                              11


                                 0         5               10        15             20        25        30         35
                                 Percentage



Eighty-eight percent of respondents indicated that they had no difficulty in obtaining access to training. Of the
remaining 12% who had experienced problems, 45% of these had problems associated with the training location
and 55% had problems with the timing of the courses in their area.

Only twenty-two percent of respondents indicated that they were aware of the full range of courses available
for themselves and their staff, indicating that a significant percentage, 78%, were unaware of courses available.
However 87% of respondents requested further course information. Figure A.12 below shows the respondents
interest in other specialty courses, should they be made available.



      Figure A.12: Respondents’ Interest in Additional Courses (if available)

                TRAINING COURSE


                   Environmental                                                                                  39



                       Boatmans                                           18
                       Certificate


                      Motormans                        8
                      Certificate


                        Shellfish                                                                            36
                      Depuration

                                     0         5           10        15        20        25        30        35         40

                                     Percentage




                                                                                                                             63
Course choices reflected both the practical need and the acknowledgement of legislative requirements. The most
popular choice was an Environmental Issues course accounting for 39% of respondents’ demand, demonstrating
a desire for knowledge of the key factors for achieving sustainable development in the aquaculture sector. This
is closely followed by demand for a Shellfish Depuration course at 36%. These courses have yet to be developed
in response to industry demand, but could easily be incorporated into modules in the new Level 2 Further
Education & Training Awards Council Aquaculture Certificate. The demand for Boatman and Motorman Certificates
reflects a need for hands-on training for personnel responsible for operating aquaculture support vessels.


Aquaculture Shellfish Sector

Profile of Shellfish Respondents
The Shellfish respondents represent 15% of the total shellfish sub-sector. A total of 73 aquaculture shellfish
operations were surveyed throughout Ireland, the numbers surveyed are summarised in Table A.1 in the Overview
of Aquaculture Respondents.

Figure AS.1 below shows the range of shellfish cultivated by respondents. A majority of 62% in total growing
oysters (Pacific Oysters 50% and Native Oysters 12%). A total of 22% cultivated mussel species (Rope Mussels,
15% and Bottom Mussels 7%). The remaining respondents were involved in cultivating Clams (8%), Urchins and
Scallops (3% each). Only 1% respectively of the respondents grew abalone or other shellfish.



     Figure AS.1: Categories of Shellfish Cultivated by Respondents

                                         Pacific Oysters 50%




                                                          Native Oysters 12%



                                                          Scallops 3%
                                                         Abalone 1%
               Urchins 3%                               Other Shellfish 1%
                    Clams 8%                       Rope Mussels 15%
                  Bottom Mussels 7%




The Shellfish operations surveyed ranged in size from 1 site to more than 4 sites as shown in Figure AS.2.
The majority of Shellfish respondents (52%) operated from one site, a further 32% operated two sites while
10% operated three sites. Larger farms using four or more sites were least common, accounting for only 6%
of the shellfish respondents.



     Figure AS.2: Number of Sites Operated by Shellfish Respondents
                       Four or More 6%

                  Three 10%                              One 52%



               Two 32%




64
The company structures of the operations surveyed were variously described as Partnership (42%), or Other
(58%). Most respondents in the “Other” category indicated that they were operating on a co-operative basis.
None of the shellfish respondents surveyed operated as a sole trader or as a limited liability company. These
findings are illustrated in Figure AS.3 below:



      Figure AS.3: Shellfish Respondents Company Structure

                   COMPANY TYPE


                      Sole Trader         0



                      Partnership                                             42



                         Limited          0
                         Liability


                       Other (eg.                                                             58
                    Co-operative)


                                      0            10    20         30        40        50         60

                                      Percentage



Forty-three percent of respondents indicated that the shellfish farming operation could be considered a family business.


Aquaculture Shellfish Sector: Current Shellfish Farming Employment Profile – An Overview
The 73 shellfish respondents surveyed employed a total of 559 people on their farms. Figure AS.4 shows that
the average shellfish farm surveyed employs between 4 and 15 persons (62% of respondents). A further thirty-
eight percent of farms employ larger staff numbers of between 16 and 30 persons. Aquaculture operations
employing 1-3 persons or with 30+ persons were not represented among the shellfish respondents surveyed.



      Figure AS.4: Average Number of Staff on Each Shellfish Farm

                   NUMBER
                   RANGES

                        1-3       0



                       4-15                                                        62



                      16-30                                   38



                       30+        0


                              0               10    20   30        40    50        60        70

                              Percentage in each Range



Almost half of the staff surveyed (42%) were in the 25-39 years age category, 42% were over 40 years of
age and the remaining 16% were under 25 years of age. This age profile is clearly illustrated in Figure AS.5.




                                                                                                              65
     Figure AS.5: Age Profile of Shellfish Respondents’ Staff

                AGE CATEGORIES
                        (YEARS)

                       Under 25                              16



                           25-39                                                            42



                         Over 40                                                            42

                                    0                  10              20        30         40      50

                                    Percentage in each Category



In an effort to evaluate future recruitment, and by definition future training requirements, respondents were asked
to indicate the job categories they expected to recruit during the next 12 months. Figure AS.6 shows the results in
each category.



     Figure AS.6: Expected Recruitment and Anticipated Difficulty: Shellfish

                JOB CATEGORIES

                        Manager         0
                                                 7
                      Supervisor                  8
                                     2
                        Biologist           4
                                             5

                           Diver        0
                                            5

                      Operative                                                                          67
                                                                                                    62
                          Driver            4
                                     2
                         Skipper            4
                                     2

                        Engineer            4
                                     2
                  Fish Handling/            4
                        Filleting            5
                                        0
                 Clerical/Admin.                 7
                          Other             4
                                        0

                                    0                 10          20        30        40      50    60        70

                                    Percentage

                                                 Expected Difficulty         Expected Recruitment



By an overwhelming majority, the strongest demand, at 62%, is for Fish Farm Operatives. Managers and
Clerical/Administrative staff are in demand by 7% and 5% of respondents require Divers, Fish Handling/Filleting
staff and Biologists. In the remaining categories, there was only 2% demand for Supervisors, Drivers, Skippers, and
Engineers. There was zero demand for the category “Other”.

The perceived areas of anticipated recruitment difficulty are in the are very similar to the findings for labour
demand, particularly in the category Operative, highest again at 67%. The other job categories, which were in
lesser demand, are perceived to be less difficult for recruitment purposes. Eight percent of respondents anticipated
difficulty in recruiting Supervisors, while 4% expected difficulty in recruiting Biologists, Drivers, Skippers,
Engineers, Fish Handling/Filleting staff, and the category “Other”. None of the respondents expected to have any
difficulty in recruiting either Divers or Clerical/Administrative staff.

66
These findings are very much in keeping with the overall industry trend shown in Part 1 (Figure A.6) earlier, where
there is significant demand and anticipated difficulty in the recruitment of Operatives and, to a lesser extent,
skilled personnel in Fish Handling/Filleting.

Figure AS.7 illustrates the shellfish sector’s skill requirement. This shows that practical mechanical skills are most
in demand, at 12%, for Crane Operation and Engine Room (Equipment & Maintenance), closely followed by Boat
Handling at 9%. Information Technology skills (computers) and Diving are required by 8% of shellfish respondents.

Demand for skills specific to the cultivation of shellfish are naturally in evidence: Shellfish Husbandry and Shellfish
Handling and Hygiene are required by 7% of respondents, while Handling, Quality Control & Processing are
demand by 6% of respondents.



      Figure AS.7: Skills Required on Shellfish Farm Operation
                                     SKILLS

                                     Diving                                             8

                         Forklift Operation                       4

                         Tractor Operation                                  6
                          Crane Operation                                                                12
                          Load Slinging and                  3
                          Manual Handling
                             Boat Handling                                                      9

                       Shellfish Husbandry                                          7
                              Handling, QC
                            and Processing                                  6
                         Shellfish Handling                                         7
                               and Hygiene
                              Engine Room                                                                12
                      Electronic Equipment                        4

                    Safe Working Practices                   3

                   Information Technology                                               8

              Business Skills: Book Keeping                  3
                  Business Skills: Personnel                                        7

                                               0         2            4         6           8       10    12

                                               Percentage of Respondents Identifying Skill Need




Other practical skills are also considered necessary, Tractor Operation (6%), Forklift Operation (4%), Electronic
Equipment (4%) and Load Slinging & Manual Handling (3%).

The need for business skills is evident with 7% of respondents requiring skills in Personnel and 3% requiring
Book keeping skills.

Knowledge of Safe Working Practices was sought by only 3% of respondents.


Aquaculture Finfish Sector

Profile of Finfish Respondents
The Finfish respondents represent 15% of the total finfish sub-sector. A total of 10 aquaculture fish farms were surveyed
throughout Ireland, the numbers surveyed are summarised in Table A.1 in the Overview of Aquaculture Respondents.

Figure AF.1 shows the range of finfish cultivated by respondents. A majority, 46% grew Freshwater Trout with 36%
cultivating Salmon and 18% Salmon Smolt. Thus salmon farms accounted for 54% of all finfish respondents.




                                                                                                               67
     Figure AF.1: Finfish Species Cultivated by Respondents

                                                         Salmon Smolt 18%

                                                                                           Sea Trout 0%
                                                                                           Other Finfish 0%




                Freshwater Trout 46%
                                                                         Salmon 36%




The Finfish operations surveyed ranged in size from 1 site to more than 4 sites as shown in Figure AF.2 below:



     Figure AF.2: Number of Sites Operated by Finfish Respondents

                                                       One 34%




                Four or More 33%




                          Three 11%
                                                                   Two 22%



In comparison to the aquaculture sector as a whole, the Finfish respondents operate more sites: 33% of finfish
operators have four or more sites in comparison the industry wide responses with 11% operating four or more
sites. Overall, 34% operated from one site, 22% operated two sites and 11% had three sites.

Sixty percent of respondents indicated that the fishing operation could be considered a family business. The
company structures of the operations surveyed were variously described as Limited Liability Company (64%),
Sole Trader (27%) and Partnership (9%). These findings are illustrated in Figure AF.3.



     Figure AF.3: Finfish Respondents Company Structure

                   COMPANY TYPE


                       Sole Trader                            27



                       Partnership            9



                          Limited                                                               64
                          Liability


                        Other (eg.
                     Co-operative)        0


                                      0           10     20         30       40       50      60          70

                                      Percentage



68
Aquaculture Finfish Sector: Current Finfish Farming Employment Profile – An Overview
The finfish respondents surveyed employed 185 people on their 10 farms. Figure AF.4 shows that the average
finfish farm surveyed employs between 4 and 15 persons (64% of respondents). A further twenty-seven percent of
farms employ smaller staff numbers of between 1 and 3 persons. Aquaculture operations employing 16-30 persons
accounted for a mere 9% and farms with 30+ persons were not represented among the finfish respondents
surveyed (0%).



      Figure AF.4: Average Number of Staff on each Finfish Farm

                    NUMBER
                    RANGES


                         1-3                              27



                        4-15                                                          64



                       16-30           9



                        30+
                                   0


                               0           10        20         30   40    50        60     70

                               Percentage in each Range



The age profile of respondents’ staff is clearly illustrated in Figure AF.5. Over half of the staff surveyed (53%) were
in the 25-39 years age category, 37% were under 25 years old and the remaining 11% are over 40 years of age.



      Figure AF.5: Age Profile of Finfish Respondents’ Staff
              AGE CATEGORIES
                      (YEARS)


                     Under 25                                              37




                        25-39                                                               53




                      Over 40                   11



                                   0            10             20     30        40         50    60

                                   Percentage in each Range



In an effort to evaluate future recruitment, and by definition future training requirements, respondents were
asked to indicate the job categories they expected to recruit during the next 12 months. Figure AF.6 shows the
results in each category. The strongest demand, at 31%, is for fish farm Operatives, matched by demand for Fish
Handling/Filleting personnel (also 31%). The next highest demand is for Supervisors at 13%. The Manager, Diver,
Driver and Other categories each have demand of 6%. The categories least in demand with 0% are Biologist,
Skipper, Engineer and Clerical/Administration.



                                                                                                              69
      Figure AF.6: Forecast Recruitment by Job Category (Finfish)

                           JOB CATEGORY
                                                              8
                                  Manager
                                                          6

                                Supervisor                    8
                                                                       13

                                  Biologist                   8
                                                  0
                                     Diver        0
                                                          6

                                Operative                                               23
                                                                                                    31

                                    Driver        0
                                                          6
                                                  0
                                   Skipper
                                                  0

                                  Engineer        0
                                                  0

                    Fish Handling/Filleting                                             23
                                                                                                    31

                          Clerical/Admin.         0
                                                  0

                                     Other                                                          31
                                                          6
                                              0          5        10        15     20        25     30   35

                                              Percentage of Responses in Each Job Category

                                                      Expected Difficulty        Expected Recruitment




Respondents were further asked whether they expected to have any difficulty in recruiting in the following
12 months. The anticipated difficulty in recruiting personnel in the category Other is highest at 31%. Not all
respondents specified the nature of work covered in this catch-all category, but some indicated that it covered
Casual Labour and Sales & Marketing personnel. This is followed by 23% who anticipated difficulty in recruiting
both Operatives and Fish Handling/Filleting personnel. Managers, Supervisors and Biologists were all equally
difficult to recruit at 8%.

This graph clearly shows that the exceptional demand for Operatives and Fish Handling/Filleting personnel is
matched by the expected difficulty in recruiting them. As before, the demand for Fish Handling/Filleting personnel
is linked to expected difficulty in recruiting people in this job category.

Respondents indicated that they expected no difficulty in recruiting personnel in the Diver, Driver, Skipper,
Engineer and Clerical/Administration job categories.




70
The demand for specific work skills on finfish farms is illustrated in Figure AF.7 below.



      Figure AF.7: Skills Required on Farm Operation

                                   SKILLS

                                   Diving                                    8

                        Forklift Operation                               7

                        Tractor Operation                                    8

                         Crane Operation             2
                        Load Slinging and                                7
                        Manual Handling
                           Boat Handling                                     8

                     Fish Farm Husbandry                                 7
                            Handling, QC                                                  11
                           and Processing
                            Fish Handling                                                      12
                             and Hygiene
                             Engine Room         1

                    Electronic Equipment         1
                   Safe Working Practices
                      (Health and Safety)                                                 11
                  Information Technology                         6
                            (Computers)
             Business Skills: Book Keeping                               7

                Business Skills: Personnel           2

                                             0           2   4       6           8   10         12

                                             Percentage



The finfish farmers surveyed have identified a distinct skill requirement to operate their farm efficiently and
safely. An emphasis on product quality is evident with 12% of finfish respondents demanding skills in Fish
Handling & Hygiene while skills in Handling Quality Control and Processing are demanded by 11%. There is
greater emphasis on safety among the finfish farmers, as knowledge of Safe Working Practices was sought by
11% of respondents.

Giving the nature of the farming operations, eight percent of respondents required skills in Diving, Tractor
Operation and Boat Handling respectively. Seven percent sought required skills in Forklift Operation, Load
Slinging & Manual Handling and Fish Farm Husbandry.

Business operations skills are not neglected. Skills in Book keeping were needed by 7% or respondents and
a further 6% needed Information Technology (computer) skills.

Skills least in demand were Crane Operation (2%), Business skills: Personnel (2%), with Engine Room and
Electronic Equipment with only 1% demand.




                                                                                                           71
Appendix 5.1.3




Processing and Retail Sector Training Needs and Skills Analysis

Profile of Respondents
A total of 26 processors/retailers and 3 multiples were surveyed throughout Ireland, the numbers surveyed
are summarised in Table P.1 below.



     Table P.1: Number of Fish Processors Surveyed by Region
     Region          County                                                        Number
     North           Louth & Donegal                                                      6
     East            Dublin                                                               5
     South           Kilmore Quay, Co. Wexford
                     to Dunmore East, Co. Waterford                                       4
     South West      Cork & Kerry                                                         6
     West            Clare & Galway                                                       5
     Nationwide      Multiples                                                            3
     Total Number of Respondents                                                         29
     Total Number of Main Processing Operations                                         135
     Surveyed sample of 26 processors as a percentage of the Total                     19%



Figure P.1 shows that ninety percent of respondents indicated that their business was predominantly fish based,
i.e. over 75% of their trade consisted of fish and fish products. As one would anticipate, the exception to the rule,
accounting for 10% of responses, was the multiples with broad based trade. Fish and fish products accounted for
less than 25% of their trading activities.



      Figure P.1: Proportion of Trade Consisting of Fish and Fish Products

                    25% or Less Trade Consisting of Fish 10%




                Over 75% Trade Consisting of Fish 90%




The scale of operations of the companies surveyed ranged from one plant/retail outlet (66% of respondents) to
17% of respondents operating four or more outlets. Fourteen percent of respondents operated two outlets and 3%
operated three outlets. It must be noted however, that the largest of the multiples surveyed operated 52 outlets.
These results are shown in Figure P.2.




72
      Figure P.2: Number of Fish Processing Plants
      and Retail Outlets Operated by Respondents

                                           One 66%
                Four or More 17%



                Three 3%



                Two 14%




Fifty-four percent of respondents indicated that their fish processing/fish retail operation could be considered a
family business. The company structures illustrated in Figure P.3 show that 76% of respondents operated limited
liability companies. Sole traders and partnerships each accounted for 7%. Of the remaining 10% who indicated
“Other”, these respondents elaborated by stating that their operation was a co-operative.



      Figure P.3: Respondents Company Type

                                   Sole Trader 7%
                Other 10%
                                              Partnership 7%


                                                    Limited Company 76%




Excluding the three multiples who participated in the survey, 81% of respondents catered for the export market
(source: BIM Irish Exporters Seafood Directory 2000). The fish product range of these exporters encompasses
seven main categories as shown the following graph. Figure P.4 profiles the export activities of the respondents,
showing that 54% of the exporting companies were engaged in shellfish exports (live, chilled or frozen), followed
by whitefish, (20%), salmon, (18%) and pelagic species (8%).




                                                                                                           73
        Figure P.4: Fish Products Exported by Respondents

                                                        Pelagic 8%
                            Live Shellfish 16%
                                                                        Whitefish (fresh and frozen) 20%




                  Frozen Shellfish 22%
                                                                          Fresh Salmon 5%


                                                                      Smoked Salmon 13%
                               Chilled Shellfish 16%




Fish Processing and Retail Sector: Current Labour Profile
To provide a comprehensive overview of current and future employment, respondents were asked
questions relating to:

s    Age profile of staff members

s    Job categories in which recruitment is anticipated in the next 12 months

s    Job categories in which recruitment is expected to be difficult in the next 12 months.

Forty-three percent of the staff members surveyed were in the 25-39 years age category, 39% were under 25 years
old and the remaining 19% are over 40 years of age. This age profile is clearly illustrated in Figure P.5.



        Figure P.5: Age Profile of Respondents’ Staff

                  AGE CATEGORIES
                          (YEARS)


                          Under 25                                                          39




                              25-39                                                                   43




                           Over 40                          19



                                      0            10            20             30               40        50

                                      Percentage



In an effort to evaluate future recruitment, and by definition future training needs, respondents were asked
to indicate the job categories they expected to recruit during the next 12 months. The distinction was made
between processing and retail operators in order to focus on their precise training needs.




74
      Figure P.6: Expected Recruitment and Difficulty: Processing Plants

                          JOB CATEGORY
                                                                        7.5
                                  Manager
                                                                               8.5

                               Supervisor                                                                          17.5
                                                                                                                     18.3

                      Sales and Marketing                     5.0
                                                                        7.0

                          Quality Control              2.5
                                                                                     9.9
                        Skilled Craftsmen                                                                                   20.0
                           (incl. Filleters)                                                           14.1

                   Semi-skilled Craftsmen                                                      12.5
                                                                                           11.3
                                                                         7.5
                                   Drivers
                                                                                     9.9

                       Technical Support           0
                                                   0

                         Clerical/Admin.           0
                                                                5.6

                                 Unskilled                                                               15.0
                                                                                                          15.5
                                                                                                12.5
                                     Other
                                                   0
                                               0                    5                      10                 15               20

                                               Percentage

                                                       Expected Difficulty                  Expected Recruitment




Figure P.6 above, shows the results for processors in each category. The strongest demand, at 18%, is for
Supervisors, followed by a 15.5% demand for Unskilled Workers. Skilled Craftsmen, a category that includes fish
filleters, are required by 14% of respondents, closely followed by Semi-Skilled Craftsmen at 11%. Quality Control
personnel and Drivers each have demand of 10%.

Lesser requirement is noted for Managers (8.5%), Sales & Marketing (7%), and Clerical (6%). The catch all category
“Other” and Technical Support had zero interest among respondents.

The respondents anticipated recruitment difficulties for personnel in each of these job categories is also illustrated
in Figure P.6. This graph shows the key demand factors in the fish processing labour market. The need for staff in
each job category is closely matched by the respondents’ anticipated difficulty in each category.

Yet again, the category in which processors believe that recruitment will be most difficult, at 20%, is Skilled
Craftsmen (including filleters), followed by an 18% anticipated difficulty in recruiting Supervisors. Respondents
anticipate difficulty in recruiting Unskilled workers (15%), closely followed by Semi-Skilled Craftsmen at 13%
demand. Although not defined by respondents, the category “Other” accounted for 13%.

Lesser anticipated difficulty is associated with the recruitment of Managers (8.5%), Sales & Marketing (5%), Drivers
(8%) and Quality Control (3%). Technical Support and Clerical/Administrative staff each had zero anticipated
recruitment difficulty among respondents.

A similar exercise was undertaken for the Fish Retail labour market as shown in Figure P.7. The strongest demand,
at 34%, is for Preparation & Display staff, closely followed by a 32% demand for Fish Handling staff, a category that
includes fish filleters. Twenty-five percent of respondents require Counter Sales Staff. The remaining job categories
are considerably less in demand: Managers 5%, Supervisors and Other each 2% and lastly Clerical/Administrative
staff at zero.




                                                                                                                                    75
      Figure P.7: Expected Recruitment and Difficulty: Fish Retail

                      JOB CATEGORY
                                               0
                             Manager
                                                     5

                           Supervisor                              13
                                               2
                        Fish Handling                                                                                 38
                       (incl. Filleting)                                                               32
                          Preparation                              13
                          and Display                                                                       34
                       Counter Sales                                                      25
                                                                                          25

                     Clerical/Admin.           0
                                               0
                                                                   13
                                 Other
                                               2
                                           0             5    10         15        20       25        30         35         40

                                           Percentage

                                                   Expected Difficulty              Expected Recruitment




The respondents anticipated difficulty in recruiting personnel in each of these job categories is also shown in
Figure P.7. The category, in which fish retailers believe that recruitment will be most difficult, at 38%, is Fish
Handling (including Filleting), followed by a 25% demand for Counter Sales staff. The categories of Supervisor,
Preparation & Display and Other each had 13% anticipated recruitment difficulty while Managers and
Clerical/Administrative staff had zero anticipated recruitment difficulty.

It can be seen from Figures P.6 and P.7 that the staffing needs of fish processors and fish retailers differ on
some points, for example, the retailers need for Counter Sales staff (25% demand) and the processors need
for Unskilled labour (15% demand). The nature of their business activities naturally dictates that there will
be differing staffing/skills requirements. However, there is one notable area where the staffing need and the
anticipated difficulty in hiring these personnel has been highlighted as common to both retailers and processors,
namely the recruitment of fish filleters.



      Figure P.8: Recruitment of Fish Filleters

                       SUB-SECTOR

                                                                                                                 38
                        Fish Retailers
                                                                                                 32


                                                                              20
                      Fish Processors
                                                                   14

                                           0         5       10         15     20         25     30         35         40

                                           Percentage
                                                   Anticipated Difficulty               Expected Demand
                                                   in Recruiting Filleters              for Filleters



Figure P.8 above clearly shows that the exceptional demand for fish filleting personnel is matched by the
expected difficulty in recruiting them.




76
Fish Processing and Retail Sector: Training Needs and Skills Analysis
The training needs survey focussed on three essential areas:

s   Skills required of staff (as distinct from certification)

s   Certification already held by staff members

s   Certification required by staff members

The objective was to develop an understanding of the skills and competencies expected of staff and to quantify
their future training requirement.

Figure P.9 shows the type of skills typically required of staff in all the surveyed companies. This chart also reflects
the respondents’ perception of the skills needed to run the processing/retailing facility efficiently and safely.



       Figure P.9: Skills Required in Fish Processing and Fish Retail Operations

                                        SKILLS

                           Product Purchasing          1

                            Fish Identification                                 5

                                  Fish Filleting                                                          9
                            Fish Handling and                                                                 10
                               Quality Control
                              Product Storage                                   5

                      Primary Processing: Fish                                                    8
                          Primary Processing:
                                     Shellfish                                  5

                        Secondary Processing                 2

                           Basic Food Hygiene                                                             9

                     Packing and Distribution                                   5

                           Fork Lift Operation                                        6
                        Equipment Operation
                            and Maintenance                                     5
                              Machinery and                                                   7
                            Factory Cleaning
                                   Fish Selling                                 5
                       Safe Working Practices
                          (Health and Safety)                                                             9
                      Information Technology                                          6
                                (Computers)
                 Business Skills: Book Keeping               2

                     Business Skills: Personnel                      3

                                                   0             2         4              6           8        10

                                                   Percentage of Respondents Identifying Skill Need




The processors and retailers placed most emphasis on basic skills in fish handling, quality and primary processing:
10% of respondents highlighted skills in Fish Handling and Quality Control, and 9% required skills in Basic Food
Hygiene and Safe Working Practices and 8% in Primary Processing (Fish). Reflecting the identified demand for fish
filleters by both processors and retailers, 9% require Fish Filleting as a standard skill.




                                                                                                                    77
In keeping with the need for a safe and clean operating environment, 7% of respondents considered Machinery
and Factory Cleaning to be important.

Other practical skills were in demand as follows: Forklift Operation (6%), Fish Identification, Product Storage,
Primary Processing (Shellfish), Fish Selling and Packing & Distribution were seen a necessary skills by 5% of
respondents.

Although 54% of the processing/retailing operations surveyed consider themselves a family business, low priority
was given to the need for business skills: Book keeping meriting 2% and Personnel skills meriting 3%. However
Information Technology (computer) skills were considered necessary by six percent of respondents.

Skills least in demand included Secondary Processing which was only required by 2% and Product Purchasing skills
demanded by only 1% of respondents.



      Figure P.10: Recognised Certification Held/Being Applied For

                      CERTIFICATES

                            Quality
                        Management         10
                           ISO9000


                            HACCP                                                    80



                              Other        10

                                      0     10     20   30   40    50    60     70    80

                                      Percentage



Figure P.10 above shows the respondents’ certification already held or being worked towards. The highest
response, reflecting the EU Directives on Health & Hygiene for Fish Processors (492/91 and 493/91), is HACCP,
crucial to the operation of any fish processing facility. Given that a high proportion of respondents are exporters,
the emphasis on high production quality and hygiene suggests the high level of importance they attach to these
standards.


Fish Processing and Retail Sector: Attitudes to Training
The survey asked respondents questions relating to training and planning and what factors encouraged them to
initiate training for themselves and their staff. Levels of support for training and optimal training delivery methods
were also surveyed.

Respondents were asked what was their prime reason for undertaking training and two alternatives were
offered: legal and technical. Figure P.11 shows that 59% of respondents cited compliance with legal requirements
(e.g. certification and health and safety) as their prime reason for training. The remaining 41% of respondents
cited response to changes in processing operations such as new processing technology or new species as a
motivation factor.




78
      Figure P.11: Respondent’s Reasons for Training

                          CERTIFICATES

                        Compliance with                                                59
                      Legal Requirements



                     Response to Changes
                    in Processing (eg. new                                   41
                      technology/species)

                                             0        10     20       30     40   50        60

                                             Percentage




This response is very much in keeping with Figure P.9 that shows the respondent’s acknowledgement of the
requirement for Safe Working Practice skills (Health & Safety) in their companies (9%). This is again reflected in
Figure P.11 that indicates that compliance with legal requirements is a major contributory factor in the respondents’
decision to train staff. The graph also emphasises the respondents’ awareness of and compliance with the legal
requirements for operating food processing businesses (e.g. HACCP). The enforcement of increasingly stringent
national and EU regulations by the Food Safety Authority will generate an increased need for training to meet
statutory food safety requirements.

This awareness of training and the reasons for training is reflected in the finding that 61% of respondents
stated that they had a Training Plan for themselves and their staff though 39% of respondents indicated that
they had no training plan.

Likewise, levels of support for staff wishing to undertake training were high, with a total of 93% of respondents
providing support, either paid time off, which would be offered by 46% of respondents, or course fees which
would be paid by 47% of those surveyed.

This leaves a small number, only 7%, of fish processors/retailers surveyed that would be unwilling to provide
training support for staff members, as shown in Figure P.12.



      Figure P.12: Training Support

                                        None 7%            Course Fees 47%




                Paid Time Off 46%




Bearing in mind that most respondents were employers, a Workplace Training approach was deemed the form
of training delivery most appropriate to the needs of respondents, shown in Figure P.13. Forty percent of those
surveyed chose this method over Day Release, almost as popular at 35%, Evening Classes (15%) and Distance
Learning (4%). Least interest was shown in Weekend Courses at zero percent.




                                                                                                            79
      Figure P.13: Types of Training Delivery Required by Respondents

                TYPES OF TRAINING
                       Day Release                                                             35

                         Weekend         0
                          Courses

                          Evening                              15
                           Classes

                          Distance
                          Learning           4

                        Workplace
                         Training                                                                         40


                            Other                6

                                     0           5        10    15        20   25    30         35         40

                                     Percentage




The category “Other” was selected as appropriate by 6% of respondents. These respondents suggested two
alternative forms of training delivery: Day seminars away from the workplace and Training of Trainers. The latter
is of interest because it has a direct link with the respondents preferred form of training delivery, Workplace
Training. Clearly this form of training intervention has advantages for both the employee in terms of ease of
access to training and support and for the company in terms of economy, proximity and effective use of resources.
The effectiveness of in-company training depends very much on the training abilities of the workplace trainer.
However, the provision of a national standard training skills programme with external assessment would assure
both the quality of skills transfer and facilitate career progression for trained personnel.



      Figure P.14: Respondent’s Difficulties in Accessing Training

                REASONS FOR DIFFICULTY
                            Unavailability
                               of Course                                                             50



                                 Location                                       33



                                  Timing                       17

                                             0            10         20        30         40          50

                                             Percentage



Forty-five percent of respondents indicated that they had no difficulty in obtaining access to training. Of the
remaining 55% who had experienced problems, 50% of these had problems associated with the unavailability
of a course specific to the need of their processing/fish retail operation. The seafood processing and retail sector
has never had a nationally recognised progressive framework of training programmes at operative level, similar to
the catching and aquaculture sectors. This result highlights the need for such training programmes. Thirty-three
percent of respondents had difficulty in accessing training because of their location and 17% had difficulties
attributed to the timing of courses. A respectable 92% of respondents requested further course information,
indicating the overall high interest in training within the processing and retail sector.




80
      Figure P.15: Summary of Respondent’s Attitudes to Training

                     TRAINING ACCESS,
                SUPPORT AND PLANNING
                                                                   39
                           Training Plan
                                                                                   61

                                               7
                        Training Support
                                                                                              93

                               Problem                                        55
                              Accessing
                               Training                                  45
                                           0            20              40          60   80        100

                                           Percentage

                                                   No        Yes



Figure P.15 summarises the respondents attitudes to training, In spite of the lack of a structured training
programme for the fish processing and fish retail sector, attitudes overall towards training are extremely positive.
Although 55% of respondents had difficulties in accessing training, a significant majority, 93%, offered support
to staff in the form of paid time off or payment of course fees. Sixty-one percent planned for the training of their
staff, in part to ensure compliance with legal requirements and to ensure retention of certification such as ISO9000
or HACCP.

In terms of commentary, many respondents took the time to elaborate on the types of additional training that
they felt would enhance their business. Significant among these comments was the request for assistance/training
for the export market. The practical skills required in a processing facility such as filleting were again highlighted,
as they had been earlier in the anticipated recruitment difficulties.

The general problem of obtaining staff, in any job category, was of concern to respondents, even if a course were
readily available, they might not have the staff to attend. Competition with other forms of employment and the
provisions of the social welfare system were identified by respondents as factors contributing to labour shortages.




                                                                                                             81
Appendix 5.2




Catching Sector Crew Survey

Profile of Respondents
In keeping with the remit of the Task Force to review current labour market conditions, BIM undertook a survey
during the summer of 2000 to obtain the views of crew in relation to their profession and their opinions regarding
working conditions, accommodation, earnings and hours of work. A total of 135 crew were questioned around the
coast of Ireland. Sixty-four percent of respondents worked in the whitefish sector, 25% in the shellfish sector, 8%
in the polyvalent sector and 3% in the pelagic sector. Ninety percent of the respondents worked on vessels that
were greater than 12 metres in length, with the majority of crew were on vessels in the 17m-24m range, as shown
in the Table 5.2.1 below. Their age profile was: 45% in the age category 25-39 years, 43% were aged under 25 and
12% over 40 years of age.



     Table 5.2.1: Respondents’ Vessel Size
     Vessel Size                    Less than          12m to less           17m       Larger
                                         12m             than 17m         to 24m    than 24m
     Percentage of
     Respondents in
     each category                          10%               17%           56%           17%




     Table 5.2.2: Respondents’ Age Categories
     Age Categories
     (Years)                                           Under 25      25 to 39        Over 40
     Percentage of
     Respondents in
     each category                                          43%             45%           12%



The views of the majority of crew surveyed are those of experienced professionals in the sector, as over half (51%)
had worked as fishermen for 2 to 10 years. A further 32% had experience of between 11 and 25 years sea fishing
and 2% had worked as fishermen for more than 25 years. Fifteen percent of the respondents were new entrants
to sea fishing, i.e. with less than two years experience.



      Figure 5.2.1: Number of Years Commercial Fishing Experience

                      YEARS OF
                    EXPERIENCE

                    New Entrants                  15


                       2-10 Years                                             51


                      11-25 Years                              32


                       25+ Years        2

                                    0        10        20     30     40        50    60

                                    Percentage




82
The majority of respondents (48%) had served between one and five years on their current vessel. A sizeable 41%
were less than one year on their current vessel. Five percent of respondents had served between 6 and 10 years
on their current vessel, and a further 6% had remained with the same vessel in excess of 11 years, as shown in the
table below. Seventy-seven percent of respondents asserted that they did not change vessel frequently (while the
remaining 23% did).



     Table 5.2.3: Length of Time Served on Current Vessel
     Years                                      Under
                                                1 Year                1-5         6-10           11-15             15+
     Percentage of
     Respondents in
     each category                                  41%               48%              5%          2%              4%




Employment Status of Respondents
Figure 5.2.2 below shows the respondents employment status in terms of PRSI employment categories. Only 10%
of crew had full employee status i.e. paying Class A Pay Related Social Insurance (PRSI). The majority of crew
operate on a self-employed basis and pay Class S PRSI. A minority of the latter also pay, on a voluntary basis, Class
P PRSI. Thirty percent of crew surveyed would prefer employee status (paying Class A PRSI) with the remainder
preferring self-employed status. The results also revealed that vessels earnings and running costs were disclosed to
86% of respondents.



      Figure 5.2.2: Current Employment Status and Preferred Employment Status

                               PRSI EMPLOYMENT
                                     CATEGORIES

                        Employed Share Fishermen              10
                              Paying Class A PRSI                            30

                    Self-employed Share Fishermen                                                                  70
                                Paying Class S PRSI                                                      59

                    Self-employed Share Fishermen             11
                               Paying Class P PRSI            11
                                                         0     10       20        30        40    50          60    70

                                                         Percentage

                                                              Current                       Preferred
                                                              Employment Status             Employment Status

                   Note: Nine percent did not disclose
                     their current employment status




                                                                                                                         83
Working Conditions
The survey sought to ascertain the crew levels of satisfaction in relation to their working conditions,
accommodation on board vessels, earnings and hours of work. Figure 5.2.3 summarises their responses
in each category.



      Figure 5.2.3: Crew Satisfaction Levels

                      LEVELS OF
                  SATISFACTION

                            Very
                        Satisfied       21        24    17 8



                        Satisfied                           68              55          55                 63



                     Dissatisfied    11      21        28        29

                                    0                  50             100        150              200             250

                                    Percentage

                                          Working                                                       Hours
                                          Conditions             Accommodation         Earnings         of Work



Satisfaction levels were high among respondents: 68% were satisfied with general working conditions, 63% were
satisfied with their hours of work, 55% were satisfied with their on board accommodation and 55% were satisfied
with earnings. In the very satisfied category almost a quarter (24%) rated their on board accommodation highly,
followed by 21% very satisfied with general working conditions and a further 17% very satisfied with earnings.
Only 8% were very satisfied with hours of work.

It must be borne in mind that 85% of those surveyed had commercial fishing experience in excess of two years
and would be expected to have a high level of commitment to the industry. Despite the fact that 71% of the
respondents indicated that they were either satisfied or very satisfied with their hours of work, 29% of respondents
remained dissatisfied with their hours of work. Similarly, respondents’ overall positive satisfaction levels with
earning were at 72%, but a significant 28% were dissatisfied with earnings. Twenty-one percent were dissatisfied
with accommodation on board vessels while least dissatisfaction was expressed in relation to working conditions
at 11%; overall 89% of respondents were either satisfied or very satisfied with general working conditions.

These dissatisfaction levels with hours of work and earnings closely match the 31% dropout rate from the sector
revealed in BIM’s Trainee Tracking Survey 1990-1999 (Appendix 5.3).

While overall levels of satisfaction among the crew sample surveyed were high, the profession appeared to
lack credibility in circumstances where fishermen made applications to financial institutions and Local Authorities.
Fifteen percent of respondents had no experience in approaching financial institutions, insurers or Local Authorities;
this figure is consistent with the 15% of respondents who were new entrants to the sector. The remaining 85%
of respondents had at some point approached these bodies for loans, mortgages, insurance services and Local
Authority housing. More than half (54%) of these fishermen experienced difficulties in securing financial/
insurance/housing services because of their profession. These findings are illustrated in Figure 5.2.4.




84
     Figure 5.2.4: Respondents’ Difficulty in Applying for Loans, Housing etc.
     (results only of respondants with experience in this area)

                   CATEGORY OF
              OPTIONS (HOUSING
                 AND FINANCES)

                         House                             18
                       Mortgage

                      Bank Loan                            18

                           Local                                     A total of 54% of respondents who
                       Authority            7                        had applied to Financial Institutions/
                        Housing                                      Insurers or Local Authorities experienced
                            Hire                                     difficulties because of their occupation.
                        Purchase                 10


                       Insurance        1


                    No Difficulty                                                                     46

                                    0                 10        20             30              40                50

                                    Percentage




While a combined 72% of respondents were satisfied or very satisfied with their earnings, the experiences of crew
in dealing with banks, building societies, hire purchase companies, insurers and Local Authorities would indicate
that the inconsistency of earnings created difficulties for them and their families.

Crew seeking a bank loan (18%) or house mortgage (18%) had trouble due to their profession, 10% had difficulty
in obtaining hire purchase approval while 7% felt that their occupation was a hindrance in applying for Local
Authority housing. Just one percent had found it difficult to get insurance.



     Figure 5.2.5: Attitudes to Registering as a Fisherman with
     Fisherman’s Record Book and Certificates of Discharge

                                                                         Have Difficulty with
                                                                         Fisherman’s Record Book 28%




                          No Difficulty with
               Fisherman’s Record Book 46%




The findings of the survey strongly support the Task Force’s recommendations regarding the extension of the
Seafarers Tax Free Allowance to commercial fishermen as an incentive to a career in fisheries. Likewise, the
findings strongly support the introduction of a Commercial Fisherman’s Record Book and Certificates of Discharge.
As illustrated above, seventy-two percent of the crew surveyed would have no difficulty registering as a fisherman
with a Fisherman’s Record Book in return for a Seafarers Tax Free Allowance which would be added to the
Personal Tax Free Allowance.




                                                                                                                      85
Appendix 5.3




Trainee Tracking Survey

Scope of the Study
The BIM Trainee Tracking Survey was designed to follow-up former participants on BIM’s ESF supported training.
The survey focussed on course participants who had completed BIM’s Deckhand training (now NCVA Commercial
Fishing Certificate) courses in the ten-year period 1990 to 1999 inclusive. A questionnaire was implemented by
telephone, targeting 310 individuals, with the intention of obtaining at least a fifty percent response rate. The survey
questioned 61% (or 129 individuals) of BIM trained Deckhand course participants in the 1990-1999 period. The
results are summarised below:



      Table 5.3.1 Summary of Deckhand Survey Results
                                                                      Number      Percentage
      Target Deckhand Population                                            310          100%
      Available for Interview                                               188           61%
      of which
      s Fishing                                                             129           69%
      s No Longer Fishing                                                    59           31%


Figure 5.3.1 below illustrates the employment status of respondents.



      Figure 5.3.1: Breakdown of Fishing and Non-fishing Activity of Respondents



                                                                   Fishing 69%




                 No Longer Fishing 31%




Persons Fishing
A significant sixty-nine percent of deckhand course participants in the period 1990-1999 remained employed in
the fishing industry. Respondents still active in the catching sector were involved in a range of activities illustrated
in Figure 5.3.2. The majority, 61%, were employed as deckhands. Twelve percent of respondents had progressed
to become skippers and a further 2% were skipper/owners. Six percent of respondents worked as mates, 4% as
engineers and 3% were fishing in a part-time capacity.




86
      Figure 5.3.2: Activities of Respondents
      Currently Employed in the Catching Sector

                 JOB CATEGORY

                     Deckhand                                                        61


                          Mate            6


                        Skipper               12


                       Engineer       4

                        Skipper       2
                         Owner

                      Part-time           3

                                  0            10   20         30         40    50   60        70

                                  Percentage



Figure 5.3.3 indicates the respondents’ attitude to the industry and their perception of the industry’s future prospects.



      Figure 5.3.3: Prospects for the Fishing Industry:
      Views of Respondents Employed in Fishing

                 RESPONSE
                 CATEGORY

                      Good                                                      43



                       Fair                                          33



                      Poor                                24

                              0               10     20             30         40         50

                              Percentage



Forty-three percent of those employed in the catching sector considered the industry’s prospects to be good.
A positive attitude is further reflected in some respondents continued personal development in the industry,
with 33% indicating that they had undertaken further training and another 26% considering additional training.
However, the overall perception of industry prospects among 57% of respondents was fair or poor (33%
considered the prospects fair while 24% of those still active in the sector felt that the outlook was poor).


Departures From the Catching Sector
Almost one third, 31%, of deckhand course participants in this ten-year period were no longer employed in
the catching sector. Their current employment activities ranged from tugboat operator to college graduate.
Most chose not to reveal their current employment, but 5 persons were employed as builders (a high growth
sector in the economy), 4 worked in meat factories and 2 on fish farms.

The reasons why crew leave the catching sector are shown in Figure 5.3.4. Additional follow-up work was
undertaken as part of the demographic survey to further clarify their reasons and motivations for leaving
fishing; these responses are also shown in Figure 5.3.4 and they closely mirror the results of the BIM survey.




                                                                                                               87
      Figure 5.3.4: Reasons for Leaving the Catching Sector

                         REASONS
                      FOR LEAVING
                                                                                                   47
                Lack of Job Security
                                                                                                             54

                                                                                        34
                           Poor Pay
                                                                          28

                                                                              29
                        Time at Sea
                                                                              29

                          Social or                                      27
                    Personal Issues        0
                           General                             18
                           Working
                         Conditions                 11

                       Work Hours/                        14
                Prefer Life on Shore       0

                Offered Alternative                 11
                      Employment           0

                                       0             10             20             30        40         50

                                       Percentage

                                               Findings of               Findings of BIM
                                               Demographic Study         Trainee Tracking Survey



A majority of respondents, 47% cited lack of job security as the deciding factor in their decision to take an
alternative career path, while a further 34% cited poor pay as the deciding factor. The period spend working at
sea affected the decisions of 29% of respondents, while social or personal issues were motivating factors for 27%
of respondents. General working conditions motivated 18% of respondents and work hours/preference for life
on shore influenced 14% of respondents. Eleven percent of the respondents left fishing because they were
offered alternative employment.

This data supports the findings of the separate BIM Catching Sector Crew Survey (Appendix 5.2) that indicated
that 28% of the respondents were dissatisfied with their earnings, 29% were dissatisfied with hours of work
and 11% were dissatisfied with working conditions. Fifty-four percent of the respondents in the Crew Survey
experienced difficulties in their approaches to financial institutions/insurers and Local Authorities, again very
much in keeping with the 47% of departures who cited lack of job security as the factor in encouraging them
to leave fishing.

Considering the exceptional labour demand in the catching sector, it is obvious that steps must be taken to
reduce the high numbers departing, which can only exacerbate the crewing crisis.




88
Appendix 5.4




List of Written Submissions Received by the Task Force

The Task Force gratefully acknowledges the contributions
from the following organisations and individuals:
s Irish South & West Fish Producers Organisation


s   Irish Fishermen’s Organisation

s   Irish Seafood Wholesalers & Retailers Association

s   Irish Sailing Association

s   Marine Institute

s   Irish Business & Employers Confederation/Marine Council

s   Coiste Oiliúna an Daingin

s   Mr. Arthur Reynolds

s   Mr. Eugene Houlihan, Galway Bay Shellfish Processors

s   Mr. Michael O’Reilly

s   Mr. Nollaig Ó Gadhra

s   Capt. Bill Kavanagh


Acknowledgement
Irish Seafood Industry Labour Market Projections and Review of Demographic Data was undertaken on behalf
of the Task Force by Cormorant Marine Research.




                                                                                                   89
Appendix 5.5




List of Abbreviations Used
BIM           Bord Iascaigh Mhara/Irish Sea Fisheries Board

CEDEFOP       Centre Européen pour le Développment de la Formation Professionnelle

CSO           Central Statistics Office

DED           District Electoral Division

DETE          Department of Enterprise, Trade & Employment

DoM&NR        Department of the Marine & Natural Resources

EEA           European Economic Area

ESF           European Social Fund

EPIRB         Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon

EURES         European Employment Service

FÁS           Foras Áiseanna Saothair/Training and Employment Authority

FETAC         Further Education & Training Awards Council

HACCP         Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points

IBEC          Irish Business & Employers Confederation

ICTU          Irish Congress of Trade Unions

IFA           Irish Farmers Association

IFPEA         Irish Fish Processors & Exporters Association

IFPO          Irish Fish Producers Organisation

IFO           Irish Fishermen’s Organisation

ISWRA         Irish Seafood Wholesalers & Retailers Association

IS&WFPO       Irish South & West Fish Producers Organisation

KFO           Killybegs Fishermen’s Organisation

NCVA          National Council for Vocational Awards

NDP           National Development Plan

SART          Search And Rescue Radar Transponder




90
Appendix 5.6




List of Tables

Table Number     Title
Part 3.1         Catching Sector
3.1.1            Profile of Irish Fleet – Year 2000                                    10

Part 3.2         Aquaculture Sector
3.2.1            Aquaculture Production in Ireland 1999                                21

Part 3.3         Processing Sector
3.3.1            Employment in Irish Fish Processing Companies                         25
3.3.2            Employment in the Fish Processing Sector 1999                         25

Part 4           Irish Seafood Industry Labour Market Projections
                 and Review of Demographic Data
4.1              Sample of Vessels Surveyed                                            34
4.2              Shortfall in Catching Sector Labour Supply                            34
4.3              Estimated Labour Shortfall in the Aquaculture Sector                  36
4.4              Estimated Labour Shortfall in the Processing Sector                   38
4.5              Summary of labour Shortfalls in the Irish Seafood Industry            41

Appendix 5.1     Seafood Industry Training Needs and Skills Analysis
5.1.1            Number of Respondents Surveyed by Sector and Region                   43

Appendix 5.1.1   Catching Sector Training Needs and Skills Analysis
C.1              Profile of Irish Fleet (Year 2000) compared with Survey Respondents   44
C.2              Number of Vessels Surveyed by Region                                  45
C.3              Main Operating Ports of Surveyed Vessels                              45
C.4              Respondents as a Percentage of Catching Sector Employment             46

Appendix 5.1.2   Aquaculture Sector Training Needs and Skills Analysis
A.1              Number of Fish Farming Operations Surveyed by Region                  56
A.2              Respondents as a Percentage of Aquaculture Sector Employment          58

Appendix 5.1.3   Processing Sector Training Needs and Skills Analysis
P.1              Number of Fish Processors Surveyed by Region                          72

Appendix 5.2     Catching Sector Crew Survey
5.2.1            Respondents’ Vessel Size                                              82
5.2.2            Respondents’ Age Categories                                           82
5.2.3            Length of Time Served on Current Vessel                               83

Appendix 5.3     Trainee Tracking Survey
5.3.1            Summary of Deckhand Survey Results                                    86




                                                                                            91
List of Illustrations

Figure Number    Title
Part 4           Irish Seafood Industry Labour Market Projections
                 and Review of Demographic Data
4.1              Number of Crew Vacancies by Vessel Size Range                     35
4.2              Main Reasons for Exiting Catching Sector Employment               35
4.3              Percentage of Labour Force Unemployed 1996-2000                   37
4.4              Population Growth 1996-2006                                       38
4.5              Labour Force Growth 1996-2006                                     39
4.6              Number of persons 16-20 Years of Age 1999-2011                    39
4.7              Distribution of Ireland’s Population                              40
4.8              Former Catching Sector Labour by Current Activity                 40

Appendix 5.1     Seafood Industry Training Needs and Skills Analysis
5.1.1            Number of Respondents Surveyed by Sector and Location             43

Appendix 5.1.1   Catching Sector Training Needs and Skills Analysis
C.1              Size of Vessel Surveyed (vessel length metres)                    44
C.2              Types of Fishing Undertaken by Respondents                        46
C.3              Average Number of Crew on Each Vessel                             47
C.4              Age Profile of Respondents’ Crews                                 47
C.5              Forecast Recruitment by Job Category                              48
C.6              Skills Required on Vessels                                        49
C.7              Crew Members with Certification                                   50
C.8              Certification Required by Crew                                    51
C.9              Respondents’ Reasons for Training                                 52
C.10             Training Support                                                  53
C.11             Types of Training Delivery Required by Respondents                53
C.12             Additional Courses of Interest to Respondents                     54
C.13             Summary of Respondents’ Attitudes to Training                     54

Appendix 5.1.2   Aquaculture Sector Training Needs and Skills Analysis
A.1              Number of Sites Operated by Respondents                           56
A.2              Company Structure                                                 57
A.3              Fish Farming Categories of Respondents                            57
A.4              Average Number of Staff on each Aquaculture Operation             58
A.5              Age Profile of Respondents’ Staff                                 59
A.6              Forecast recruitment and Anticipated Difficulty by Job Category   59
A.7              Skills Required on Farm Operation                                 60
A.8              Categories where Certification is Required                        61
A.9              Aquaculture Respondents’ Reasons for Training                     62
A.10             Training Support                                                  62
A.11             Types of Training Delivery Required by Respondents                63
A.12             Respondents Interest in Additional Courses (if available)         63




92
Figure Number    Title
Appendix 5.1.2   Aquaculture Shellfish Sector Training Needs and Skills Analysis
AS.1             Categories of Shellfish Cultivated by Respondents                 64
AS.2             Number of Sites Operated by Shellfish Respondents                 64
AS.3             Shellfish Respondents Company Structure                           65
AS.4             Average Number of Staff on Each Shellfish Farm                    65
AS.5             Age Profile of Shellfish Respondents’ Staff                       66
AS.6             Expected Recruitment and Anticipated Difficulty: Shellfish        66
AS.7             Skills Required on Shellfish Farm Operation                       67

Appendix 5.1.2   Aquaculture Finfish Sector Training Needs and Skills Analysis
AF.1             Finfish Species Cultivated by Respondents                         68
AF.2             Number of Sites Operated by Finfish Respondents                   68
AF.3             Finfish Respondents Company Structure                             68
AF.4             Average Number of Staff on Each Finfish Farm                      69
AF.5             Age Profile of Finfish Respondents’ Staff                         69
AF.6             Expected Recruitment and Anticipated Difficulty: Finfish          70
AF.7             Skills Required on Finfish Farm Operation                         71

Appendix 5.1.3   Processing Sector Training Needs and Skills Analysis
P.1              Proportion of Trade Consisting of Fish and Fish Products          72
P.2              Number of Fish Processing Plants and
                 Retail Outlets Operated by Respondents                            73
P.3              Respondents’ Company Type                                         73
P.4              Fish Products Exported by Respondents                             74
P.5              Age Profile of Respondents                                        74
P.6              Expected Recruitment and Difficulty: Processing Plants            75
P.7              Expected Recruitment and Difficulty: Fish Retail                  76
P.8              Recruitment of Fish Filleters                                     76
P.9              Skills Required in Fish Processing and Fish Retail Operations     77
P.10             Recognised Certification Held/Being Applied For                   78
P.11             Respondents’ Reasons for Training                                 79
P.12             Training Support                                                  79
P.13             Types of Training Delivery Required by Respondents                80
P.14             Respondent’s Difficulties in Accessing Training                   80
P.15             Summary of Respondents’ Attitudes to Training                     81

Appendix 5.2     Catching Sector Crew Survey
5.2.1            Number of Years Commercial Fishing Experience                     82
5.2.2            Current Employment Status and Preferred Employment Status         82
5.2.3            Crew Satisfaction Levels                                          84
5.2.4            Respondents Difficulty in Applying for Loans, Housing etc.        85
5.2.5            Attitudes to Registration as a Fisherman
                 with Fisherman’s Discharge Book                                   85

Appendix 5.3     Trainee Tracking Survey
5.3.1            Breakdown of Fishing and Non-Fishing Activity of Respondents      86
5.3.2            Activities of Respondents Currently
                 Employed in the Catching Sector                                   87
5.3.3            Prospects for the Fishing Industry:
                 Views of Respondents Employed in Fishing                          87
5.3.4            Reasons for Leaving the Catching Sector                           88




                                                                                        93
Appendix 5.7




Copy of Advertisement for Written Submissions to the Task Force




          Training & Employment
          in the Fishing Industry
         Written submissions invited
         Dr Michael Woods, TD, Minister for the Marine & Natural Resources,
         has established a Task Force on Training and Employment in the Sea
         Fishing, Aquaculture and Processing industries.

          Copies of the Terms of Reference can be obtained on request from
          the undersigned.

           The Task Force invites written submissions from interested
           organisations and individuals, to reach the undersigned by
            Friday 7 January 2000.

             Margaret Price
             Training Services Officer
              Secretary to the Task Force

                Bord Iascaigh Mhara,
                 PO Box 12,
                  Crofton Road,
                   Dun Laoghaire,
                    Co. Dublin.

                      It should be noted that provisions of the Freedom of Information Act, 1997,
                        may apply to submissions.
                                                                                                     Training & Employment
                                                                                                     Traenáil Fostaíocht sa
                                                                                                     in the Fishing Industry
                                                                                                     Tionscal Iascaireachta
                                                                                                    Aighneachtaí i scríbhinn á
                                                                                                    Written submissions invitedlorg
                                                                                                    Dr Michael Woods, hUadhaigh, Aire na Mara & Acmhainní Nádúrtha,
                                                                                                    Tá an Dr Micheál ÓTD, Minister for the Marine & Natural Resources,
                                                                                                    has established a Task Force on Training and agus Fostaíocht sna
                                                                                                    tar éis Tasc-Fhórsa a bhunú maidir le TraenáilEmployment in the Sea
                                                                                                    Fishing, Iascaireachta Mara, Dobharshaothraithe
                                                                                                    TionscailAquaculture and Processing industries. agus Próiseála.

                                                                                                    Is féidir cóipeanna de na Téarmaí Tagartha a fháil, ach iad a
                                                                                                    Copies of the Terms of Reference can be obtained on request from
                                                                                                    iarraidh, ón duine thíosainmnithe.
                                                                                                     the undersigned.
                                                                                                     Tá aighneachtaí i scríbhinn á lorg ag an Tasc-Fhórsa ó eagraíochtaí
                                                                                                     The Task Force invites written submissions from interested
                                                                                                     agus ó dhaoine aonair leasmhara agus is ceart go sriochfeadh
                                                                                                      na haighneachtaí individuals, to reach the tráth nach déanaí
                                                                                                      organisations and an duine thíosainmnithe undersigned by
                                                                                                       ná Dé 7 January 2000.
                                                                                                      Friday hAoine, 7 Eanáir, 2000.

                                                                                                        Margaret Price
                                                                                                        Training Services Officer
                                                                                                        Oifigeach Seirbhísí Traenála
                                                                                                         Secretary to the Task Force
                                                                                                         Rúnaí an Tasc-Fhórsa

                                                                                                          Bord Iascaigh Mhara,
                                                                                                          Bord Iascaigh Mhara,
                                                                                                           Bosca Poist 12,
                                                                                                           PO Box 12,
                                                                                                            Bóthar Crofton,
                                                                                                            Crofton Road,
                                                                                                             Dún Laoghaire,
                                                                                                             Dun Laoghaire,
                                                                                                              Contae Bhaile Átha Cliath.
                                                                                                              Co. Dublin.
                                                                                                                Is ceart a thuiscint go bhféadfadh feidhm a bheith ag forálacha
                                                                                                                 It should be noted that provisions of the Freedom of Information Act, 1997,
                                                                                                                  an Achta um Shaoráil Faisnéise, 1997, maidir le haighneachtaí.
                                                                                                                   may apply to submissions.




94

								
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