GUIDELINES FOR THE SECONDARY CALIBRATION OF CONTAMINATION MONITORS by msb21215

VIEWS: 44 PAGES: 64

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4.1     GUIDELINES FOR THE SECONDARY CALIBRATION OF CONTAMINATION
        MONITORS (Compiled by Hospital and University Radiation Safety Officers
        Group – HURSOG)

      4.1.1   Purpose

              The purpose of this document is to describe the procedure for testing ionising
              radiation detectors to ensure they are capable of carrying out the function for
              which they were designed (fitness for purpose).

      4.1.2   Scope

              This procedure applies to testing of ionising radiation contamination detection
              monitors which provide responses in counts per second or counts per minute from
              unsealed sources emitting radiation or high energy beta radiation. Typically, this
              involves equipment of the mini monitor range of detection equipment used with
              P32, C14, S35, I125. These detectors are either of the Geiger-Mueller or
              scintillation detector type.

              This procedure does NOT cover:
                  Fixed or portable survey monitoring equipment measuring in Sv/hr. This
                  type of equipment requires annual calibration traceable to a national standard.
                  Neutron detection equipment.

      4.1.3   Detailed Requirements or Statements

              Ionising Radiation detectors measuring in counts per second or counts per minute
              are used only to identify contamination during research operations. It is therefore
              only important that they are able to detect ionising radiation on a visual screen
              and audibly at levels greater than background. This procedure describes the
              requirements to ensure that radiation detectors operate within acceptable limits.

              Contamination detection monitors can be Geiger-Mueller (GM) or scintillation
              detectors. They normally measure in counts per second (cps) or counts per minute
              (cpm). This procedure describes detector inspection using gas mantles containing
              Thorium 232 as a test source, though any radioactive source providing suitable
              screen response could be used, eg Americium 241 in smoke detectors.

        4.1.4 Method

              Use a test source of ionising radiation which is proven to give a significant and
              stable reading at the surface of the detection probe (or at a measurable fixed
              distance). A thorium 232 type gas mantle provides sufficient radiation to provide
              a suitable mid range response (100-300 cps). The activity is typically 740 Bq
              (0.02 Ci).




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     The screen deflection from a test source of a detector calibrated by a recognised
     calibration organisation should be used to ensure the response of the detector has
     an acceptable response level for the type of radiation used by that type of detector.
     Eg Geiger-Mueller(GM) or scintillation detector.




     The source should be labelled with:
        a unique ID; and
        the response from a calibrated contamination monitor .

     This source can now be considered to be a standard (thorium 232 ½ life 1.41 ×
     1010 years).

     The response from a detector should be recorded against the response of the test
     source to a calibrated detector . If the reading is less than 10% of the test reading,
     the detector should be considered not fit for purpose and should be quarantined
     prior to repair/ maintenance. It is recommended that all detectors are checked
     immediately prior to use with a known source to ensure there is a suitable
     response.




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     4.1.5   Thorium Mantle MSDS

             4.1.5.1   Radioactivity in Lantern Mantles

                       Introduction

                       Gas lanterns are used extensively by campers and households in areas
                       where electricity is not available for lighting. In order to maximise the
                       light output, some mantles contain the radioactive element thorium,
                       while other mantles contain the non-radioactive element yttrium. The
                       radioactive thorium in the mantle presents a minimal radiation health
                       hazard. This hazard can be further reduced by adopting the basic
                       precautions set out below.

                       4.1.5.1.1   Potential Hazards of Thorium Mantles

                                   Thorium mantles are composed of a rayon mesh impregnated
                                   with various chemicals. Applying a flame to the new mantle
                                   prepares it for initial use. This pre-burning ignites the
                                   flammable nitrocellulose coating which causes the rayon
                                   support material to burn away forming a brittle envelope.
                                   The beryllium in the mantle hardens its delicate structure
                                   after this pre-burning. Beryllium is a toxic chemical that may
                                   cause lung disease if inhaled during the short period
                                   following pre-burning.

                                   Thorium is a radioactive element that spontaneously
                                   transforms into a series of other elements. These
                                   transformations involve the emission of ionizing radiations
                                   (that is, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma rays).
                                   While the amount of radioactivity in a mantle is very small,
                                   it is desirable to minimise any radiation exposure,
                                   particularly if mantles are used frequently. Internal radiation
                                   exposure will arise from the alpha and beta particles if any of
                                   the mantle material is inhaled or ingested. External radiation
                                   exposure can arise from the gamma rays if a large number of
                                   mantles are stored together.

                       4.1.5.1.2   Minimisation of Radiation Hazard

                                   1. When handling a mantle, either before or after pre-burning,
                                      ensure that none of the mantle material is taken into the
                                      body by inhalation, ingestion or via an open cut.
                                   2. Wash the hands immediately after handling a new or used
                                      mantle or the ash.
                                   3. Light the lantern in a well-ventilated area and ensure that
                                      fumes from the mantle are not inhaled.
                                   4. Use the lantern in well-ventilated areas.
                                   5. Avoid inhaling the powder from broken mantles or the ash
                                      from used mantles.

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                 6. Seal used mantles in a plastic bag and dispose of in the
                    normal household garbage.
                 7. Store bulk quantities of mantles in less frequented areas.
                 8. Keep mantles out of the reach of children.

     4.1.5.1.3   NHMRC Recommendation

                 The current policy of the National Health and Medical
                 Research Council (NHMRC) is that radioactive materials
                 should not be used in consumer products where no benefit
                 arises from their use and when an alternative product is
                 available which does not use radioactive materials. In
                 November 1992, the NHMRC recommended that lantern
                 mantles containing thorium should be withdrawn from sale
                 over time and that, in the meantime, packets containing these
                 lantern mantles should carry the warning shown below. The
                 NHMRC also recommended that the Federal Bureau of
                 Consumer Affairs implement this warning.

     4.1.5.1.4   Warning

                 These mantles contain quantities of harmful ingredients
                 including small quantities of radioactivity. The following
                 precautions should be taken when storing or handling the
                 mantles.
                 Store large quantities of the mantles in less frequented areas.
                 Always light and use the lantern in well-
                 ventilated areas. Avoid breathing the vapours.
                 Do not overheat the lantern by using it with a
                 hole in the mantle.
                 Do not inhale or ingest mantle, ash or mantle
                 smoke.
                 Wash hands after handling the mantle and/or
                 the ash.
                 Dispose of ash in garbage.




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     Detector Inspection Label

       Detector Inspection Label


       Test Source: _______________
       ID Number: ______________

       Standard Response:             Detector Response:
            γ : _____ cps               γ : _____ cps
                : _____ cps                 : _____ cps

       Test Date: ………….. Retest Date: ……………

       Signature: ………………………….
       Test method reference: ……………….


     Radioactive Test Source Label




       Source: …………………………

       Detector Response = …………. cps using
       Calibrated Scintillation detector
       Type : ………………….                S/N: …………..

       Detector Response = ………… cps using
       Calibrated GM detector
       Type : ………………….        S/N: …………..
       Test method reference: …………………..




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4.2   GUIDELINES FOR THE SAFE USE OF SEALED SOURCES, SOIL MOISTURE
      PROBES

      4.2.1   Sealed Sources

              A sealed source refers to radioactive material that is firmly bonded within metals
              or sealed in a capsule or similar container of adequate mechanical strength so that
              the active material cannot be dispersed into the environment under foreseeable
              conditions of use and wear. Typically, sealed sources are double encapsulated.

      4.2.2   The Australian Standard Code of Practice

              AS2443.4 details safety considerations when working with sealed sources. These
              include:

                 Handling sealed sources by remote means such as tongs or forceps and for the
                 minimum possible time.
                 Locating shielding as close as practicable to the source of radiation.
                 Precautions should be taken to protect laboratory workers and persons in
                 adjacent areas from direct and scattered radiation.
                 Every sealed source should be labelled with:
                     i) the serial number or identification code.
                     ii) the nature of the source, its date of receipt, and its activity upon receipt.
                     and a record kept of the following:
                     i) details of any relocations both within and out of the laboratory.
                     ii) the date and details of disposal.
                 When not in use, store sealed sources in secure and adequately shielded
                 containment, which is labelled with the international radiation symbol and
                 other relevant information.
                 Where a source could potentially release a radioactive gas, the storage area
                 must be adequately ventilated. Exhaust ventilation should be run for an
                 adequate time before entering the area.

              Sealed sources may be used in either an enclosed or open installation.

      4.2.3   Safety Guidelines for Enclosed Installations

              Permanent enclosures for any source of radiation and the materials being
              irradiated should be designed so that:

                  No person can be within the enclosure during an irradiation.
                  Interlocks prevent persons from entering the enclosure during an irradiation.
                  Any person accidentally shut in an enclosure must be able to leave by a
                  suitable exit or be able to immediately enter an adequately shielded refuge.
                  An irradiation is capable of being prevented or quickly interrupted from
                  within a large enclosure. It should not be capable of being reset from outside
                  the enclosure.
                  Persons outside the enclosure are adequately protected.




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                    During operation, the dose rate at any accessible outside surface of any large
                    enclosure should not, in any one hour, exceed 10uSv. If non-radiation
                    workers have access to the outside area, the dose should not exceed 0.5uSv.
                    When not in use, sealed sources should be housed, by remote control, within
                    adequate shielding inside the enclosure.
                    Fail-safe interlocks and control systems should be provided on all enclosed
                    installations. If electrically operated, the system should be rendered
                    inoperative or non-hazardous in the event of loss of electrical power.

     4.2.4   Safety Guidelines for Open Installations

             Open installations, because of the nature of their requirements such as the use of
             a portable apparatus, cannot be provided with the same safeguards as for
             enclosed installations. In an open installation, the source of ionizing radiation
             and the materials being irradiated should be confined as far as possible within a
             specific area. This area should be outlined by suitable barriers, follow the
             requirements of an enclosed facility plus the following with warning signs so
             that:

                    only authorized persons have access to the area.
                    persons outside the area are not exposed to the source of radiation.
                    authorized persons may enter the area for the minimum time needed to make
                    essential adjustments to the equipment.
                    if possible, the apparatus be capable of adjustment by remote handling
                    methods.

             There are several ARPANSA Documents that deal with sealed sources that
             would be of use for developing safety procedures ie: Code of Practice Safety
             Guide: Portable Density/Moisture Gauges Containing Radioactive Sources.

     4.2.5   Unwanted Sealed Sources

             In some cases the sealed source may still be highly radioactive. If this is the case,
             the following alternatives should be considered:

             i)       return to the supplier.
             ii)      transfer to another user.
             iii)     store in a suitable facility.

             In all cases, the Statutory Authority should be notified of the decision to be taken.

     4.2.6   Sealed Source Maintenance

             It is expected that each sealed source is inspected on a regular basis, either
             quarterly, six monthly or yearly. This inspection is to ensure that the sealing
             material maintains its integrity and that it is not degrading. Inspection tools for
             faults such as cracks or chips. The surface is wipe tested to ensure that the
             radioactive isotope is not separating from the sealing compound and becoming a
             free agent.


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             Records that clearly present the results of the above maintenance tests must be
             retained for presentation to authorised persons as required.

     4.2.7   Sealed Source Storage

             There is a draft document on “Security of Radioactive Sources” (as of May 2006)
             which is proposed to be implemented by the end of 2006. The implementation of
             this will see major changes in the security of storage and transport for some
             sources, especially Soil Moisture Probes. It will probably entail the construction
             of more appropriate storage facilities as well as changes in management
             procedures.

     4.2.8   Guidelines for the Safe Use of Neutron Moisture Gauges

             The following is based on the relevant sections of Safety Guide: Portable
             Density/Moisture Gauges Containing Radioactive Sources, Radiation
             Protection Series No. 5 (May 2004). The use of ionizing radiation by a student
             or staff member, of the University (please note: they must hold either an
             appropriate licence or an exemption) at any site, or the use by other persons at a
             University premise, requires prior approval of the Radiation Safety Committee on
             proforma RSC 6. Reporting details are included on this form. The ARPANSA
             document suggests that the review period is annual.

             4.2.8.1 Working Rules

                    a.     The expected radiation levels around each portable density/moisture
                              gauge are to be such that the dose received by the operator is kept
                              at less than 60% of the annual dose limit, and the dose rate 1
                              metre from the gauge should be no greater than the following;
                              When the source(s) is/are in the shielded position, the radiation
                             levels must not result in an ambient dose equivalent rate or
                             directional dose equivalent rate, as appropriate, exceeding:
                                 250 µSv/hr at any point 0.05m from the gauge surface; and
                                 10 µSv/hr at any point 1m from the gauge surface.
                   b.      Using the instruction manual (or the supplier/manufacturer‟s
                         recommendations), safe methods for the use of the gauge are to be
                         employed at all times. No more than 3 people are to involved in the
                         direct use of the gauge at any time, all other persons are to be at least
                         3 metres from the instrument.
                   c.      From (b) above the method(s) for conducting the survey, the sealed
                         source wipe test and any other safety tests are to be documented.
                   d.      When not in use the gauge is to be housed in a secure and shielded
                         storage facility with the appropriate warning signs, this storage
                         facility is to have a dose rate of less than 5 µSv/hr at the surface of
                         the facility.
                   e.      All operators/users of the gauge are to be personally monitored with
                         a Neutron Type TLD‟s (and possibly a standard TLD) the TLD is to
                         be worn at the belt level.
                              the control monitor is not to be kept near the gauge at any time.


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                              please refer to the responsibilities of TLD wearers section in the
                             Radiation Safety manual.
                    f.     When soil testing is being conducted, the general public and those
                         not directly operating the unit are to be kept a minimum of 3 metres
                         from the site, the use of appropriate signs such as the example in
                         Annex A being displayed at the four compass points of the testing
                         site. An individual from the testing team is to be appointed as the site
                         supervisor, so as to maintain safe distance, the appropriate use of
                         signs and equipment as well as all safety records.
                    g.     Emergency Procedures are to be documented and the emergency kit
                         kept near (but not with) the gauge at all times. Please refer to General
                         Policies and Procedures section 3.5 of the manual and note the
                         notification of any accident or incident must be submitted to the RSC
                         on form RSC 8.
                    h.     All relevant authorizations (licenses, permission to access land for
                         testing, etc) are to be obtained before the testing is to be conducted.
                    i.     During transport (see the Transport Section below and also The
                         NSW H.U.R.S.O.G. Transport Guideline), and when in the field but
                         not being used, the gauge is to be transported in its packaging as far
                         from the driver and passengers as possible (preferably in the boot).
                         The unit is to be secured within the vehicle to prevent theft and loss,
                         always lock the source(s) in the shielded position when the unit is not
                         in use. The unit is not to be left unsecured or uncontrolled at any
                         time.
                    j.     The integrity of the gauge is to be maintained by regular servicing
                         by an authorized service agent/company. This will also include
                         calibration of the source on an annual or bi-annual time frame.
                         Records of all services and calibrations are to be maintained.
                    k.     The emergency contacts are:
                              Presiding Officer, Radiation Safety Committee, Ph: 02 69 33
                             4321.
                              The Radiation Control Branch, EPA/DEC, Ph: 02 9995 5000.
                    l.     The documentation to be maintained are:
                              Storage Log Book, that is a record of the time the gauge is in the
                             storage facility;
                              User/Use Log Book, that is a record of all use or display of the
                             unit, when, where and by whom; see RSC proformas RSC 10 and
                             RSC 11;
                              Service, Repair and Calibration Log Book, maintenance schedule;
                             and
                              Instrument Accident/Incident Record.

     4.2.9   Emergency Procedures

             Written emergency procedures are to be developed and kept with the gauge at all
             times. Users of the gauge are to be familiar with the emergency procedures. The
             manufacturer‟s instructions should always be the first source of information for
             the development of these procedures.

             Further details are included in section 4.4 of the manual.

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     4.2.10 Responsibilities of the Licensee or Senior Researcher (of the Group)

            The Responsible Person should notify the appropriate fire authority and police of
            the storage locations of each portable density/moisture gauge under this person‟s
            control. This will be of particular importance where the gauge or gauges are
            stored at semi-permanent or permanent locations.

            Where this person is required to provide instruction (including all safety matters,
            however to gain a licence the training must be conducted by an approved
            provider) to personnel, this should be done at the induction of those personnel
            and at intervals of not greater than 12 months. Instruction might need to be more
            frequent where there have been changes to legislation or other safety
            requirements that are relevant to those personnel.

            NSW legislation requires that users are licensed (or students are exempted and
            under supervision during use) and are suitably trained by a D.E.C. approved
            trainer.

            One of the licensee‟s responsibilities is to ensure the integrity of the sealed
            source, and a trained, experienced service technician should be employed for this
            purpose.

            Service technicians involved with repair of portable density/moisture gauges
            might also need to be equipped with a suitable contamination monitor,
            particularly if they are performing wipe tests. Contamination monitors should
            also be considered where there is a possibility that a source capsule can become
            ruptured.

     4.2.11 User Responsibilities – CSU Requirements

            All users of soil density and moisture gauges shall:
              (i) hold a current radiation user‟s licence issued by the EPA (NSW), or hold
                     a written exemption issued by a licensed person;
              (ii) acquaint themselves with and obey all notices and all instructions issued
                     to them for the safe use of these devices;
              (iii) refrain from careless or reckless practice or action likely to result in a
                     radiation hazard to themselves or others;
              (iv) wear an appropriate personal monitoring device at all times when these
                     instruments are in use;
              (v) not interfere with, remove, alter, damage or render ineffective any soil
                     density and moisture gauge or radiation protective equipment provided;
              (vi) comply with any method or working procedure adopted to reduce
                     radiation exposure;
              (vii) immediately report to the owner any difficulties with working procedures
                     or defects in equipment which may have caused or are likely to cause a
                     radiation hazard; and
              (viii) complete moisture gauge usage log records (Form RSC 10) whenever the
                     gauges are used, and store these log records together in a folder (close to
                     the stored gauges) so that they are available for future radiation audits.

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     4.2.12 Storage of Gauges

           When in storage, the gauge should be locked in its transport case.

           As far as practicable and taking into account the ALARA principle, portable
           density/moisture gauges should not be stored near regularly occupied or
           frequented areas. The dose rate at the surface of this facility is to be less than 5
           µSv/hr if only occupationally exposed persons have access, or less than
           0.5µSv/hr if accessible by the general public.             Furthermore, portable
           density/moisture gauges should not be stored in the same storage area as
           dangerous goods of the following Dangerous Goods Classes:
                  1.     Explosives
                  2.1    Flammable gas
                  3.     Flammable liquid
                  4.1    Flammable solid
                  4.2    Spontaneously combustible
                  4.3    Dangerous when wet
                  5.1    Oxidising agent
                  5.2    Organic peroxide
                  8      Corrosive

           Consideration should be given to separation of these classes when designing a
           store during building or when designating an existing store as a storage area for
           portable density/moisture gauges.

           Portable density/moisture gauges should not be stored with undeveloped X-ray or
           photographic film or foodstuffs.

           The name and contact details of the Radiation Safety Officer, or person
           responsible, should be placed on the store in a conspicuous location.

     4.2.13 Transport of Gauges

           When transported on public roads, the gauge, should be locked in its carry case
           and be fixed in location within the vehicle with the shutter mechanism facing
           away from the vehicle occupants or facing downwards.

           Loading restrictions also exist for the transport of portable density/moisture
           gauges with other dangerous goods with the class restriction being the same as
           those given for storage as outlined above. The Australian Dangerous Goods Code
           (ADGC), specifies the criteria for the transport of mixed dangerous goods on the
           one conveyance and should be adhered to. In general mixing incompatible classes
           of dangerous goods on the one conveyance would not be permitted unless there is
           segregation of at least 12 metres and for some mixed classes, 24 metres, or an of
           APPROVED form of segregation device used.

           Where other compatible dangerous goods are being transported on or in a vehicle,
           it may be necessary to have two sets of placards indicating that the vehicle is
           carrying a portable density/moisture gauge and another class of dangerous goods.
           Refer to the ADGC.

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           While the packaging, labeling and paperwork required for the transport of
           radioactive material is uniform throughout Australia, the authorization process
           across the jurisdictions may not be. If transporting a portable density/moisture
           gauge across a jurisdictional boundary, the transporter must ascertain the
           authorisation requirements of each jurisdiction through or into which the portable
           density/moisture gauge will be transported.

     4.2.14 Annex A

          Radiation Warning Signs and Labels

           Radiation warning signs and labels, must conform to AS 1319 - 1994 Safety signs
           for the occupational environment, and AS 2342 - 1992 Development, testing and
           implementation of information and safety symbols and symbolic signs. Examples
           of suitable warning signs and labels are given below.

           Colours for radiation warning signs and labels
                         Background: yellow
                         Marking and trefoil: black

          EXAMPLE OF A SUITABLE WARNING SIGN FOR POSTING IN THE
          AREA ADJACENT TO PORTABLE DENSITY/MOISTURE GAUGE
          WHEN IN USE
                         (55 x 22cm minimum size)




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     EXAMPLE OF A SUITABLE WARNING LABEL FOR ATTACHMENT TO A
     PORTABLE DENSITY/MOISTURE GAUGE CONTAINING A RADIOACTIVE SOURCE




     The information included on this label should reflect the gauge‟s use (e.g. Density only, moisture
     only (version depicted above) or combination) and its total radioactive contents (eg. caesium only,
     241
        Am/Be only or both).
     (NOTE: the lower part of this label may be unpainted metal with black lettering).




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     EXAMPLE OF A SUITABLE WARNING LABEL FOR DISPLAY ON A RADIATION
     STORE




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     4.3   GUIDELINES FOR THE SAFE USE OF IONISING IRRADIATING
           APPARATUS

           (i)    Irradiating apparatus must be considered potentially dangerous and be used
                  with all precautions.
           (ii) Irradiating apparatus must only be operated by licensed persons or those
                  who have been granted an exemption by a suitably licensed person to
                  operate irradiating apparatus with an exemption condition on their licence, in
                  accordance with the Radiation Control Act (NSW) 1990 and the Radiation
                  Control Regulations (NSW) 1993.
           (iii) Irradiating apparatus must only be operated as part of a practicum in a
                  subject, or as a part of research, as approved by the RSC. (Form RSC 2,
                  http://www.csu.edu.au/acad_sec/committees/radiation/rsc_forms_resources.
                  htm)
           (iv) Fixed irradiating apparatus must be located in a site that conforms to the Act,
                  Regulations and relevant Australian Standards. Mobile irradiating apparatus
                  must only be operated where all safe practices have been fully considered.
           (v) The specifications of the irradiating apparatus, safety attachments and
                  equipment, such as but not limited to, radiation tube housing, collimators
                  and inherent filtration, must conform to the Act, Regulations and to relevant
                  Australian Standards.
                  Radiation leakage from or through the safety equipment must conform to the
                  Act, Regulations and to relevant Australian standards.
           (vi) All irradiating apparatus and safety equipment must be monitored and
                  maintained to ensure compliance with Section (v).
           (vii) Inherent and added filtration within the x-ray tube housing must not be
                  removed except by a licence-holder and then the irradiating apparatus must
                  only be operated with the knowledge and understanding of other personnel
                  within the laboratory.
           (viii) Irradiating exposures must be limited to:
           -      the appropriate technical factors (kVp, mA, time) as required for the correct
                  density(ies) on the film or photon densities for practicum or research.
                  - the minimum area (collimation) required for the practicum or research.
           (ix) The doors to the laboratory must be closed when operating the irradiating
                  apparatus, with a sign limiting entry when the device is in operation.
           (x) The primary beam of the irradiating apparatus must not be directed towards
                  doors or windows of the laboratory or towards fixed radiation shielding
                  within the laboratory.
           (xi) Thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD‟s) must be worn, when considered
                  necessary, when operating irradiating apparatus or when involved in
                  practicums or research when other licensed or approved persons are
                  operating the irradiating apparatus.
           (xii) All personnel within the laboratory, must be behind fixed shielding or
                  wearing appropriate lead apparel when the irritating apparatus is being
                  operated.
           (xiii) All shielding and lead apparel must conform to standards in accordance with
                  the Act, Regulations and relevant Australian Standards.
           (xiv) Staff and students who are required to operate irradiating apparatus or be
                  involved in practicums or research where irradiating apparatus will be used,
                  must notify the Dean of Faculty, Head of School or Centre Director if they

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     are pregnant, prior to the use of or involvement with the irradiating
     apparatus.

     Operating irradiating apparatus or being involved in practicums or research
     where irradiating apparatus will be used during pregnancy must be kept to a
     minimum. To ensure the pregnant personnel‟s irradiation is minimised. Any
     steps can only be taken following the notification of the pregnancy as stated
     above and are to be taken in accordance with the ICRP Publication 60
     recommendations of irradiation during pregnancy.




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4.4   GUIDELINES FOR STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES FOR
      IODINATIONS

      4.4.1   Introduction

              Normal safe operating procedures for the use of Iodine 125 (125I) should not lead
              to a hazardous situation and potential for harm. The following information
              provided and procedures have been developed to ensure safe use of 125I and, in
              the unlikely event of contamination, procedures for staff / students to follow.

              Iodinations involve the use of relatively high concentrations of 125I, which is
              known to be volatile in air and readily absorbed by the thyroid gland if inhaled or
              absorbed internally. Uncapped vials of 125I and laboratory contamination with 125I
              may potentially lead to uptake in the thyroid gland and extra precautions are
              necessary above and beyond the normal standard operating procedures for
              unsealed sources.

              Doses as a result of 125I contamination have been reported in ICRP Publication 53
              and its addendum, ICRP Publication 80. The following are some typical doses
              received to the thyroid (Dthyroid) and to the whole body (E ie. effective dose) for
              an adult with typical thyroid uptakes of between 0% and 55% uptake (presumed
              to be taken as the maximum thyroid loading):

              Thyroid function              Dthyroid (mSv / MBq)          E (mSv / MBq)
              0%                                                          1.2 x 10-2
              25%                           2.4 x 102                     7.1
              35%                           3.3 x 102                     9.9
              45%                           4.2 x 102                     13
              55%                           5.2 x 102                     16

      4.4.2   Safe Use

              To ensure that all personnel conducting iodination receive the minimal amount of
              radiation exposure, staff should adopt standard CSU Radiation Safety Committee
              (RSC) procedures (See Guidelines for the Safe Use and Disposal of Unsealed
              Radioactive Material).

              It is expected that all iodinations will be conducted during normal working hours
              in the special fume cabinet hood in approved radiation laboratories. This
              plexiglass fume hood has a charcoal filter attached to trap any airborne 125I, to
              minimise release to the environment and to personnel.

      4.4.3   Purchasing Procedures

              Orders for 125I must be placed through the RSC Presiding Officer or Executive
              Officer using the Application to Purchase/Acquire Radioactive Substances and
              Notice of Disposal Form (RSC1). The approval will be for use in specific
              locations and only by staff / students holding the appropriate EPA radiation
              licence and conditions of use.


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                                      UPDATED: MAY 2010
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     4.4.4   Suggested Pre-Iodination Procedures

             The licence holder or delegated personnel will check the radiation laboratory
             before each iodination to:
                    ensure an adequate supply of disposable gloves and lab coats;
                    set up and check the air sampling system;
                    set up the containers for solid and liquid waste; and
                    place absorbent paper in the fume hood and on the benches.

     4.4.5   Iodination Procedures

                    Persons conducting iodination must hang up their regular laboratory coats
                    outside the radiation laboratory and must wear the disposable laboratory
                    coats and over-shoes provided by the laboratory manager or licence
                    holder.
                    Iodinators‟ hands, feet and clothing will be checked for contamination.
                    A pre-iodination thyroid burden test should be performed using the
                    radiation laboratory thin-windowed Geiger-Muller contamination counter.
                    This is performed by placing the counter approximately 1cm from the
                    throat and reading the count.
                    Personal dosimeters must be worn by all persons. It is preferable for
                    finger monitors to be worn (as well as a whole body monitor) to establish
                    accumulated doses. If the dose received by the finger dosimeters is
                    minimal, and the process dose not change, then only the whole body
                    dosimeter needs to be worn.
                    At least two pairs of disposable gloves plus one pair of arm length
                    disposable gloves must be worn.
                    Vials of 125I must be opened only while in the fume hood. Use a glass
                    syringe to aliquot 125I if possible. Any vials containing 125I brought
                    outside the fume hood must be capped.
                    All contaminated syringes, glassware, etc, must remain in the radiation
                    laboratory. Storage drawers should be available if needed. All items must
                    be decontaminated before storage.
                    If the iodinator leaves the room before the end of the procedure, the
                    disposable laboratory coat, gloves and over-shoes must be removed and
                    the hands, feet and clothing must be checked for contamination.
                    No smoking, eating or drinking is permitted in the radiation laboratory.

     4.4.6   Post-Iodination Procedures

                    Before leaving the iodination laboratory, the hands, feet, and clothing will
                    be checked for contamination.
                    If not contaminated, the disposable laboratory coat will be reused. If the
                    laboratory coat is slightly contaminated, the coat can be stored for decay.
                    Iodinator(s) can re-perform the thyroid burden test as per pre-iodination
                    procedures.
                    If there is a significant increase in this reading or the iodinator is
                    concerned, contact must be made with the RSC within 24 hours for a
                    further course of action.

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                                      UPDATED: MAY 2010
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                    This RSC action may include:
                           additional scan by a Nuclear Medicine scientist; and/or
                           contact with, and referral to, ANTSO for assessment and possible
                           treatment.

                    Laboratory staff action will include:
                           a count of the charcoal filters in the air sampling system to
                           determine if excessive airborne radiation was present;
                           a count of the waste generated by the iodination;
                           conducting a surface contamination check of the fume hood and
                           general laboratory area; and
                           disposal of the waste generated by the iodination.

             In the unlikely event of 125I accumulation, all relevant laboratory records must be
             kept and a copy forwarded to the Radiation Safety Committee along with a
             detailed report of the incident.

     4.4.7   Further Reading

             1.     New England Nuclear; Iodine-125 Guide to safe handling; 12/77
             2.     Shapiro, J., (1981) Radiation protection: A guide for scientists, Harvard
                    University Press
             3.     Gerber GB & Thomas RG., (eds) (1992) Radiation protection dosimetry:
                    Guidebook for the treatment of accidental radionuclide contamination of
                    workers, Nuclear Technology Publishers
             4.     1990 Recommendation of the International Commission on Radiological
                    Protection, ICRP Publication 60, Pergamon Press
             5.     Radiation dose to patients from radiopharmaceuticals, ICRP Publication
                    53, and addendum ICRP Publication 80, Pergamon Press




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                                     UPDATED: MAY 2010
                                       PAGES 20 OF 64


4.5   GUIDELINES FOR THE SAFE USE OF MICROWAVE OVENS

      4.5.1   Hazard Management

                   Please read the manufacturer‟s operating and safety procedures before
                   use.
                   Generally speaking, commercially available microwave ovens are very
                   safe and reliable, regardless of the manufacturer.
                   All microwave ovens in Australia are required to comply with the
                   National Health & Medical Research Council „Recommendations on
                   Microwave Ovens‟ (1972). The guidelines provide strict limits on
                   microwave leakage during service to <5 mW/cm2 at 5 cm from any oven
                   surface.
                   Do not operate the oven if it is damaged or does not operate properly.
                   The oven door must seal properly and there must be no damage to the
                   door, hinges, latches, or oven surfaces.
                   If a fault is detected a sign is be placed on the microwave advising that a
                   problem has been detected and the microwave is not be used until the
                   problem has been resolved.
                   Ovens used for food preparation must be cleaned to prevent biological
                   contamination, fire hazard or damage to the door.
                   Ovens used for laboratory applications must not be used for food
                   preparation. Food preparation ovens should never be used for other
                   applications.
                   Do not use aluminum foil or any metal containers, metal utensils, metal
                   objects, or objects with metal or foil trim in the oven. Such items can
                   cause arcing, damaging the oven and creating a fire or burn hazard.
                   Do not heat objects that are sealed, as they may explode, damaging the
                   oven.
                   Never heat any flammable or combustible liquid in the oven. A fire
                   and/or explosion may result.
                   Be careful when removing containers from the microwave oven.
                   Containers or their contents may be very hot, resulting in burns or spills
                   of hot materials. Lids of containers should not be tightened up
                   immediately after removal from the oven.
                   If a fire should start inside the oven, leave the door closed, disconnect the
                   power cord - if safe to do so – and, if there are signs of the fire spreading
                   outside the oven, contact your nearest warden, Security (32288) or the
                   Fire Brigade (0-000).
                   Never attempt repairs to a damaged microwave oven.
                   If your oven is damaged or you have a reason to believe it may be
                   leaking, please contact your supervisor to arrange a safety inspection or
                   replacement.




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                                         UPDATED: MAY 2010
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4.6   GUIDELINES FOR THE TRANSPORT OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS BY
      ROAD BETWEEN HOSPITALS, UNIVERSITIES, RESEARCH AND OTHER
      MEDICAL ESTABLISHMENTS IN NSW (Compiled by Hospital and University
      Radiation Safety Officers Group – HURSOG – December 2005)

      In these Guidelines, the words “shall”, “should” and “must” have the following
      meanings associated with them:

      shall      mandatory legal compliance
      should     advisable, but not mandatory
      must       although not legally mandatory, it is expected

      4.6.1    Introduction

               There is sometimes a need to transport radioactive materials by road between
               academic institutions, hospitals, and other medical establishments in such a way
               that no aspect of worker or public safety is compromised. These Transport
               Guidelines and accompanying Transport Kit may assist by:

                     providing specific safety instructions for consignors, carriers and recipients;
                     ensuring uniformity of practice; and
                     minimizing any radiation consequences in the event of a transport accident.

               The transport of radioactive substances within NSW is governed by the Radiation
               Control Regulation (2003). That Regulation specifies that the transport must
               conform to the detailed requirements contained in the Code of Practice for the
               Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, published by the Australian Radiation
               Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA). The current version was
               published in 2001 as Radiation Protection Series No. 2 (RPS 2), which is based
               on the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (1996,
               revised 2000).

               The above Transport Code of Practice is very comprehensive. Consequently, the
               Guidelines that follow have been extracted and compiled solely for the purpose of
               this document.

               All organisations that transport radioactive material must have available three
               traffic hazard placards. Those organisations that transport Type A packages will
               also require three Radiation Warning Placards. These together with other
               instructions should be made into a “Radioactive Material Transport Kit” for use
               by the carrier.




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                                     UPDATED: MAY 2010
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     4.6.2   Information for Consignors

             4.6.2.1 Instructions to the Person Organizing Transport

                       Ensure that a “Radioactive material Transport Kit” will be carried in
                       the vehicle. Instruct the driver whether at the end of the delivery, they
                       are to leave the Transport Kit in the vehicle or to deliver it to the final
                       addressee with that package.
                       No taxis, motorcycles, or public transport may be used to transport
                       radioactive material.
                       A courier should be used to transport the package whenever possible.
                       The Establishment's transport vehicle may be used to transport the
                       package provided the driver has been instructed in how to handle and
                       secure the package in the vehicle, and in the actions to be taken in
                       case of an accident or an emergency. Written instructions must also be
                       provided (see Appendix D and Transport Kit).
                       When the matter is urgent, private cars may be used (insurance
                       provisions may apply). A person who is conversant both with the
                       hazards involved and with handling emergency situations, (preferably
                       licensed to use the radioactive material being transported), must either
                       drive the vehicle transporting the material, or must accompany the
                       driver.
                       The package must be addressed to a specific licensed person or their
                       informed nominee. It must not be addressed generally to a
                       "Department".
                       The person to whom the package is to be delivered should be advised
                       of the time of dispatch and expected delivery time.

             4.6.2.2 Packages

                   Of the various types of packages described in the RPS2 Code, only two
                   types are relevant here, namely “Type A” and “Excepted” packages.

                   "Excepted Packages" are exempt from many of the stringent requirements
                   which otherwise must be followed.

                   If a package does not meet the "Excepted Packages" classification, then it
                   must be transported as a "Type A" package.

                   These latter packages must fulfil the detailed requirements of the Code of
                   Practice. Those requirements are more stringent in that the package has to
                   satisfy various performance tests such as drop and penetration tests to
                   demonstrate an ability to withstand the normal conditions of transport. It is
                   suggested that if a Type A package has to be transported, then the advice
                   of the establishment's Radiation Safety Officer be obtained, or the
                   Radiation Control Section of the NSW EPA should be contacted for
                   directions.

                   Packages with activities lower than those given in the “Exempt Activity”
                   column, of Table 1 in Appendix A are exempt from regulations. In NSW

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                                UPDATED: MAY 2010
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           the “Activity” exempt from regulation is the “Prescribed Activity” of
           Schedule 1 of the NSW Radiation Control Regulation 2003, and is listed
           in brackets in the same column of Table 1 in Appendix A. For compliance
           throughout Australia, the lower of the two values should be used.

           These Guidelines provide only limited information about Type A
           packages. Consignors should refer to the above mentioned ARPANSA
           Code for further details.

           Instructions for Senders of both types of packages are given below.

     4.6.2.3 All Packages

           4.6.2.3.1 Package Design

                        The package must retain its contents under all conditions
                        likely to be encountered during routine transport.
                        The package shall be so designed in relation to its mass,
                        volume and shape that it can be easily and safely handled and
                        transported. In addition, the package shall be so designed that
                        it can be properly secured in or on the conveyance during
                        transport.
                        The package must retain its contents under all conditions
                        likely to be encountered during routine transport.
                        As far as practicable, the packaging shall be so designed and
                        finished that the external surfaces are free from protruding
                        features and can be easily decontaminated.
                        As far as practicable, the outer layer of the package shall be
                        so designed as to prevent the collection and the retention of
                        water.
                        Any features added to the package at the time of transport,
                        which are not part of the package, shall not reduce its safety.
                        The package shall be capable of withstanding the effects of
                        any acceleration, vibration or vibration resonance which may
                        arise under conditions likely to be encountered in routine
                        transport without any deterioration in the effectiveness of the
                        closing devices on the various receptacles or in the integrity
                        of the package as a whole. In particular, nuts, bolts and other
                        securing devices shall be so designed as to prevent them from
                        becoming loose or being released unintentionally, even after
                        repeated use.
                        The materials of the packaging and any components or
                        structures shall be physically and chemically compatible with
                        each other and with the radioactive contents. Account shall
                        be taken of their behaviour under irradiation.
                        All valves through which the radioactive contents could
                        otherwise escape shall be protected against unauthorised
                        operation.



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                      UPDATED: MAY 2010
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     4.6.2.3.2 Package Preparation

                Radioactive material shall not be moved out of any
                establishment without the prior approval of the licensee
                responsible for that material.
                Any procedure used to transport radioactive material from an
                establishment must be approved beforehand by the Radiation
                Safety Officer of the establishment despatching the material.
                The material must be packaged appropriately:
                  - A liquid must be contained in a sealed labelled vial
                  - Place the vial or other source in a labelled shielded
                     (lead etc) container with sufficient liquid absorber.
                     Close the container with a tight-fitting lid, and tape it
                     closed.
                  - Place the shielded container in another sealable
                     container (paint tin is acceptable), pack well with
                     cushioning material, label it "RADIOACTIVE" and
                     include the name and activity of the compound, and the
                     date.
                  - Place this sealed container within an outer transport
                     box with cushioning material to prevent movement
                     within the box. Seal and label the box.
                Measure the surface dose rate and record it. Check that there
                is no contamination on the outer surface.
                Determine whether the package can be classified as an
                "Excepted Package". For this classification:
                  - the activity must be less than that listed in Appendix A,
                     Table 1, Column 1.
                  - The surface contamination must be less than 0.4
                     Bq/cm2.
                  - The surface dose rate must be less than 5 Sv/h (0.5
                     mrem/h).
                If the package does not comply with the "Excepted
                Package" criteria, then the transport must comply with the
                full requirements of Type A packages. If there is doubt as to
                the compliance of a package, seek the advice of the Radiation
                Safety Officer.
                Fill out a "Shipping Document" for each package. See
                Appendix B. A minimum of three copies is required. One is
                for the consignor, one is for the carrier, and one within a stout
                envelope, is to be firmly fixed to the outside of the package
                for inspection in transit. Where more than one carrier is
                involved, it will be necessary for each carrier to receive a
                copy of the Shipping Document.
                Label the package with the name and address of addressee.
                The package must also bear the sender's name and address.
                A list of the documentation and other requirements for the
                transport of radioactive substances by road are contained in
                the “Code of Practice for the Safe Transport of Radioactive
                Material”.

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                             UPDATED: MAY 2010
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     4.6.2.4 Excepted Packages

               The activity must be less than the value listed in column 1 in Table 1
               of Appendix A.
               The radiation level at any point on the external surface must be less
               than 5 µSv/h.
               The removable radioactive contamination on any external surface
               must be less than 0.4 Bq/cm2.
               The package must bear the marking "RADIOACTIVE" on an
               internal surface in such a manner that a warning of the presence of
               radioactive material is visible on opening the package.
               The consignor shall include in the Shipping Document with each
               consignment, the United Nations Number "2910", and for all items
               the proper shipping name and description of the substance or article
               being transported, ie:
                           "RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, EXCEPTED
                           PACKAGE - LIMITED QUANTITY OF MATERIAL"
               shall be included.

     4.6.2.5 Type A Packages – Extra Requirements

           4.6.2.5.1 Instructions to Sender

                       Type A packages must be packaged and labelled in
                       accordance with the Transport Code of Practice.
                       Type A packages must not have an activity greater than A1
                       (for special form material, eg a capsule) or A2 (for other
                       forms - eg liquids and gases) of the radioactive material (see
                       Table 2 in Appendix A).
                       If a package has an activity greater than A1 or A2, (Table 2) it
                       must be packaged as a Type B package. Consult the
                       Radiation Safety Officer in such a case.
                       For sealed sources, the Source Certificate or a copy must
                       accompany the source.
                       Package certification is required. Further information can be
                       obtained from the Statutory Authority.

           4.6.2.5.2 Placards

                       At least three radioactive warning placards which meet the
                       requirements shown in Figure 1 in Appendix A must be
                       available for display on the vehicle.

           4.6.2.5.3 Further Requirements

                    Further requirements and information relevant to Type A
                    packages may be found in the Code of Practice. Some topics are
                    listed below.



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                                      UPDATED: MAY 2010
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                               Topic                        Code of Practice Paragraph
                               Activity Limits.             413
                               Transport Index              526, 530
                               Category                     533, 573
                               Marking                      534, 535, 537
                               Labelling                    541 – 543
                               Placarding                   546, 570
                               Documentation                549 – 553
                               Packaging                    633 – 648, 725
                               Other                        Schedule 9

     4.6.3   Information for Carriers

             4.6.3.1 Vehicle

                        In all vehicles transporting radioactive materials, there must be
                        available at least three Emergency Road Hazard Placards, as shown in
                        Appendix C.
                        Use a vehicle that will allow several metres or more distance between
                        the driver (and assistant(s)) and the packages; the greater the distance
                        the better.
                        Passengers are not to be carried at the same time as any Type A
                        packages containing radioactive material unless otherwise approved
                        by the consignor. However, a licensee responsible for the radioactive
                        material being carried may travel in the vehicle, and if two or more
                        people are required for radionuclide procedures off site, they may all
                        travel in the same vehicle.
                        Carry a mobile phone to be used in the event of an accident or
                        problem.

             4.6.3.2 Checklist for Carriers

                    Carriers must ensure the following:
                    Shipping Document (Also known as Waybill or Consignment Note).
                    Check that a Shipping Document is attached to each package.
                    Check that each Shipping Document clearly shows:
                       Consignor's name and address.
                       Consignee's name and address.
                    Check that the driver has a copy of a Shipping Document for each
                    package.

                    Packages
                    Check that:
                       Correct number of packages are present as per Shipping Document.
                       Packages are in good condition and seals are intact.
                       Labels agree with Shipping Document.




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                                     UPDATED: MAY 2010
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             4.6.3.3 Loading Procedures

                    1. Carry packages securely either:
                          in the boot of a car; or
                          away from the driver of a van or station wagon, and
                          segregated according to the ADG Code.

                    2. The package must be secured in the vehicle. Small, light packages
                       should be stored in a basket while larger, heavy packages should be
                       properly blocked and braced.

                    3. Restrictions on the loading of radioactive substances must be observed
                       in regard to segregation from personnel, photographic film, livestock
                       and any dangerous goods.

                    4. The sum of the transport indexes of packages loaded on the vehicle
                       and into freight containers should not exceed 50 unless the material is
                       Low Specific Activity (LSA) or unless other exclusive use conditions
                       are applicable.

                    5. A road vehicle, carrying a Type A package, must display a placard
                       made as shown in Figure 1 in Appendix A on each of: the two
                       external lateral walls and the external rear wall of the vehicle.. Any
                       placards, which do not relate to the contents, shall be removed.
                       Placards on vehicles should not be obscured.

                    6. The vehicle's load should be securely locked or covered during
                       transport.

             4.6.3.4 Delivery

                       The vehicle must not be left unattended or unlocked except during
                       delivery of packages to the consignee.
                       At each destination deliver the appropriate package together with its
                       consignment form, to the addressee or their agent, both of whom
                       should be a licensee.
                       Packages must not be delivered to some specified “area” or “front
                       desk” and certainly not left at an unattended location.
                       Deliver the final consignment form with the final package of
                       radioactive material to the specified recipient.
                       If appropriate, at the final destination remove the three yellow
                       radiation Warning Placards from the outside of the vehicle and replace
                       them in the Transport Kit.
                       Invoke the instruction given initially by the sender regarding whether
                       the Transport Kit is to be delivered to the final addressee, or is to
                       remain in the vehicle.

     4.6.4   Information for Recipients

                The recipient should be informed in advance of the approximate expected

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        time of arrival of the package and the name of the transporter.
        If the expected time of delivery is during working hours, the recipient should
        make arrangements to receive the package themselves, or to have another
        informed person in their place receive the package.
        If delivery is expected to be outside working hours, then a secure place
        should be arranged to hold the delivered package, and the courier or driver
        should be informed of the location of delivery and the method of access.
        On delivery, the recipient or their nominee should examine the package for
        visible damage.

     4.6.4.1 Normal Receipt

            The recipient or their nominee should receive a copy of the Shipping
            Document and sign for the package and delivery.

     4.6.4.2 Abnormal Receipt

            If the package appears damaged, care should be exercised in handling it.
            The package should be isolated and the driver, and if appropriate the
            vehicle should be checked for contamination before they depart. The
            package should then be checked for contamination, and the Radiation
            Safety Officer should be informed. If necessary, special safety procedures
            should be instituted.

     4.6.4.3 Non-Receipt

            If the package does not arrive as expected, the recipient should contact
            the consignor and/or the driver, to ascertain the reason for non arrival.




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APPENDIX A

                                       ARPANSA RPS2

                                    CODE OF PRACTICE

          FOR THE SAFE TRANSPORT OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, 2001

Packages with activities lower than those given in the “Exempt Activity” column, are exempt
from the Transport Code. In NSW the “Activity” exempt from regulation is the “Prescribed
Activity” listed in brackets in the same column.
1.      Regulations applying to "Excepted Packages"

     The radiation level at any point on the external surface of the package shall not exceed: 5
      Sv/h (0.5 mrem/h).
     The non-fixed radioactive contamination on any external surface of the package shall not
     exceed: 0.4 Bq/cm2.
     For radioactive material of special form (indispersible solid or sealed capsule), other solid
     forms and liquids the activity must not exceed the limits listed for the radionuclides in
     TABLE 1 below.

     The package must bear the marking "RADIOACTIVE" on an internal surface in such a
     manner that a warning of the presence of radioactive material is visible on opening the
     package.
     The documentation shall include the United Nations Number “2910”, and for all items the
     proper shipping name and description ie:
                              "RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, EXCEPTED PACKAGE
                              LIMITED QUANTITY OF MATERIAL"
     shall be included.




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TABLE 1
ACTIVITY LIMITS OF SELECTED RADIOISOTOPES FOR EXCEPTED
PACKAGES

               Exempt      Solids     Liquids                 Exempt       Solids   Liquids
               Activity Special Other                         Activity Specia Other
               (Prescri Form Form                             (Prescri l Form Form
                 bed                                            bed
               Activity                                       Activity
                NSW)                                           NSW)
                (MBq)    (MBq)   (MBq)   (MBq)                 (MBq)    (MBq) (MBq)   (MBq)
 Americium- 0.01         10000    1       0.1    Iron-59       1 (4)    900    900     90
 241        (0.04)
 Bromine-82 1 (4)         400    400      Molybdenu
                                           40         1 (4) 1000 600                   60
                                          m-99
 Caesium-        0.01     2000  600   60 Phosphorus- 0.1 (4) 500   500                 50
 137             (0.4)                    32
 Carbon-14      10 (4) 40000 3000 300 Phosphorus- 100 (0.4) 40000 1000                100
                                          33
 Chromium-      10 (4) 30000 30000 3000 Radium-226 0.01      200    3                  0.3
 51                                                  (0.04)
 Cobalt-57       1 (4)   10000 10000 1000 Samarium-   1 (4) 9000 600                   60
                                          153
 Cobalt-60     0.1 (0.4) 400    400   40 Selenium-75 1 (4) 3000 3000                  300
 Fluorine-18     1 (4)    1000  600   60 Sodium-22 1 (0.4) 500     500                 50
 Gadolinium     10 (4) 10000 9000 900 Sodium-24 0.1 (4) 200        200                 20
 -153
 Gallium-67     1 (4)    7000    3000     300    Strontium-   1 (0.4)   600    600     60
                                                 89
 Gallium-68 0.1 (4)       500    500       50    Strontium-    0.01    300   300       30
                                                 90            (0.4)
 Germanium 0.1 (0.4)      500    500       50    Sulphur-35   100 (4) 40000 3000      300
 -68
 Indium-111 1 (4)        3000    3000     Technetium- 10 (40) 10000
                                          300                                 4000    400
                                          99m
 Iodine-123     10 (4)    6000 3000 300 Thallium-      1 (4) 10000            4000    400
                                          201
 Iodine-125    1 (0.4)   20000 3000 300 Tritium (H- 1000 40000                40000   4000
                                          3)           (40)
 Iodine-131    1 (0.4)    3000  700   70 Xenon-133 0.01 (40) 20000            10000   1000
 Iron-55        1 (4)    40000 40000 4000 Yttrium-90 0.1 (4) 300               300     30

For radionuclides not listed above, contact the Radiation Safety Officer.
Excepted packages may contain any quantity of natural uranium, depleted uranium or natural
thorium, provided that the outer surface of the uranium or thorium is enclosed in an inactive
sheath made of metal or some other substantial material.



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APPENDIX A (cont.)

2.     Regulations applying to Type A Packages

       For radioactive material of special form (indispersible solid or sealed capsule) and all
       other forms the activity must not exceed the limits listed for the radionuclides in TABLE
       2 below:

                                            TABLE 2
     ACTIVITY LIMITS OF SELECTED RADIOISOTOPES FOR TYPE A
                           PACKAGES
                      Special      Other form                            Special       Other
                     form A1           A2                               Form A1       Form A2
                      (GBq)          (GBq)                               (GBq)         (GBq)
Americium-241          10000            1         Molybdenum-99            1000          600
Bromine-82               400           400        Phosphorus-32             500          500
Caesium-137              500           500        Phosphorus-33           40000         1000
Carbon-14              40000          3000        Samarium-153             9000          600
Chromium-51            30000         30000        Selenium-75              3000         3000
Cobalt-57              10000         10000        Sodium-22                 500          500
Fluorine-18             1000           600        Sodium-24                 200          200
Gadolinium-153         10000          9000        Strontium-89              600          600
Gallium-67              7000          3000        Strontium-90              300          300
Gallium-68               500           500        Sulphur-35              40000         3000
Germanium-68             500           500        Technetium-99m          10000         4000
Indium-111              3000          3000        Thallium-201            10000         4000
Iodine-123              6000          3000        Tritium (H-3)           40000        40000
Iodine-125             20000          3000        Xenon-133               20000        10000
Iodine-131              3000           700        Yttrium-90                300          300

For radionuclides not listed above, or for higher activities, contact the Radiation Safety Officer.




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APPENDIX A (cont.)
                            RADIATION WARNING PLACARD
Road vehicles, carrying Type A packages, must display three placards made according to Figure
1 below, on each of the two external lateral walls and the external rear wall of the road vehicle.
Any placards, which do not relate to the contents of the vehicle, shall be removed.
Placards on vehicles should not be obscured.

                                            FIGURE 1




     NOTES.     The number “7” shall not be less than 25 mm high. The background colour of the
                upper half of the placard shall be yellow and of the lower half white, the colour of
                the trefoil and the printing shall be black. The use of the word “RADIOACTIVE”
                in the bottom half is optional to allow the alternative use of this placard to display
                the appropriate United Nations number for the consignment.


     SUPPLY
     These radiation placards may be commercially available from the suppliers listed in
     Appendix C.




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  APPENDIX B
                                   SHIPPING DOCUMENT
                              CLASS 7 RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS
   TWO COMPLETED AND SIGNED COPIES OF THIS DECLARATION MUST BE PROVIDED TO THE
                                    CARRIER

                           Shipping Document
                           This consignment is of radioactive materials




CONSIGNOR (SENDER'S NAME AND ADDRESS):                        NAME OF TRANSPORTING COMPANY




                                                              CONSIGNOR'S REFERENCE No.
CONSIGNEE (RECEIVER'S NAME AND ADDRESS):




       Proper Shipping         Class Or        United       Packing          PACKAGE                 Aggregate Net   Number and
                                                                          CLASSIFICATION
           Name                Division        Nations       Group                                      Quantity       type of
                               (Sub. Risk)     Number                                                 (Bq, gm/ml)     packages
                                                                          Delete classification
                              Classes 1 To 8
                                                                            not applicable



                                                                               Excepted

                                                                                   or

                                                                                Type A




Additional Handling Information.

Emergency contact No. :



This is to certify that the contents of this consignment are fully and accurately            Name:
described above by the proper shipping name, and are classified, packaged,
                                                                                             Date:
marked and labelled and are in all respects in proper condition for transport
according to applicable international and national governmental regulations. I
declare that all of the applicable air transport requirements have been met.                 Signature:




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APPENDIX C                              Road Hazard Placards
Three double sided reflector type, clean placards (portable warning devices) in good order
complying with AS3790* are to be carried in the vehicle and used any time the vehicle is
involved in an accident or becomes immobilised. (Some suppliers are listed at the end of this
Appendix).

* AS3790-1992 Portable Warning signs for motor vehicles
Alerting traffic of traffic hazard
If a road vehicle transporting a placard load of dangerous goods is disabled on a road or street,
or has stopped and constitutes a traffic hazard, other road users must be alerted by:
1) if the battery has not been disconnected to prevent danger, - turning if possible, the hazard or
    main beam lights on and leaving them on while the vehicle is stopped; or - turning the
    parking lights on and leaving them on while the vehicle is stopped; and
2) placing a portable warning device on the ground at right angles to the direction of traffic
    flow in each of the following locations:
    i) one each, not less than 50 metres or more than 150 metres in front of and behind the rear
        of the vehicle; and
    ii) beside the vehicle on the side closer to traffic.

Responsibilities of the driver of a road vehicle in an emergency

1) If a road vehicle transporting dangerous goods is involved in an incident that results in a
   dangerous situation, the driver of the vehicle must:
   i) notify the police or fire brigade of the incident as soon as possible; and
     ii) notify the prime contractor as soon as possible; and
     iii) provide reasonable assistance to an authorised officer or officer of an emergency service,
          as required by the officer.
2) The driver of such a vehicle should also take all safe and practicable steps:
   i) to carry out any emergency procedures recommended in the emergency information; and
     ii) carry out the procedures set out in any emergency plan; and
     iii) if there has been an escape of flammable dangerous goods-to prevent other vehicles,
          other dangerous goods and any source of ignition from coming within 15 metres of the
          driver's vehicle, or, if a greater distance is specified in emergency information relating to
          the flammable dangerous goods, that distance; and
     iv) to warn or cause to be warned any person in the vicinity who may be at risk; and
     v) to prevent or minimise the escape of the dangerous goods and their entry into drains,
        sewers or natural watercourses.




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              Emergency Warning Triangles



APPENDIX C (cont.)
Suppliers of Road Hazard and Radiation Warning Placards

Placards may be purchased from the following suppliers:

Hadfield Sign Co
PO Box 443, Bankstown 2200
Phone: (02) 9796 5222
Fax: (02) 9796 5255

Heng Sheng Reflective Products
Heng Sheng Development Australia,
L2, 696 Military Road,
Mosman, Sydney, NSW 2088
Ph: 02-9960 8715
Fax: 02-9960 8716
E-mail: info@hshdc.com
Web: http://www.hshdc.com

Safetyman Signs Pty Ltd
17 Commercial Rd
Kingsgrove 2208
(02) 9502 2644

Seton Australia
S4 - S6 Regents Park Estate,
391 Park Rd,
Regents Park 2143
Ph: 1800 65 1173
Fax: 1800 67 8796
E-mail: seton_aust@seton.com
Web: http://www.seton.net.au

RSEA
12 Parramatta Road
Lidcombe 2141
Phone: 02 9648 0200
Web: http://www.rsea.com.au

UTC
Unit5/49 Gavenlock Rd
Tuggerah 2259
Phone: 02 4351 7018
Product No. UTSTS11



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APPENDIX D          SUPPLEMENTARY ITEMS INCLUDED IN TRANSPORT KIT



                                  Hospital and University Radiation Safety Officers Group

RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL TRANSPORT KIT
To be read and carried by all road
                  transporters of radioactive materials
            (To be kept in the document holder in the driver’s door
           or some place conspicuous in the driver’s compartment)

              Transport of radioactive materials by public transport
              or taxis or motorcycles is
              NOT PERMITTED

                         Carry packages securely:
                 in boot of car, or
                 away from driver in vans and station wagons, and
                segregated from non-compatible
                Dangerous Goods
Do not leave packages unsecured at ANY time

                 For general radiation safety advice contact
                          Radiation Control Section
                       Environment Protection Authority
                 Department of Environment and Conservation
                   Telephone: 9995 5959 (business hours).

                                In an Emergency,
                            See enclosed Accident procedures
                            contact:  HAZMAT Team
                                      Telephone: 000 (All hours)

 This Kit contains:
       Cover page
       Instructions for Carriers
       Accident Procedures
       Three Road Hazard Placards
       Optional: Three Radiation Warning Placards


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HURSOG TRANSPORT KIT

                     INSTRUCTIONS FOR CARRIERS
All carriers transporting labelled packages of radioactive materials must:

     1. Check that a Shipping Document is attached to each package and that it has been
         completed with details of each package of radioactive material being delivered; its
         destination and name of the addressee.
     2. Check that the driver has a copy of each Shipping Document.
     3. If Type A packages are being transported, use the three yellow Radiation Warning
         Placards in this Kit. Put one placard on each side of the vehicle and one on the rear of the
         vehicle.
     4. Carry packages securely either:
                 in the boot of a car; or
                 away from the driver of a van or station wagon, and
                 segregated according to the ADG Code.
     5. Carry this Kit with you in the vehicle.
     6. Carry a mobile phone to be used in the event of an accident or problem.
     7. At each destination deliver the appropriate package together with its Shipping Document
         to the addressee (who should be a licensee) or to their informed nominee.
     8. At your final destination, if appropriate, remove the three yellow Radiation Warning
         Placards from the outside of the vehicle and replace them in the Kit.
     9. Invoke the instruction given initially by the sender regarding whether the Transport Kit is
         to be delivered to the final addressee, or is to remain in the vehicle.
     10. Passengers are not to be carried at the same time as packages containing radioactive
         material unless otherwise approved by the consignor. However, a licensee responsible
         for the radioactive material being carried may travel in the vehicle, or if two or more
         people are required for radionuclide procedures off site, they may all travel in the same
         vehicle.
     11. The vehicle must not be left unattended or unlocked, except during delivery of packages
         to the consignee.

     Further information on the safe transport of radioactive material is contained in the
     companion document “Guidelines for the Transport of Radioactive Materials”.




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HURSOG TRANSPORT KIT

                           ACCIDENT PROCEDURES
In the event of an accident, DON'T PANIC. The packaging complies with international
standard requirements and is designed to withstand accidents. If the package is not severely
damaged, the radioactive material is not likely to escape. So attend first to the needs of any
injured persons.

A. If a road vehicle transporting radioactive materials is involved in an accident that results in a
   dangerous situation (injury, road hazard, damage to the radioactive package, escape/leakage
   of materials, fire, vehicle immobilised), the driver of the vehicle must:

        Notify Emergency Services “000” (Police, Fire Brigade, Hazmat, Ambulance);
        Notify the Consignor;
        Provide reasonable assistance to Emergency Services personnel.
        After any first aid procedures have been completed on injured persons, keep bystanders
        at least 1 metre away from the vehicle.

     In addition to the above, the procedure in the event of such an accident is as follows:

     1. Leave vehicle (if possible) and assess the injury status of others involved in the accident.
     2. At all times do not become another victim. If in doubt leave further action to emergency
        services personnel.
     3. Assess the integrity of the radioactive packages using minimal contact.
     4. With the results of the assessment in mind it may be necessary to complete the above
        actions of notification – i.e. notify Emergency Services, Institute‟s RSO, and the
        Consignor.
     5. If possible, gain the assistance of passers-by to keep onlookers and other traffic at a safe
        reasonable distance.
     6. Display the triangular Emergency Road Hazard Placards as follows:
                 Two placards at the rear of the vehicle, up to 15 metres away from the vehicle;
        and
                 One placard at the front of the vehicle.
     7. Inform Emergency Services Personnel of any environmental or human hazards;
     8. Wait for and assist Emergency Services Personnel.

B. If there is no risk of the radioactive materials leaking, or the packages are undamaged, then
   the following applies:

     1. If the damage sustained by the vehicle does not have to be reported to the police and the
        vehicle can still be driven, and the driver is uninjured, the driver should deliver the
        package to the addressee, and tell them that the vehicle was involved in a minor accident
        on the way. Give a detailed report to the RSO.
     2. If the vehicle needs to be towed away:
        a. Tell the tow-truck driver if the vehicle is still carrying radioactive material in labelled
            package(s). If so:




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     b. Telephone the SENDER listed on the Shipping Document and advise them of the
         situation, and request the attendance of a radiation physicist or appropriate person. If
         the sender cannot be readily contacted, see (d) below.
     c. Ask the tow truck driver to move the vehicle to clear the roadway and wait for the
         arrival of an appropriate person who will remove the package(s) and check for any
         radioactive contamination.
     d. When the sender cannot be readily contacted, telephone Radiation Control Section of
         the EPA on 9995 5959 (all hours), and tell them:
         i. there has been an accident to a vehicle carrying radioactive material;
        ii. the location of the accident;
       iii. whether anyone has been injured;
       iv. whether the package has been damaged;
        v. that a Radiation Control Officer is needed to remove the packages containing
             radioactive material.
     e. If the Radiation Control Section cannot be contacted, telephone the local police.




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4.7   GUIDELINES FOR THE PROTECTION OF WORKERS FROM THE
      ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION IN SUNLIGHT (Compiled by the Australian
      Safety and Compensation Council – November 2008)

      4.7.1   Introduction

              This guidance note provides practical guidance to employers on the protection
              of workers from the ultraviolet radiation in sunlight.
              The prevention of skin cancer in Australia has been given a high priority
              because:

                  Australia and New Zealand have the highest incidence of skin cancer in
                  the world (Ferlay J, Bray F, Pisani P, Parkin D. GLOBOCAN 2002.
                  Cancer incidence, mortality and prevalence worldwide. IARC CancerBase
                  No. 5, version 2.0. Lyon: IARCPress, 2004)
                  At least 2 in 3 Australians will be diagnosed with skin cancer before the
                  age of 70 (Staples M, Elwood M, Burton R, Williams J, Marks R, Giles G.
                  Non-melanoma skin cancer in Australia: the 2002 national survey and
                  trends since 1985. Medical Journal of Australia 2006; 184: 6-10); and
                  Skin cancer costs the Australian health system around $300 million
                  annually, which is the highest cost of all cancers (Australian Institute of
                  Health and Welfare. Health system expenditures on cancer and other
                  neoplasms in Australia, 2000 – 01. Canberra: AIHW2005).

              4.7.1.1 Sun Exposure

                      Sun exposure is well established as the major cause of skin cancer in
                      Australia. It is the ultraviolet (UV) radiation component of sunlight
                      which is harmful; and the level of UV radiation is not directly related
                      to temperature or brightness of sunlight. This means that harm can
                      still occur on cool or cloudy days during the peak UV periods of the
                      year. Exposure to UV Index levels of 3 or above can contribute to
                      skin cancer. (The UV index is a measure of UV radiation and the
                      higher the index value the greater the potential for damage to skin.
                      Appendix 1 provides more information on solar UV radiation). In
                      addition to skin cancer, solar UV exposure is a major cause of eye
                      damage including photoconjunctivitis and photokeratitis, cataracts
                      and pterygia (see Chapter 4.7.2).

              4.7.1.2 Risk of Developing Skin Cancer

                      Several factors contribute to an increased risk of developing skin
                      cancer. For example:
                         exposure received during childhood
                         participation in outdoor work and leisure activities resulting in
                         increased exposure to solar UV radiation



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                         because of higher solar UV exposures, the closer people live to the
                         equator, the more likely they are to develop skin cancer.
                         Queensland has a higher rate of diagnosed skin cancers than
                         Tasmania
                         solar UV radiation intensity increases with height above sea level
                         solar UV radiation is at its greatest intensity between the hours of
                         10.00 am and 2.00pm, although dangerous levels of UV radiation
                         can still be experienced outside those hours. (Note: These times
                         should be adjusted to 11.00 am and 3.00 pm when there is daylight
                         saving.)
                         the risk of skin cancer is greatest in people with a fair complexion,
                         blue eyes and freckles, who tan poorly and burn easily, but others,
                         for example, individuals who have Dysplastic Naevi Syndrome,
                         are also at risk (see Chapter 2) and
                         there is an increased risk in people who have already had a skin
                         cancer or Keratoses diagnosed.


             4.7.1.3    Skin Type

                        While certain skin types are associated with an increased risk, it is
                        important that everyone should protect their skin from exposure to
                        solar UV radiation, regardless of skin type.

             4.7.1.4    Sunsmart UV Alert

                        The SunSmart UV Alert is a tool that can be used to know when
                        protection from UV radiation is required. The alert is issued
                        whenever the UV Index is forecast to reach 3 or above. At these
                        levels, the World Health Organization recommends the use of sun
                        protection to avoid skin damage and skin cancer. The SunSmart UV
                        Alert can be found on the weather page of most Australian daily
                        newspapers, or on the Bureau of Meteorology website at
                        www.bom.gov.au (search for „UV Alert‟).

             4.7.1.5 Intermitted exposure

                       Even intermittent exposure to solar UV radiation can be harmful.
                       Those who work outdoors part-time are still at risk.

     4.7.2   Adverse Health Effects of Solar Ultraviolet Radiation

             During the peak UV period on a summer day (between 10am and 2pm, or
             11am to 3pm where there is daylight saving), unprotected skin can burn within
             12 minutes. Permanent damage can occur after 120 minutes.

             4.7.2.1 Short Term Exposure


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               Short term exposure to the sun can result in sunburn and injuries to
               the eye.

               4.7.2.1.1 Sunburn

                        The effects of sunburn include reddening of the skin,
                        blistering, swelling and, later, peeling of the skin, generally
                        within 8 to 24 hours. For untanned skin, exposed to the
                        summer sun between 10.00 am and 2.00pm (11.00 am and
                        3.00 pm when there is daylight saving), the effects will be:

                          12 minutes of sun exposure will result in mild sunburn;
                          30 minutes of sun exposure will result in appreciable
                           discomfort;
                          60 minutes of sun exposure will result in peeling and
                           blistering; and
                          120 minutes of sun exposure will result in permanent
                           damage1.

               4.7.2.1.2 Effects on the Eye

                         Exposure to solar UV radiation can cause short term effects
                         such as photoconjunctivitis and photokeratitis.
                         Photoconjunctivitis is an inflammation of the conjunctiva
                         (the mucous membrane covering the anterior portion of the
                         eye). Photokeratitis is an inflammation of the cornea.
                         Symptoms of these complaints include a painful sensation
                         in the eyes, excessive blinking and tears, the sensation of a
                         foreign body in the eyes, difficulty in looking at strong
                         lights, and swelling of the eyes. The effects are apparent
                         within a few hours and usually disappear within two days.
                         Permanent damage is rare.
                         Some industrial chemicals can cause photosensitisation of
                         the eyes, for example, exposure to some coal tar derivatives
                         can damage the outer surface of the eye.

     4.7.2.2    Long Term Exposure

                In the longer term, repeated exposure to the sun can result in
                keratoses, skin cancers, premature skin aging and injuries to the eye.

                4.7.2.2.1 Keratoses

                           Keratoses, sometimes called sunspots, are dry, rough, firm
                           spots on the skin. Like premature ageing, they are
                           indicators of prolonged exposure to solar UV radiation.
                           Keratoses very occasionally develop into cancers.



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     4.7.2.2.2 Skin Cancers

               There are three main types of skin cancers in Australia:

             Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) – This is the most common,
             but least dangerous type of skin cancer. Over half of all
             BCCs occur on the face and neck. BCCs first appear as
             small, round or flattened lumps which are red, pale or
             pearly in colour and may have blood vessels over the
             surface. If untreated, they will continue to spread into
             surrounding tissue, eventually breaking down to form
             ulcers

             Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) – This skin cancer is less
             common, but more dangerous than BCC. Caused by
             continuous exposure to UV radiation, such as occurs in
             outdoor occupations, half of SCCs in men are diagnosed on
             the head and neck, and a quarter are on the arms and
             shoulders. In women, more than a third of SCCs are found
             on the arms and shoulders, and a third on the head and
             neck. This cancer can also occur on the lips, particularly the
             lower lip. SCCs are characterised by scaling and red areas
             that may bleed easily and become ulcerated. Very
             occasionally, SCCs may spread to the lymph nodes; and
             Melanoma – This is the least common, but most dangerous
             skin cancer. This cancer usually starts as a new spot, freckle
             or mole on the skin that changes in colour, thickness or
             shape over months. Melanomas occasionally occur in parts
             of the body other than the skin, such as the eye and mouth.
             Melanomas can be dark brown to black, red or blue-black
             or a combination of colours with an irregular outline or
             shape. Melanomas can also develop in pre-existing moles,
             particularly those which have irregular borders and variable
             shades of black and other colours. People who have many
             moles of this type, as well as individuals with Dysplastic
             Naevi Syndrome (a rare familial condition, presenting as
             numerous brown moles over the body), seem to have a
             higher risk of developing melanoma. Melanomas can
             spread to internal organs and cause death if not detected
             and removed promptly.

     4.7.2.2.3 Effects on the Eye

            Long term effects of prolonged exposure to solar UV
            radiation include damage to the cornea, formation of
            cataracts and pterygia. Cataracts are opacities of the lens of
            the eye. Pterygia are wing-shaped growths of the tissue on
            the outside of the eye. They can grow over the cornea of the
            eye and cause symptoms of mild conjunctivitis.

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                4.7.2.3 Photosensitising Substances

                         Exposure to photosensitising substances can worsen the effects of
                         solar UV radiation. Some examples of photosensitisers are coal tar
                         and several of its by-products, certain dyes, selected plants and fruits
                         and a number of medications.

                         Appendix 2 is a list of substances which are known to cause
                         photosensitisation. Although there are many substances listed, it is
                         rare for an individual to develop photosensitisation.

     4.7.3. Employer and Worker Responsibilities

             4.7.3.1 Employer Responsibilities

             Occupational health and safety legislation in Australia requires employers to
             provide and maintain, as far as is practicable, a working environment that is safe
             and without risks to health. This is the employer's general duty of care.

             4.7.3.2 Employer Responsibilities

             Workers are required to comply with instructions given by their employer for
             reasons of health and safety and take reasonable precautions to protect themselves
             and others at work.
             Workers should report any problems in achieving compliance to their employers.

             4.7.3.3 Consultation

             Employers should consult with workers and/or worker representatives (such as
             health and safety representatives) on matters directly affecting their health and
             safety. In this case it should involve the assessment of exposure to solar UV
             radiation, the development and implementation of safe working procedures, and
             other control measures.

     4.7.4   Developing a UV Protection Program

             4.7.4.1   Risk Assessment

                       Conducting an ultraviolet (UV) risk assessment in the workplace will
                       identify those employees who have a higher risk of exposure to UV
                       radiation and the situations and work systems that have a higher
                       exposure to UV radiation.

                       The employer and/or nominated employee representative can conduct
                       the assessment. Although no specific skills are required to carry out the
                       assessment, it is vital the assessor/s have a sound knowledge of the
                       work environment and processes being assessed.



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               4.7.4.1.1 How to Perform a Risk Assessment
                         Do a 'walk through' inspection to gather information about
                         work areas and to determine the amount of UV radiation
                         employees are exposed to.

                         As solar UV radiation exposure in outdoor environments
                         may vary depending on where the work is performed, an
                         exposure assessment should identify:
                          jobs/tasks, including breaks, which involve solar UV
                          radiation exposure
                          the time of day when the tasks are carried out and the
                          frequency with which the tasks are performed
                          the shade provided by the physical environment in which
                          the work is carried out
                          reflective surfaces, for example, water, reflective building
                          glass, white surfaces such as sand, rock, cement or snow,
                          and unpainted corrugated steel or aluminium roofing, that
                          are part of the environment in which the work is carried out
                          and
                          any photosensitising substances associated with the work.
                         It is also important to note any existing measures in place
                         that influence total UV radiation exposure, including:

                          the current levels and availability of shade during outdoor
                          work or rest breaks
                          the degree of influence an employee has over their work
                          schedule, for example, early starts and
                          the level of protection offered by sun-protective items (such
                          as work clothing and personal protective equipment (PPE))
                          currently provided to outdoor workers.
                         In most cases, a once-only exposure assessment will be
                         sufficient. However, an assessment should also be conducted
                         whenever there are changes in a work procedure which may
                         lead to greater solar UV radiation exposure. A sample
                         exposure checklist is given in Appendix 3.

                         The information obtained from the risk assessment can also
                         be used to develop a risk control plan, as a part of the
                         workplace‟s UV Radiation Protection Policy.

                         Examples of exposure assessment and control reports are
                         given in Appendix 3.

     4.7.4.2   UV Radiation Control Measures



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     Once the level of UV radiation risk in the workplace has been
     identified, control measures can be implemented. It is recommended
     that a combination of control measures is used.

     Employers should ensure that exposures to solar UV radiation in the
     workplace are minimised by implementing a control strategy, where
     practicable, that includes the following control measures;

         the use of natural and/or artificial shade
         administrative and procedural measures and
         personal protection.


     These measures should be implemented together to minimise exposure
     to solar UV radiation.
     Where employees may be exposed to solar UV radiation and
     photosensitisers, exposures to both need to be minimised.

     In many instances, employers can reduce exposure to solar UV
     radiation by making some simple changes to the way that outdoor work
     is done. Examples of these changes are outlined below.

     4.7.4.2.1 Use of Natural and/or Artificial Shade

             Where practicable, shade created by permanent objects such as
             trees, buildings and other structures should be used. In the
             absence of such objects, shade can be created by the use of
             canopies, tents, screens and other portable structures which are
             easy to erect and dismantle.

              It is important to remember that shade will only lessen
             exposure to solar UV radiation. Sunburn can still occur in
             shaded areas, due to the scattering of solar UV radiation by
             clouds and reflection from brightly coloured or shiny surfaces
             such as metal roofing, concrete, sand, water, glass and snow.

             In addition to shade, it is important to note that a high degree
             of attenuation of solar UV radiation can be achieved with
             ordinary window glass; hence there is value in keeping vehicle
             windows up when driving for long periods, provided this does
             not create a secondary hazard in itself.

     4.7.4.2.2 Administrative and Procedural Measures

             Consideration may be given to simple reorganisation of
             outdoor work programs, and to the opportunity to undertake
             alternative tasks when the sun is most intense, that is, between
             10.00 am and 2.00 pm (11.00 am and 3.00 pm when there is



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             daylight saving). The SunSmart UV alert can also be used to
             determine forecast UV levels each day.

     4.7.4.2.3 Personal Protection

             The use of personal protection is an important component in
             the solar UV radiation control strategy.

             It is also important to ensure that the use of personal
             protection itself does not create a secondary hazard to the
             worker. For example, loose clothing worn near outdoor
             machinery, such as a post hole digger/auger, may constitute a
             secondary hazard. Heat stress may also be a secondary hazard
             when wearing some types of protective clothing and
             performing heavy manual labour.

             For best protection, do not rely on personal protective
             equipment (PPE) alone. For example, the use of a hat and
             sunscreen together is preferable to the use of sunscreen alone.

     4.7.4.2.4 Clothing

             Clothing provides one of the most convenient forms of
             protection against UVR but not all garments offer sufficient
             sun protection. All fabrics have some ability to block UVR
             and laboratory testing is performed to determine how effective
             different fabrics are.

             The selection of appropriate clothing must take into account
             both the need to screen out solar UV radiation and the need for
             coolness in hot conditions. The key features to look for when
             selecting clothing are:

                tightness of weave or knit
                permeability of the material to assist the evaporation of
                sweat
                design and
                UPF Rating of 50+.

             The UPF rating indicates how effective a fabric is at blocking
             out solar ultraviolet radiation. UPF ratings range from 15 to 50
             with higher ratings indicating more effective blocking and
             therefore better protection for the wearer of a garment made
             from the fabric. Fabrics that test higher than UPF 50 are rated
             as UPF 50+.

             Long-sleeved shirts with collars worn with long trousers are
             recommended, if practical. Cuffs, ankles and waist bands

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             should be loose to allow air to circulate. Shirts are best worn
             outside trousers to increase ventilation, providing care is taken
             to ensure that this does not place the worker at greater risk of
             injury (see the reference to secondary hazards in Section 4.18).

             The tighter the fabric weave or knit, the less solar UV
             radiation reaches the skin. However, tightly woven fabrics
             provide more protection at the cost of being warmer.
             Impermeable materials, such as some disposable overalls with
             plastic linings, do not allow sweat to evaporate and will
             increase the risk of heat stress in certain circumstances. Cotton
             fabrics, which tend to be tightly woven, usually offer better
             protection than synthetics. In addition, cotton, because it
             assists sweat evaporation, is more comfortable to wear than
             fully synthetic fabrics. Light coloured fabrics are cooler to
             wear because they reflect the heat; however, dark coloured
             fabrics absorb more UV radiation than lighter shades.

     4.7.4.2.5 Hats

             Hats provide shade and the bigger the brim, the greater the
             amount of shade that is provided. Hats with brims of at least 8
             centimetres should be worn to provide adequate shade.
             Legionnaire-style caps, with loose flaps to protect the neck
             and ears, are also effective.

             Where practicable, hard hats and other protective hats, for
             example, bicycle helmets, should be fitted with broad brims.
             Attachable brims and neck flaps are available for this purpose.
             Due to their size, the wearing of wide brimmed hats may cause
             difficulties in some circumstances. In such cases, the safety
             function of the hat should take precedence over protection
             from the sun. Sunscreens and other protective measures should
             be used instead.

             Hats with wide brims will not protect against solar UV
             radiation reflecting from shiny surfaces.

     4.7.4.2.6 Sunscreens

               Sunscreens should be selected in accordance with skin type
               and working conditions. A high SPF broad-spectrum
               sunscreen (that provides protection against UV-B rays and
               some UV-A rays) is recommended. A water-resistant
               sunscreen may be necessary for some types of work. Sun
               protection factors (SPFs) are based on Australian Standard
               AS 2604

               Sunscreen Products-Evaluation and Classification. The
               higher the SPF, up to a value of 30+, the greater the

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     protection. However, the SPF value only relates to the
     reddening of the skin caused by one part of the UV spectrum
     (UV-B). Therefore, it is a wise precaution to use a high SPF
     broad-spectrum, water resistant sunscreen that will block a
     greater range of the UV spectrum, not just the part that
     causes this effect.

     No sunscreen provides complete protection. For example, an
     SPF of 30+ filters out 96 per cent of solar UV radiation.
     Therefore, hats, clothing and other protective measures
     should always be used in addition to a sunscreen.

     Sunscreens are best applied to dry skin at least 20 minutes
     before the start of any outdoor work. Sunscreens are more
     effective if they are wiped on, rather then being rubbed into
     the skin. Reapply sunscreens every two hours. In hot
     conditions, when sweating is profuse, reapply the sunscreen
     more frequently as the sweat will wash off the previous
     application. The effectiveness of any sunscreen depends on
     its correct use and storage. Too much sunscreen can reduce
     sweating and cause heat stress, and too little may not provide
     protection. Always read the instructions on the label to
     ensure correct use.

     In dusty conditions, such as where cement dust may be
     present, a sunscreen with an alcohol or vanishing cream base
     should be used. The use of an oil based sunscreen may
     increase the risk of dust adhering to the skin, thereby giving
     rise to a secondary hazard if the dust is of a hazardous nature.
     The Material Safety Data Sheet for the relevant substance
     should be referred to (if available) to determine if there is a
     health risk.

     The possibility of hypersensitivity and allergies to sunscreens
     cannot be excluded, and any history of individual reaction or
     preference for a particular type of sunscreen should be taken
     into account. Rather than not wearing a sunscreen under such
     circumstances, another sunscreen type should be used.

     Adequate supplies of sunscreen should be maintained at any
     outdoor work location. Bracket-mounted pump-packs of
     sunscreen are available from some suppliers, and can be
     mounted in change rooms, near time clocks or in vehicles.
     Simple preparations, such as zinc cream (SPF 30+, broad
     spectrum, water resistant sunscreen) will provide economical
     protection to essential areas such as the nose, lips and top of
     the ears. Zinc cream must be applied thickly but cannot be
     used on large areas of the body because it prevents sweat
     evaporation in hot conditions.


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               4.7.4.2.7 Lip Protection

                         Lip cancer from prolonged exposure to sunlight is common.
                         This is because lips do not contain melanin which provides
                         some natural protection. Lips should be protected with
                         sunscreen or a lipstick which has an SPF 30+ rating.

               4.7.4.2.8 Eye Protection

                         Eye protection from solar UV radiation is recommended,
                         particularly in highly reflective environments. Where eye
                         protection is required, two issues should be considered -
                         safety and health.

                         Where safety is the over-riding concern, glasses which
                         comply with Australian Standard AS 1337 Eye Protectors
                         for Industrial Applications are recommended. This standard
                         includes tinted and untinted protectors which afford UV
                         protection.

                         Where health is the over-riding concern (for example
                         protection from cataract formation), sunglasses designated as
                         specific purpose type (b) in Australian Standard AS 1067.1
                         Sunglasses and Fashion Spectacles - Part 1: Safety
                         Requirements may be worn.

     4.7.4.3   Education and Training Programs

               Employers should provide training where the need is identified in an
               (exposure) risk assessment of the type mentioned in Section 4.7.4.1.
               This will help employees understand the control measures being
               introduced and also what is expected of them throughout the
               workplace. Having identified this need, the training program should be
               on-going, as necessary, and be included in the induction of new
               employees (including contractors). The target groups requiring training
               are those people responsible for organising outdoor work and those
               people receiving prolonged exposure to solar UV radiation.

               The objectives of training and education should include:

                   increasing recognition of the harmful health effects of solar UV
                   radiation
                   the promotion of safe working procedures consistent with the
                   control strategy outlined in this guidance note and
                   the provision of information on self-screening for skin cancer.

               4.7.4.3.1 Content



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                       The content of any training program should be developed in
                       consultation with employees and/or health and safety
                       representatives, and tailored to the specific needs of the
                       employees being trained, in the language(s) appropriate to the
                       workplace, and to the environmental conditions identified.

                       Cancer Councils in each State or Territory are an excellent
                       source of simple but effective education and training packages
                       on this issue.

                       Topics to be dealt with in such a training program should
                       include:
                          the nature of solar UV radiation, including seasonal
                          changes, and the daily pattern of intensity
                          the effects of solar UV radiation, with particular reference
                          to the risk factors associated with the development of skin
                          cancer
                          the control strategy to be utilised in the work activity
                          self-screening for skin cancer and
                          protection from photosensitising substances, where
                          applicable.

               4.7.4.3.2 Workplace Education Program

                       Support services (including workplace education programs)
                       are available from state and territory cancer councils.

               4.7.4.3.3 Online Training Courses

                       Online training courses are available and are an effective, cost
                       efficient method of training for employees. Refer to your state
                       or territory cancer council for further information.

     4.7.4.4   Developing a Policy

               (Refer to appendix 3 for a sample workplace policy)

               A UV radiation policy can be used in the workplace to record why and
               how the UV radiation risk will be managed by the workplace. The
               policy should be developed in consultation with employees and/or
               health and safety representatives and should include:

                   rationale and identification of the UV radiation hazard
                   details of daily measures employed to minimize the hazard
                   details of education requirements for management, workers and
                   other staff


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                                           an outline of who is responsible for implementation and
                                           monitoring
                                           details of review processes, and
                                           periodic UV radiation risk assessments to ensure your policy is
                                           current and up to date.

                     4.7.4.5         Monitor Compliance and Review the Program

                                     Regular monitoring of the effectiveness of workplace UV radiation
                                     protection programs is important, especially if the nature of the work
                                     has changed. The program can be reviewed by:

                                           asking staff for comments on concerns or issues they have with the
                                           new policy and/or practices
                                           asking staff whether there have been any difficulties experienced
                                           while implementing UV radiation control measures
                                           repeating the UV risk assessment process to provide information
                                           on changes in UV radiation risk levels and whether control
                                           measures are working
                                           examining information compiled during monitoring such as the
                                           degree of compliance with UV radiation control measures, and
                                           examining current sunburn rates and skin-related compensation
                                           claims and comparing to rates prior to introducing the program.

          4.7.5       Health Surveillance

                     In most cases, health surveillance for skin cancer involves self-screening, that is,
                     people examining their bodies themselves. However, employers may wish to
                     provide a screening programme for those employees exposed to UV radiation,
                     even if the exposure occurs on an intermittent or part-time basis. High risk
                     individuals1 should be examined by their general practitioner every 12 months.

                     Employers should ensure that workers are provided with information on self-
                     screening for skin cancers. Pamphlets which describe what to look for are
                     available from the State or Territory Cancer Councils. These Cancer Councils are
                     listed in Appendix 5. Further information on „self-examination‟ is provided at
                     Section 5.7.

                     It is important for people to regularly check all parts of the body, in particular, the
                     areas most often exposed to the sun, that is, the ears, face, neck, shoulders, arms
                     and hands. If any abnormalities are detected that may indicate the presence of a
                     skin cancer or sunspots (keratoses), a medical practitioner should be consulted
                     promptly.


1
  Individuals at high risk of melanoma are those with multiple atypical naevi (moles) who have a history of melanoma in themselves or in one or
more first degree relatives. Individuals who are at high risk of non melanoma skin cancer are those with a fair complexion, a tendency to burn
rather than tan, have freckles, light eye colour, light or red hair colour and previous non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC)


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             Early detection of skin cancer is important in ensuring effective treatment of the
             condition.

             Employers should ensure that workers are provided with information on the
             hazards of solar UV radiation and its effects on health, for example, by making
             this guidance note available.

             The following information is an extract on „self-examination‟ taken from the
             SunSmart Information Sheet on Early Detection and Treatment of Skin Cancer.

             4.7.5.1    Self-examination

                       All adults should check their skin for changes at least every three
                       months. Unlike many other cancers, skin cancer is often visible, making
                       it easier to detect in the early stages. Early detection is crucial if skin
                       cancer is to be cured.

                       Use a hand-held mirror to check the skin on your back and the back of
                       your neck, or ask someone else to have a look for you. Don‟t forget to
                       check your armpits, inner legs, ears, eyelids, hands and feet. Use a comb
                       to move sections of hair aside and inspect your scalp.

                       The A.B.C.D of early detection – what to look for
                       A: Asymmetry – One half of the spot doesn‟t match the other
                       B: Border – The edges are irregular, ragged, notched, or blurred
                       C: Colour – The colour is not the same all over and may include shades
                       of brown or black, red, white or blue.
                       D: Diameter – The spot is larger than 6mm across (about ¼ inch) or is
                       growing larger.

                       Also be aware of any mole or freckle which:

                           changes over a period of months
                           grows in size
                           changes shape
                           becomes mottled in colour
                           has a persistent itch.
                       Photographs of any suspicious areas can be useful to record any changes.
                       People worried about changes that might indicate skin cancer should talk
                       to their doctor.

     4.7.6   Further Reading

             Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency, Radiation Protection
             Standard – Occupational Exposure to Ultraviolet Radiation, Radiation Protection
             Series No 12.



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     Adams, R. M., Occupational Skin Disease, Grune and Stratton, New York, 1983.

     Borland, R. M., Hocking, B., Godbin, G.A., Gibbs and Hill, D. J., `The Impact of
     a Skin Cancer Control Education Package for Outdoor Workers', Medical Journal
     of Australia, vol. 154, pp. 686-8, 1991.

     Emmett, E.A., Stetzer, L., and Taphorn, B., `Phototoxic Keratoconjunctivitis
     From Coal-Tar Pitch Volatiles', Science, vol. 198, pp. 841-2, 1977.

     Giles, G.G., Marks, R. and Foley, P., `Incidence of Non-melanocytic Skin Cancer
     Treated in Australia', British Medical Journal, vol. 296, pp. 13-7, 1988.

     Groves, G.A., `Sunburn and its Prevention', Australian Journal of Dermatology,
     vol. 21, pp.115-41, 1980.

     Jensen, J., Noy, S. and Marks, R., Occupational Skin Cancer: Guidelines for
     Reducing Exposure to Ultraviolet Radiation in the Workplace, Cancer Council of
     Victoria/Association of Draughting, Supervisory and Technical Employees
     (Victorian Branch), Melbourne, 1988.

     Lane-Brown, M. M., `Problem of Workers Chronically Exposed to Sunlight',
     Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, vol.2,
     no. 4, pp. 281-8.
     Marks, R., Jolley, D., Lectsas, S., and Foley, P., `The Role of Childhood
     Exposure to Sunlight in the Development of Solar Keratoses and Non-
     melanocytic Skin Cancer', Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 152, pp. 62-6, 1990.
     Marks, R. and Selwood, T.S., `Solar Keratoses: The Association With Erythemal
     Ultraviolet Radiation in Australia', Cancer, vol. 56, pp. 2332-6, 1985.

     National Health and Medical Research Council, Occupational Standard for
     Exposure to Ultraviolet Radiation (1989), Australian Government Publishing
     Service, Canberra, 1989.

     Noy, S., Cardiff, D., Vivian, S. and Setchell, G., A Comprehensive Guide to
     Becoming a Sunsmart Council, Cancer Council of Victoria, Melbourne, 1990.

     Standards Australia, AS 1067.1 Sunglasses and Fashion Spectacles - Part 1:
     SafetyRequirements, Sydney.
     ---AS 1337 Eye Protectors for Industrial Applications, Sydney.
     ---AS 2604 Sunscreen Products - Evaluation and Classification, Sydney.

     World Health Organization, Ultraviolet Radiation, Environmental Health Criteria
     14, World Health Organization, Geneva, 1979.




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Appendix 1           CHARACTERISTICS OF SOLAR ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION

A1.1 Ultraviolet radiation is a component of the electromagnetic radiation (EMR) spectrum
emitted by the sun.
A1.2 All forms of EMR are characterised by wavelength. The unit of measurement of
wavelength for UV radiation is the nanometre (nm) which is 1,000,000,000th of a metre.
A1.3 The UV radiation range is traditionally divided into four sub-divisions:
       UV-A 315-400 nm
       UV-B 280-315 nm
       UV-C 200-280 nm and
       Vacuum UV 100-200 nm.
A1.4 Wavelengths in the vacuum UV and UV-C ranges do not reach the Earth through the
atmosphere from the Sun. Sunlight contains more UV-A than UV-B, but UV-B is much more
active in causing skin damage. Broad-spectrum sunscreens are effective against UV-B rays and
at least part of the UV-A spectrum.
A1.5 The factors which affect the intensity of solar UV radiation (particularly of UV-B and, to a
lesser extent, UV-A) are:
         time of day
       cloud cover
       season of the year
       proximity to the equator
       stratospheric ozone concentration
       altitude
       extent of reflection and
       extent of shade.
A1.6 Stratospheric ozone depletion is now recognised as a major future determinant of solar UV
radiation at ground level. The World Health Organization has stated that a decrease in
stratospheric ozone by 1 per cent would lead to an increase in the incidence of non-melanoma
skin cancers by 3 per cent. An ozone depletion of 5 per cent would lead to an increase of
incidence by 16 per cent. Such depletion, if it occurs, is most likely to particularly affect
Tasmania and southern parts of the Australian continent.
A1.7 Solar UV radiation is likely to be at its greatest intensity between the hours of 10.00am and
2.00 pm (adjusted to 11.00 am and 3.00 pm for daylight saving) because the sun is highest in the
sky between these times. On sunny days, a useful rule of thumb is to avoid direct (unprotected)
exposure when your shadow is shorter than yourself. Cloud cover will reduce the intensity of
solar UV radiation, however, more solar UV radiation may be transmitted than is expected from
the apparent density of the cloud, and sunburn can still occur on a cloudy day.
A1.8 On average, over summer the peak intensity of solar UV radiation is at 12.00 noon (1pm
where daylight savings is in effect). Between the hours of 10.00 am and 2.00 pm (11am and
3pm), two hours before and two hours after the peak intensity, approximately 65 per cent of the
total solar UV radiation responsible for skin cancer is received.



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A1.9 This is why it is recommended that people should particularly avoid direct exposure to
sunlight between the hours of 10.00 am and 2.00 pm (11am and 3pm during daylight savings).
This general approach should apply throughout Australia.
A1.10 During the winter months, the sun is lower in the sky and the amount of solar UV
radiation received in Australia is less than that received during summer. However, the
preventive strategies given in Chapter 4 still need to be applied during this time whenever the
UV Index reaches 3 or above, which can be year round in the tropical north of Australia. The
SunSmart UV Alert is issued when the UV Index is predicted to reach 3 or above, and
preventive strategies should be employed. The UV Index is a simple and informative way of
describing the daily solar UV radiation intensity. The UV Alert is issued by the Bureau of
Meteorology and indicates when the UV index is forecast to reach 3 or above and shows the
period of the day that sun protection is required. When the UV index is 3 or above, it can
damage your skin and lead to skin cancer. Between 10 am and 2.00 pm (11.00 and 3.00 pm
during daylight savings) the UV index is usually in the High (6-7) range or above.
A1.11 The intensity of solar UV radiation increases with height above sea level. For example,
workers in the Australian Capital Territory and Southern Highlands of New South Wales may be
exposed to higher solar UV radiation levels than those received by workers in some parts of
Queensland. Some natural surfaces, such as fresh snow, are highly reflective of solar UV
radiation. Exposures of Australian ski-field workers to solar UV radiation in winter can be just
as intense as summer exposures at sea level. Other natural surfaces which are reflective include
sand, rock, snow and water. There is also major reflection from other surfaces such as metallic
roofing and concrete.
A1.12 While most of the heat radiation of the Sun comes directly from the Sun, half to two
thirds of solar UV radiation is scattered from the sky. Substantial solar UV radiation exposure is
therefore possible even when direct sun rays are shaded.
A1.13 Solar UV radiation levels are generally low indoors. People who work near windows will
be exposed to solar UV radiation, the level of which will depend on the direction the window is
facing, the type of glass in it, shading from nearby objects and whether the window is open or
shut. Ordinary window glass effectively blocks out all UV-B and should therefore offer some
protection against skin cancers.
A1.14 Clear car glass has a protection factor of about 13, which is equivalent to a good
sunscreen, while some window tints, for example, film tinting for car windows, have protection
factors of 500.




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Appendix 2          SOME SUBSTANCES WHICH CAUSE PHOTOSENSITIVITY

A2.1 Photosensitivity is an abnormally high reactivity in the skin or eyes to UV radiation or
natural sunlight. It may be induced by ingestion, inhalation or skin contact with certain
substances known as photosensitisers. Symptoms will vary with the amount of UV radiation,
type and amount of photosensitiser, skin type, and age and sex of the person exposed.

INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS
A2.2 Photosensitisation of the skin and eyes can be caused by exposure to specific industrial
chemicals. The skin can be affected by dermal exposure or inhalation. The eyes can be affected
by volatile fumes. In certain occupations, the risk from exposure to particular photosensitising
chemicals and solar UV radiation is severe. For example, exposure to tar and sunlight can cause
precancerous and cancerous skin lesions. Exposure to coal tar fumes can cause simultaneous
inflammation of the conjunctiva and cornea.
A2.3 The industrial chemicals listed below have been identified as photosensitisers following
dermal exposure2:

Dyes                                             Coal Tar and Derivatives
acridine                                         anthracene
bromofluorescein                                 phenanthrene
eosin                                            pitch
erythrocin                                       creosote
fluorescein                                      Chlorinated Hydrocarbons
methylene blue                                   chlorobenzols
rhodamine                                        diphenyls
rose bengal                                      triphenyls




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DRUGS
A2.4 Ingestion or topical application of particular medications may cause photosensitivity in
some individuals. Photosensitivity may occur in every person, is usually dose related and may
not happen the first time the drug is taken. It should be stressed that administration of the
medication should not stop until medical advice has been sought. Avoiding exposure to direct
sunlight will control the photosensitivity in the meantime. Consult a doctor or pharmacist about
the availability of alternative medications.
A2.5 The following drugs have been identified as photosensitisers from either occupational
exposure and/or therapeutic administration2,3:

Drug                       Exposure                Drug                       Exposure
                           Route                                              Route
sulphonamides              oral                    diethylstilbestrol         oral
p-aminobenzoic acid        oral                    estrogens                  oral
and esters
sulfonlyureas              oral                    triethylenemelamine        oral
chlorothiazides            oral                    quinine                    oral
chlorosalicylanildes       oral                    riboflavin                 oral
griseofulvin               oral                    estrone                    dermal
phenothiazines             oral                    nalidixic acid             dermal
demethylchlor-             oral                    naproxen                   dermal
tetracycline
Diphenhydramine            oral                    fluorouracil               dermal
hydrochloride
(Benadryl)
promethazine               oral                    furocoumarins              oral
(Phenergan)
tetracyclines              oral                    thiazides and related      oral
                                                   sulphonamide
                                                   diuretics




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PLANTS
A2.6 The following plants found in Australia are known to cause photosensitivity through skin
contact with the plant or its juices2,3. Gardeners, people in the food processing industry,
surveyors, construction workers, horticulturalists, florists, and agricultural and forestry workers
are among the occupational groups most likely to be exposed to these plants. Oil-based
sunscreens provide greater protection against plant-related photosensitivity than water-based
sunscreens as the oil-based sunscreens will assist in providing a barrier to plant juices.

Common Name          Botanical Name                 Common Name           Botanical Name
agrimony             Agrimonia eupatoria            giant hogweed         Heracleum species
                                                    varities
bergamot             Citrus bergamia                goosefoot             Chenopodium species
bind weed            Convolvulus arvensis           Indian mustard        Brassica juncea
bishop's weed        Ammi majus                     lichen species        ------
buttercup            Ranunculus species             lemon                 Citrus limon
carrot               Daucus carota                  lime                  Citrus aurantifolia
celery               Apium graveolens               milfoil, yarrow       Achillea millefolium
citron               Citrus medica                  parsnip               Pastinaca sativa
chrysanthemum        chrysanthemum species          St. John's wort       Hypericum
                                                                          perforatum
dill                 Anethum graveolens             Scurfy-pea,bavchi     Psoralea corylifolia
fat hen              Chenopodium album              seville orange        Citrus aurantium
fennel               Foeniculum vulgare             stinking mayweed,     Anthemis cotula
                                                    corn chamomile
fig                  Ficus carica




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MISCELLANEOUS
A2.7 Some oils and fragrances used in cosmetics and other products, and, very occasionally,
sunscreen additives, have been identified as possible photosensitisers following dermal
exposure2:

Oils and Fragrances                 Sunscreen Additives
angelica root oil                   digalloyl trioleate
bergamot oil                        6-methylcoumarin
cumin oil                           p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA)
lemon oil                           PABA derivatives
lime oil
orange oil bitter
rue oil
cedarwood oil
lavender oil
neroli oil
orange peel oil
sandalwood oil
musk ambrette




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Appendix 3          A SAMPLE SUN PROTECTION POLICY FOR WORKPLACES

This sample sun protection policy is intended as a guide only. Organisations should use aspects
to tailor a policy that suits the needs and practicalities of their own organisation.

(Organisation Name) sun protection policy

Background
Australia and New Zealand have the highest rates of skin cancer in the world. Despite being an
almost entirely preventable disease it continues to affect at least two in every three Australians
by the age of 70. Of all new cancers diagnosed in Australia each year, 80% are skin cancers.
Employees who work outdoors for all or part of the day have a higher than average risk of skin
cancer. This is because ultraviolet radiation in sunlight or „solar UVR‟ is a known carcinogen.
All skin types can be damaged by exposure to solar UVR. Damage is permanent and irreversible
and increases with each exposure.
(Organisation Name) has an obligation to provide a working environment that is safe and
without risks to health. This obligation includes taking proper steps to reduce the known health
risks associated with exposure to solar UVR for outdoor workers.

Aims
This policy aims to eliminate, and where not practicable, reduce worker exposure to solar UVR
by implementing appropriate sun protection control measures.

Our commitment
(Organisation Name) will conduct a risk assessment in consultation with health and safety
representatives and employees to identify employees who have a high risk of exposure to solar
UVR, and work situations where exposure to solar UVR occurs.
(Organisation Name) will reduce employees‟ exposure to solar UVR by requiring the use of sun
protection control measures by outdoor workers when the UV Index is 3 and above, and at all
times when working in alpine regions or near highly reflective surfaces.
(Organisation Name) recognises that a combination of sun protection control measures, which
includes engineering and administrative controls, personal protective equipment and clothing,
provides the best protection to employees from exposure to solar UVR.
(Organisation Name) recognises that the SunSmart UV Alert is issued whenever the UV Index is
forecast to reach 3 and above, and will use the time period displayed to inform employees when
it is necessary to use sun protection control measures while working outdoors.
(Organisation Name) recognises that supervision of outdoor workers and monitoring of the use
of sun protection control measures is required to ensure compliance.
(Organisation Name) recognises that standard company grievance procedures will be initiated
where an employee fails to comply with sun protective control measures.
(Organisation Name) will ensure injury reporting procedures are followed when an incident of
sunburn or excessive exposure to solar UVR occurs in the workplace.

Management will:
     provide shaded areas or temporary shade where possible
       encourage workers to move jobs where possible to shaded areas



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       consider applying window tinting to work vehicles
       modify reflective surfaces where possible
       identify and minimise contact with photosensitising substances
       provide indoor areas or shaded outdoor areas for rest/meal breaks
       schedule outdoor work tasks to occur when levels of solar UVR are less intense, such as
       earlier in the morning or later in the afternoon
       schedule indoor/shaded work tasks to occur when levels of solar UVR are strongest, such
       as the middle part of the day
       encourage employees to rotate between indoor/shaded and outdoor tasks to avoid
       exposing any one individual to solar UVR for long periods of time
       provide daily access to the SunSmart UV Alert
       provide and ensure use of appropriate sun protective PPE in line with SunSmart
       guidelines including:
       -sun protective work clothing
       -sun protective hats
       -sunglasses
       -sunscreen
       provide training to employees to enable them to work safely in the sun
       ensure training is provided as part of induction for new employees
       ensure employees are provided with information to effectively examine their own skin
       ensure managers and supervisors act as positive role models
       adopt sun protection practices during all company social events and
       promote the use of sun protection measures „off the job‟.
Employees will:
     cooperate with all measures introduced by management to minimise the risks associated
     with exposure to solar UVR
       comply with instructions and advice in regards to the use of sun protection control
       measures
       participate in sun protection education programs
       act as positive role models and
Review
This policy will be reviewed on a regular basis, or at least every two years.
Name (please print):
Position:
Signature:
Date:
Date of next policy
review:


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                                         UPDATED: MAY 2010
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SOLAR ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION EXPOSURE CHECKLIST

Please print details of the location, task performed, and the length of time in hours, in the boxes
below.

Date
Site location
Task description
Hours per day outdoors

Time of Day
Indicate the time of day during which exposure occurs by placing a tick in the corresponding
box. If the exposure varies throughout the day, please write further details in the box provided.
Before 10 am       □ YES       □ NO                12 – 2 pm       □ YES        □ NO
10 am – 12 pm      □ YES       □ NO                After 2 pm      □ YES        □ NO

Variable

Shade
In the boxes provided below, please indicate the type (such as buildings or trees) and extent
(such as sparse or plentiful) of available shade.
Type
Extent

Reflective Surfaces
If reflective surfaces are present in your work environment, please identify them from the
selection given below. `Other' includes surfaces such as snow.
Concrete            □ YES       □ NO                Sand          □ YES        □ NO
Glass               □ YES       □ NO                Other         □ YES        □ NO

If OTHER, specify

Photosensitising Substances
Are photosensitising substances present?            □ YES           □ NO
If YES, specify




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Appendix 4          STATE AND TERRITORY CANCER COUNCILS

A5.1 Information and advice about skin cancer and sun protection is available from:
Cancer Council Australia
www.cancer.org.au/cancersmartlifestyle/SunSmart/Sunprotectionintheworkplace.htm

Cancer Council Victoria                         Cancer Foundation Western Australia
1 Rathdowne Street                              46 Ventnor Avenue
CARLTON VIC 3053                                WEST PERTH WA 6005
Tel: (03) 9635 5000                             Tel: (08) 9212 4333
Email: enquiries@cancervic.org.au               Email: inquiries@cancerwa.asn.au
http://www.cancervic.org.au/                    www.cancerwa.asn.au

Cancer Council New South Wales                  Cancer Council Tasmania
153 Dowling Street                              180-184 Collins Street
Woolloomooloo                                   HOBART TAS 7000
SYDNEY NSW 2011                                 Tel: (03) 6233 2030
Tel: (02) 9334 1900                             Email: infotas@cancer.org.au
Email: feedback@nswcc.org.au                    www.cancertas.org.au
www.cancercouncil.com.au/sunsmart
                                                Cancer Council Northern Territory
Cancer Council Queensland                       Unit 2 Casi House
553 Gregory Terrace                             Vanderlin Drive
FORTITUDE VALLEY QLD 4006                       CASUARINA NT 0810
Tel: (07) 3258 2200                             Tel: (08) 8927 4888
Email: info@cancerqld.org.au                    Email: admin@cancernt.org.au
www.cancerqld.org.au/                           www.cancercouncilnt.com.au/

Cancer Council South Australia                  Cancer Council Australian Capital
                                                Territory
202 Greenhill Road                              Building 44
EASTWOOD SA 5063                                5 Richmond Avenue
Tel: (08) 8291 4111                             FAIRBAIRN ACT 2609
Email: cancersa@cancersa.org.au                 Tel: (02) 6257 9999
www.cancersa.org.au                             Email: reception@actcancer.org.au
                                                www.actcancer.org/




                                    Radiation Safety Manual

								
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