Handbook of Research in Emotional and Behavioral Disorders by zom14864


									                                                                    Media Report: EBD Handbook

        Handbook of Research in Emotional and Behavioral Disorders
        r oBert B. r utherFord , m ary m. Q uinn ,   and   s aruP r. m athur (e ds .), g uilFord P uBlishers , n ew t orK , 2004
        r eview By a ydin B al , m.a.

                he Handbook of Research in                   analysis is provided of the two                    last century, researchers generated
                Emotional and Behavioral                     primary EBD classification systems—                scientific knowledge sufficient for
                Disorders brings together 70 top             the disease perspective, exemplified               improving effective behavioral and
        researchers and scholars in the field                by DSM-IV, and the dimensional                     educational treatments for children
        to address the major foundational,                   perspective, exemplified by the                    and adolescents with EBD. Now, both
        assessment, characteristics,                         Achenbach System of Empirically                    researchers and practitioners need to
        intervention, and methodological                     Based Assessment (ASEBA). The most                 ensure that this empirical knowledge
        issues facing the field of emotional                 important shortcoming of both the                  is used for determining policy making,
        and behavioral disorders (EBD)                       Individuals with Disabilities Education            personal training, and student
        of children and adolescents. With                    Act (IDEA) definition of emotional                 instruction and treatment.
        the breadth and depth of the topics                  disturbance and the definition of                       In the second part, assessment
        addressed in the 30 chapters, the                    emotional or behavioral disorder proposed          and evaluation, six chapters describe
        editors of the Handbook aimed to                     by the National Mental Health and                  the complex assessment factors
        reach practitioners (e.g., psychiatrists,            Special Education Coalition is the lack            that influence the identification of
        psychologists, educators, counselors,                of sufficient attention to measurement.            students with EBD and the factors
        and other mental health professionals),              Classification is crucial to identifying           that lead to the evaluation of the
        researchers, and graduate students                   regularities and diversities in each               effectiveness of interventions. A
        from a variety of the fields concerned               group member’s behaviors in society.               chapter in the section concerns
        with the treatment and education of                  The disproportionate representation                the utility of rating-scale methods
        children and youth with EBD. Because                 of culturally and linguistically diverse           and describes several frequently
        of the range and diversity the topics,               students in EBD programs is also                   used behavior-rating scales. While
        the 30 chapters of the Handbook are                  analyzed. By using empirical methods,              behavioral rating scales are imperfect
        divided into five parts (i.e., foundations           researchers attempt to understand                  measures of human behaviors and
        of research, assessment and evaluation,              the causes of this disproportionality              attitudes, well-constructed rating
        characteristics of emotional and                     and respond with evidence-based and                scales can be valuable for both
        behavioral disorders, intervention                   culturally competent methods.                      the identification of children and
        and treatment research, and research                      Research shows that youth                     adolescents’ behaviors and measuring
        methodology). Each chapter in these                  with EBD have a higher incidence                   the effects of interventions for EBD.
        five parts provides a compilation of                 of mental health problems and                      Functional behavioral assessment
        current information and evidence on                  substance abuse, school failure and                (FBA) is a relatively new screening and
        topics to which the authors have made                drop out, involvement in the juvenile              intervention process for addressing
        major contributions.                                 justice system, and that the human                 problem behaviors. Although there
             The first part, foundations of                  and financial costs of the failure to              has been limited empirical study of
        research, reviews the foundational                   prevent EBD are enormous. Findings                 the reliability and validity of FBA
        knowledge and current perspectives                   from cost-benefit analysis research                assessment tools (interview protocols,
        in the field of EBD for the research                 demonstrate that money spent early                 behavior situation rating scales,
        discussed in the other four parts.                   on mental health and education                     scatter plots, and direct observation
        Following a summary of historical                    services for children and adolescents              procedures) with students with EBD,
        roots of research and contemporary                   can prevent higher and often more                  researchers have recently aimed to fill
        perspectives on the inquiry into EBD                 serious human and financial costs                  the empirical holes in FBA knowledge
        in children and youth, the authors                   in the future. Cost analyses of EBD                by pursuing an extensive research
        attest to the critical role that positivism          show that funding for identification               agenda.
        continues to play in producing                       and implementation of prevention                        This second part also makes
        reliable knowledge and evaluating                    and early intervention can save fiscal             the case that, in school systems,
        interventions. The first part also                   resources in the long run.                         the classification of students as
        makes the case that definition and                        Finally, the first part addresses             emotionally disturbed under the
        classification of EBD is significant in              how research informs practice in                   IDEA definition should include
        research and administration as well                  policy making, teacher training,                   both psychiatric and psychological
        as in philosophy. A well-developed                   and classroom instruction. In the                  assessments through mental health

                Beyond Behavior

BB16(1).indd 36                                                                                                                                 10/23/06 1:10:31 PM

                                                       Media Report: EBD Handbook

        consultation and that the teachers        for young children with or at risk         system for qualification of children
        of students with EBD should have          for EBD (i.e., Regional Intervention       and adolescents for EBD services.
        a sufficient knowledge of the             Program, Incredible Years, First Step to   With this review, the authors suggest
        characteristics and treatments of         Success, and First Track Project). The     that because of the use of objective
        the DSM psychiatric disorders             last chapter in the assessment part        criteria, empirical classification
        that occur for these students.            points out that youth with EBD are ill-    systems, employing more objective
        Successful collaboration between          equipped to participate in high-stakes     statistical procedures (i.e., factor
        EBD teachers and mental health            assessments. Students with EBD are         analyses of teacher and parent rating
        professionals and complementing           less likely to meet general academic       scales and a representative normative
        the noneducational treatments             standards because of their behavioral      sample comparison) can be useful for
        of childhood psychopathologies            problems, a lack of empirically valid      valid identification procedures for
        requires that teachers of students        instruction, and the poor preparation      children with internalizing behavior
        with EBD implement these mental           of teachers in the area of academics for   difficulties. Following a critical
        health treatment protocols into their     these students. Unless these issues are    review of the assessment systems, the
        educational practices. In the areas of    addressed, the growing body of work        authors review characteristics of major
        special education, child psychiatry,      on accountability and assessment will      childhood internalizing disorders
        and psychology, researchers are           have limited impact.                       and evidence-based intervention
        often working with the same                    The third part of the book,           approaches for internalizing behavior
        student population. A higher level        characteristics of EBD, focuses            problems.
        of communication and collaboration        on research issues related to the               Youth EBD are significantly
        among the researchers in these            characteristics of EBD in children and     overrepresented in the juvenile justice
        areas may improve outcomes of both        youth, and covers four major types of      system. The authors analyze the risk
        educational and noneducational            disorders (externalizing behaviors of      and resiliency factors of juvenile
        treatments for children with EBD.         aggression and violence, internalizing     delinquents and effective prevention
        Curriculum-based evaluation (CBE)         behavior problems, youth delinquency,      and intervention practices for this
        and measurement (CBM) for students        and autism spectrum disorders) that        population. The characteristics of EBD
        with EBD is a viable, instructionally     have traditionally been studied in         are discussed. The authors emphasize
        relevant assessment alternative to the    special education. The first chapter of    that education programs can help
        use of commercially prepared norm-        the third part provides an overview        students with EBD develop resilience
        referenced tests. CBM processes are       of aggressive diagnostic patterns as       and avoid involvement in the justice
        sensitive to the changes in students’     embodied in the DSM-IV and in IDEA,        system by providing positive and safe
        behaviors and academic performance.       discusses research-derived models of       learning environments and setting
             The assessment and evaluation        how externalizing disorders involving      high, yet achievable, academic and
        part of the book demonstrates how         aggressive behavior emerge from the        social expectations. Incarcerated
        CBE and CBM can provide a data-           developmental process, and focuses         youth are entitled to the same rights
        based decision-making process             on the context of the school as an         and developmental needs as their
        for teachers of students with EBD.        exacerbating, buffering, and protective    peers. Intensive and highly structured
        It also provides a synthesis of key       factor as it relates to youth aggression   academic programs can provide
        aspects of the early identification,      and violence.                              intellectual challenges.
        prevention, and intervention                   Unlike externalizing behavior              The final chapter of the third
        literature pertaining to EBD in young     problems, internalizing behavior           part deals with the research issues
        children. The literature indicates that   problems occur as an over-controlled       in autism spectrum disorders, the
        significant behavioral problems in        and inner-directed pattern of              incidence of which has increased
        early childhood are more likely to        behaviors. Through a critical review,      dramatically in recent years. Based on
        persist over time, into adolescence       the authors make the case that using       the National Research Council’s best-
        and adulthood, and put children with      DSM’s medical model in school systems      practice recommendations for research
        these behavior problems at risk of        has major difficulties. The DSM            design and methodology and the
        school failure and EBD. Preventative      model of psychopathologies does            American Psychological Association
        interventions for young children at       not include a functional approach,         guidelines for the determination of
        risk and with EBD result in positive      which addresses why a person feels         treatment efficacy, the authors offer
        outcomes in both the short term and       or behaves rather that what a person       an ecological/family context model
        the long term. The second part reviews    feels or behaves. Moreover, reliability    for autism program evaluation and
        direct, indirect, and multimodal          issues of this model and lack of           research.
        approaches to early detection and         treatment validity are additional               Intervention and treatment
        research-based intervention programs      concerns when using the DSM                research is the fourth part of the

                                                                                                                 Fall 2006           

BB16(1).indd 37                                                                                                                10/23/06 1:10:32 PM
                                                        Media Report: EBD Handbook

        Handbook. It focuses on intervention      provides an extensive review in the        of classroom behavior that includes
        and treatment research with children      historical trajectory of the area and      integrated hierarchical standards,
        and youth with EBD from the last          addresses issues of generalization         effective methods of delivering
        century to the present. In the first      and social validity of teaching            instruction, teaching and reinforcing
        chapter of the fourth part, “Early        alternative behaviors. Self-control        behavioral expectations, effective
        Intervention For EBD,” the authors        is crucial for children and youth          responses to inappropriate student
        point out that, despite the need          with EBD in terms of dealing with          behavior and implementing small-
        for culturally competent research         complex social situations, effectively     group or individual interventions
        that is more inclusive of families,       controlling their emotional reactions,     based on functional behavioral
        both research and practice in early       and self-determinism. The following        assessment. With an analysis of the
        intervention is well developed. The       chapter, dealing with evidence-based       social-skills training literature, the
        chapter identifies the major areas        practices for teaching self-control to     intervention and treatment part of
        that have been underdeveloped in          students with EBD, reviews both the        the Handbook reports on the results
        this relatively rich area, including      behavioral self-control processes (i.e.,   of meta-analyses of the group and
        early intervention for internalizing                                                 single-subject research literature on
        problems, gender differences in early                                                social-skills training interventions
        intervention, how to disseminate                                                     with students with EBD and concludes
        effective early interventions,                                                       that social-skills training for these
        and economic analysis of early                   The breadth                         students has not produced large
        interventions.                                                                       treatment effects. Thus, social-skills
             Psychopharmacological                         and depth                         training interventions must be viewed
        treatments have been used with                                                       as experimental interventions that
        increasing frequency over the past
        decade-and-a-half for students with
                                                        of the topics                        require further specification to answer
                                                                                             theoretical, psychometric, and design
        various types of EBD. This chapter                                                   questions.
        analyzes the literature regarding the          addressed by                               Students with EBD perform below
        study of prevalence and patterns in                                                  their peers without EBD in multiple
        using psychoactive medication with               the authors,                        academic areas, such as reading, math,
        preschoolers and school-age children                                                 written expression, and science. The
        and reviews various categories of
        available medications for children
                                                    who are leading                          “Academic Instruction And Tutoring
                                                                                             Interventions For Students With
        with EBD. The authors point out that                                                 EBD” chapter reviews the academic
        advances in psychopharmacology have         researchers and                          intervention studies for students with
        led to the recognition that medication                                               EBD published between 1990 and
        plays an increasingly important role in      scholars, make                          2003. The authors conclude that the
        the treatment of EBD in children and                                                 recent academic intervention literature
             In the school-to-community
                                                    the Handbook a                           is characterized by key design
                                                                                             limitations. The next chapter indicates
        transition, youth with EBD face                                                      that existing and emerging schoolwide
        educational, social, and psychological       great resource.                         systems of behavior support that focus
        issues, such as high drop-out and low                                                on problematic areas (e.g., student
        employment rates; difficulties with                                                  behavior and achievement, staff roles
        enduring, supportive interpersonal                                                   and responsibilities, and academic
        relationships; mental health issues;      self-monitoring, goal setting, strategy    and social programs) have been found
        and involvement in the justice system.    selection and implementation, and          to be effective in developing safe and
        Research studies on assessment            self-evaluation and self-reinforcement)    orderly educational environments.
        procedures and four transition            and cognitive self-control literature.     Future research should concentrate on
        programs are described. Authors                The “Instruction And Classroom        its effects on the larger community.
        of the next chapter, “Teaching            Management” chapter of part                The last chapter in the intervention
        Alternative Behaviors To Students         four introduces the foundational           part, “Collaboration With Other
        With EBD,” aimed to identify socially     research and some important recent         Agencies,” focuses on an interagency
        appropriate behaviors and to attempt      developments in student classroom          systems-of-care wraparound
        to teach those behaviors to children      behavior and classroom instruction         approach that utilizes widely used
        and adolescents with challenging/         and management. The authors propose        tools for building constructive
        maladaptive behaviors. This chapter       a problem-solving model of assessment      relationships and support among

                Beyond Behavior

BB16(1).indd 38                                                                                                               10/23/06 1:10:33 PM

                                                        Media Report: EBD Handbook

        children and adolescents with EBD          two experimental research designs        and application of technology in
        and their families, teachers, and other    (i.e., “true” experimental design and    data-collection research procedures.
        caregivers. This chapter describes         quasi-experimental design) and review    Researchers in the areas of child
        emerging interagency school-based          how such designs have been applied       psychiatry, child psychology,
        models and community based models          to the scientific study of children      educational psychology, and special
        that connect effective learning and        and programs for children with           education work with the same
        behavior change with the systems of        EBD. The next chapter, “Qualitative      children and youth without sufficient
        care principles.                           Research and Its Contributions to        collaboration and awareness of how
             The final part of the Handbook        the Knowledge Of EBD,” focuses on        relevant their research findings are for
        focuses on methodological issues           qualitative or interpretative research   one another.
        related to research with children and      and its contributions to the knowledge        This comprehensive Handbook
        adolescents with EBD. Principles and       base of EBD. Following a general         endeavors to reach professionals and
        practices of applied behavior analysis     overview of some forms of qualitative    graduate students who work with
        (ABA) are discussed first. ABA is          research methods (e.g., grounded         children and adolescents with EBD by
        a process that helps practitioners         theory, ethnographic research, and       addressing the major foundational,
        understand current patterns of             case study), the author reviews          assessment, characteristics,
        problem behaviors and apply                qualitative research studies found       intervention, and methodological
        interventions that are based on the        in the EBD literature. The author        issues facing the field of EBD. The
        principles of behavioral theory in order   concludes that, with quantitative        breadth and depth of the topics
        to improve appropriate behaviors to a      inquiries, interpretative studies can    addressed by the authors, who are
        meaningful degree. The first chapter       expand our understanding of EBD-         leading researchers and scholars,
        of part five, “Applied Behavioral          related social phenomena. The last       make the Handbook a great resource. It
        Analysis And The Education, and the        chapter of the methodology section,      is a worthwhile collection of what is
        Treatment Of Students With EBD,”           “Data Collection in Research and         known about EBD among children and
        highlights the important contribution      Applications Involving Students          adolescents and the treatment of EBD
        ABA has made in the field of EBD           With EBD,” deals with data collection    at the beginning of the 21st century.
        and the larger field of addressing         in empirical investigations and
        problem behaviors within educational       application involving children and           Aydin Bal, M.A.
        settings. The “Experimental Research       adolescents with EBD. The authors            Doctoral Student
        Designs In The Study Of Children           make a compelling case for the               in Special Education
        And Youth With EBD” chapter                continued use of formative evaluation        Arizona State University
        discusses experimental research            research in EBD and address the              Tempe, Arizona
        design and its application to the study    importance of increasing use of              Aydin.Bal@asu.edu
        of children and adolescents with EBD.      formative assessment procedures (i.e.,
        The authors provide an overview of         frequent and repeated measurement)

                                                                                                                 Fall 2006           

BB16(1).indd 39                                                                                                                10/23/06 1:10:34 PM

To top