Transportation Progress Report The State of Washington's by veb95503


Office of Financial Management

Transportation Progress Report:
The State of Washington’s Transportation System

Washington State Transportation Goals, Objectives and
 Performance Measures

  2008 Biennial Report
  (Published February 2009)
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Table of Contents
      Message from the Office of Financial Management                               1
      Washington State Transportation System Overview                               2
      Purpose of Transportation Progress Reports                                    3
      Statewide Transportation Goals, Objectives and Performance Measures –
        Summary of Progress                                                         4
      Performance Measures by Washington Transportation Goal
                       ■     Safety                                                 8
                       ■     Preservation                                           10
                       ■     Mobility                                               15
                       ■     Environment                                            27
                       ■     Stewardship                                            30
      Appendix (Key Terms, Agencies and References)                                 32

RCW 47.01.071(5) requires the Office of Financial Management to submit a report on state transportation
agencies’ progress toward the attainment of the state transportation policy goals in 2008, and biennially
thereafter. This report fulfills that requirement.

The report was developed by the Office of Financial Management’s Budget Division with assistance and
input from many agencies, including the Washington State Department of Transportation Strategic
Assessment Office, the Governor’s Policy Office, Senate and House Transportation committee staff, and the
following transportation-related agencies:

 County Road Administration Board                       Transportation Improvement Board
 Department of Ecology                                  Washington Public Ports Association
 Department of Licensing                                Washington State Department of Transportation
 Freight Mobility Strategic Investment Board            Washington State Patrol
 Metropolitan and regional transportation planning      Washington State Transportation Commission
   organizations                                        Washington Traffic Safety Commission
 Ports of Seattle, Tacoma and Vancouver
 Puget Sound Regional Council
Message from the Office of Financial Management
Dear Governor, Legislators and Interested Readers,

Washington’s economy and quality of life depend on a transportation system that functions well. To promote a
high-functioning system, the 2007 Legislature established five overarching goals in the areas of safety,
mobility/congestion, preservation, environment and stewardship. Attaining these demands requires attention at
the state, regional and local levels. During the past year, many state agencies and a number of other
transportation partners have realigned their planning, reporting and decision making to be consistent with the
five transportation goals.

I am pleased to submit this 2008 Biennial Progress Report on the state’s transportation system to the Governor
and 2009 Legislature. The report relies heavily on data, much of which is tied to the Washington State
Department of Transportation and state-owned or -operated components of the transportation system. This is
not a report card on individual agencies, but a report on the state of the transportation system. Over time, we
will add data from other transportation partners, including transit, regional, tribal and local governments.

The trends reflect both good news and challenges. The good news is:
        • The number and rate of traffic fatalities continue to decrease.
        • Most state highways are in good or fair condition.
        • Most state and local bridges are in good or fair condition.
        • Response times for major highway incidents continue to decrease.
        • Ferry on-time performance is outstanding.
        • Passenger rail performance is improving.
        • The rates of growth for key indicators of congestion are beginning to level off.

We also have challenges ahead:
       • The demands on our transportation system are growing as the population continues to increase.
       • Transportation is the largest contributor to global warming.
       • The global economy has been causing large, unexpected increases in construction costs, affecting our
           ability to afford the preservation of our transportation assets.
       • Given these challenges, and the data available, we have identified a number of areas of concern,
           including preservation and replacement of ferry vessels, preservation of small city roads, replacement
           of concrete highways, replacement of major bridges, continued congestion, delivery of capital
           projects and implementation of new stormwater rules.

We look forward to continuing to work with the Legislature; federal, regional, tribal and local governments; and
freight, ports, transit and other transportation partners as we continue to report on the state’s progress toward the
transportation goals.


Victor A. Moore
Director, Office of Financial Management

Washington State Transportation System Overview

    Washington’s Transportation System:
                                                                                          Key Facts
          Is a network to move people and
           products.                                           On the ground
                                                                 • 5 million licensed drivers
                                                                 • 4 million registered passenger vehicles
          Is under increasing pressure as population            • 6.6 million registered total vehicles
           and employment grow. Our population                   • 56 billion vehicle miles traveled per year
           has increased 50 percent since 1980, totaling         • 531 gallons of fuel consumed per vehicle per year
           6.6 million, including 3.2 million employed.            on average
                                                                 • 17 miles per gallon on average per vehicle
                                                                 • 9,600 miles per vehicle per year on average
                                                                 • 18,389 state highway lane miles (2006)
                                                                 • 80,777 county road lane miles (2006)
                                                                 • 35,548 city road lane miles (2006)
                                                                 • 44 percent of traffic on county roads and city streets
                                                                 • 56 percent of traffic on state highways
                                                                 • 1.2 million miles of roads snowplowed per year
                                                                 • 8,690 bridges statewide
                                                                 • 233 miles of HOV freeway lanes complete
                                                                 • 357 park-and-ride and park-and-pool lots
                                                                 • 2,787 vanpools
                                                                 • 22,700 vanpool riders daily
                                                                 • 28 transit systems
                                                                 • 192 million transit passenger trips
                                                                 • 457,000 Amtrak Cascades passengers
                                                                 • 79.7 million tons of freight carried by rail (2005)
                                                                 • 283 million tons of freight carried by truck (2002)
Source: WSDOT 2008
                                                               In the air
                                                                  • 16 state-owned airports
                                                                  • 139 total airports
          Is owned and operated by many entities.                • 600,000 tons of air cargo pass through airports per
           These include local, regional, tribal, ports,            year
           state and federal governments; transit
           agencies; ports; and private owners.                On the water
                                                                 • 20 ferries, largest system in the nation
          Includes infrastructure, such as roads and            • 12 ferry routes
           bridges. The state is served by 174,022 lane          • 23.3 million passengers carried on ferries per year
                                                                 • 10.4 million vehicles carried on ferries per year
           miles of highways, roads and streets. It              • 20 terminals
           includes bridges, airports, marine ports,             • 75 port districts
           railroads, bicycle and pedestrian facilities,         • 2.5 million 20-foot container equivalent units through
           and ferry and transit systems.                          Seattle and Tacoma ports (2006)
                                                                 • $84.4 billion of cargo pass through ports per year
          Includes key transportation services.
                                                                 2007 figures unless otherwise noted
           These include transit, passenger rail, ferry          Source: WSDOT 2008
           service and air travel.

Purpose of Transportation Progress Reports
            Washington’s Transportation Progress Reports provide a high-level assessment of the state's
            progress in achieving its transportation goals using key performance measures and data.

Statewide Transportation Goals
In 2007, the Washington State Legislature amended RCW 47.04.280 to establish five statewide transportation
policy goals to guide the planning, operation, performance of, and investment in the state’s transportation
system. The goals are not prioritized.

       ■      Safety: To provide for and improve the safety and security of transportation customers and the
              transportation system.

       ■      Preservation: To maintain, preserve and extend the life and utility of prior investments in
              transportation systems and services.

       ■      Mobility (addressing congestion): To improve the predictable movement of goods and people
              throughout Washington.

       ■      Environment: To enhance Washington’s quality of life through transportation investments that
              promote energy conservation, enhance healthy communities and protect the environment.

       ■      Stewardship: To continuously improve the quality, effectiveness and efficiency of the transportation

Biennial Transportation Progress Reports
The Office of Financial Management (OFM) is responsible for establishing objectives and performance measures
for the five goals, and for preparing a biennial progress report (also referred to as an “attainment report”) for the
Legislature and Governor, beginning in 2008 (RCW 47.01.071(5)). The purpose of these reports is to assess
progress toward the goals and contribute to the overall performance of the transportation system. Rather than
report on agency-specific performance, the focus is on overall system performance.

In January 2008, OFM submitted initial proposed objectives and performance measures to the Legislature in a
baseline report. The objectives and measures were developed with input from transportation agencies,
stakeholders and the Legislature. In some cases, “placeholders” indicate that specific measures have yet to be

Feedback on that baseline report was incorporated in this first biennial transportation progress report. Many of
the measures and supporting data are used to make investment decisions, develop strategies and programs,
provide accountability and manage internal resources. The measures will evolve as we continue progress in
assessing the performance of the state’s transportation system.

Statewide Transportation Goals, Objectives and Performance Measures
Summary of Progress—2008 Status Compared to 2007 Baseline
                                                                  GOAL 1. SAFETY
          To provide for and improve the safety and security of transportation customers and the transportation system.
                Objectives: ◊ Reduce fatalities and serious injury collisions ◊ Reduce risks and ensure security
                   Measures                              2007 Baseline                  2008 Status           Progress            Comments
Measure 1.1 Traffic Fatalities                       633 traffic fatalities in    571 traffic fatalities in              2008 projected to be lower
Number and rate of traffic fatalities per 100
million vehicle miles traveled (VMT)
                                                     2006                         2007
                                                                                                                 •       than 2007.

                                                     1.12 per 100 m. VMT          1.00 per 100 m. VMT                    The lowest rate in state
                                                                                                                 •       history.

Measure 1.2 Collision Reduction                      For 60 projects,             Cable median barriers                  2008 projects are not the
Percent reduction in injury and damage               12-16 percent                reduce fatal and                       same as the 2007 baseline,
collisions before and after safety                   reduction in collisions      serious injury                         but before-and-after studies
                                                                                  collisions by 62                       show safety improvements
improvements                                         and 30-37 percent
                                                     reduction in injuries        percent, centerline                    yield results.
                                                                                  rumble strips by 28

                                                            GOAL 2. PRESERVATION
         To maintain, preserve and extend the life and utility of prior investments in transportation systems and services.
                        Objective: ◊ Extend the useful life of existing facilities, systems and equipment
                   Measures                              2007 Baseline                  2008 Status           Progress            Comments
Measure 2.1 State Highway Pavement                   93.5 percent in 2006         93.3 percent in 2007                   Goal is 90 percent. Percent

Percent of state highway pavement in fair or                                                                             in poor condition includes
better condition                                                                                                         concrete, which is costly to
Measure 2.2 Local Roadway Pavement                   For data collected, a        For data collected,                    Year-to-year comparison will
Percent of city and county roadway pavement          majority of city and         86.7 percent of city                   require 100 percent data
in fair or better condition                          county center line
                                                     miles are in fair or
                                                                                  and county center line
                                                                                  miles are in fair or           ♦       collection, expected to occur
                                                                                                                         in 2009. Pavement in some
                                                     better condition             better condition                       small cities is of concern.
Measure 2.3 Bridges                                  96 percent overall in        96 percent overall in                  Replacement of major

Percent of state, city and county bridges in         2006                         2007                                   bridges, such as SR 520
fair or better condition                                                                                                 and the Columbia River
                                                                                                                         Crossing, is a concern.
Measure 2.4 State Highway Maintenance                53 percent in 2007           50 percent in 2008                     Cost increases and new
Percent of targets met for state highway
maintenance levels
                                                                                                                 ♦       facilities are stretching
Measure 2.5 Ferry Vessels and Terminals              87 percent in 2007           84 percent in 2008                     Future reports will include
Percent of state ferry terminals in fair or better
                                                                                                                 ♦       data on state vessels and
                                                                                                                         county ferry systems.

                • Performance is improving or holding steady                     ♦ Performance is not improving or is an area of concern

Summary of Progress (continued)
                                       GOAL 3. MOBILITY (ADDRESSING CONGESTION)
                        To improve the predictable movement of goods and people throughout the state.
            Objectives: ◊ Address congestion ◊ Maximize operational performance and capacity of existing systems
               ◊ Increase the reliability of travel for goods and people ◊ Reduce bottlenecks and choke points
                  Measures                        2007 Baseline               2008 Status         Progress            Comments
Measure 3.1 Hours of Delay                    Statewide, drivers        Statewide, drivers                   While the hours of delay
                                              were delayed about        were delayed about                   increased, the rate at which
Hours of delay statewide and on the 5 major
corridors around Puget Sound                  99,400 hours daily in
                                                                        101,960 hours daily in
                                                                                                     ♦       they increased has started
                                                                                                             to level off.
                                              Drivers on major          Drivers on major                     While the hours of delay
                                              Puget Sound               Puget Sound                          increased, the rate at which
                                              corridors were
                                              delayed about 20,791
                                                                        corridors were
                                                                        delayed about 23,185         ♦       they increased has started
                                                                                                             to level off.
                                              hours daily in 2005       hours daily in 2007
Measure 3.2 Travel Times                      From 2004 to 2006, 8      From 2005 to 2007,                   This shows a leveling off of
Travel times on 52 congested state highways   corridors had             10 commutes had                      increases in travel times.

around Puget Sound                            improved (shorter)        improved (shorter)
                                              travel times, 7 stayed    travel times, 12
                                              the same and 37           stayed the same and
                                              worsened                  30 worsened
Measure 3.3 Trip Reliability                  From 2004 to 2006, 9      From 2005 to 2007,                   This shows a leveling off of
95 percent reliable travel times on 52        commutes had 95           13 commutes had 95                   increases in 95 percent
congested highways around Puget Sound         percent reliable travel   percent reliable travel              reliable travel times.
                                              times improve
                                              (shorten), 4 stayed
                                                                        times improve
                                                                        (shorten), 7 stayed          •
                                              the same and 39           the same and 32
                                              worsened                  worsened
Measure 3.4 High Occupancy Vehicle            TBD                       TBD                                  Still developing a high-level
(HOV) and High Occupancy Toll (HOT)                                                                          measure.
Lanes                                                                                               na
Placeholder – still being developed
Measure 3.5 Commute Modes                     72.8 percent in 2006      73.1 percent in 2008                 65.5 percent in 2007 at
Percentage of commute trips taken while                                                                      Commute Trip Reduction
driving alone
                                                                                                     •       work sites (major employers
                                                                                                             in 9 most congested
Measure 3.6 Incident Response Times           161 minutes in 2007       154 minutes in 2008                  Governor’s goal was 165
Average length to clear major incidents                                 (through Sept. 30,
                                                                        2008)                        •       minutes in 2007, 155
                                                                                                             minutes in 2008.
Measure 3.7 Freight                           TBD                       TBD                                  See mobility measures 3.1-
Placeholder – still being developed                                                                 na       3.4 for travel time, hours of
                                                                                                             delay and reliability.

           • Performance is improving or holding steady            ♦ Performance is not improving or is an area of concern

Summary of Progress (continued)
                               GOAL 3. MOBILITY (ADDRESSING CONGESTION) – CONTINUED
Measure 3.8 Ferries                            On average, more           On average, more                     Currently includes only state
Percent of trips on time and ridership         than 90 percent on
                                               time in 2007
                                                                          than 90 percent on
                                                                          time in 2008                •        ferry trips.

                                               24 million riders in       23.3 million riders in               Currently includes only state
                                               2007                       2008                        ♦        ferry ridership.
Measure 3.9 Passenger Rail                     On average, 60             On average, 64                       82 percent in Nov. 2008 was
Percent of trips on time and ridership on
state-supported Amtrak Cascades service
                                               percent on time in
                                                                          percent on time in
                                                                          2008                        •        best performance ever.

                                               457,000 riders in          521,500 riders in                    14 percent increase from
                                               2007                       2008
                                                                                                      •        2007 to 2008.

Measure 3.10 Transportation-Efficient          TBD                        TBD                                  Still developing a high-level
Land Use                                                                                                       measure.
Placeholder – still being developed

                                                      GOAL 4. ENVIRONMENT
                 To enhance Washington’s quality of life through transportation investments that promote energy
                           conservation, enhance healthy communities and protect the environment.
                         Objectives: ◊ Protect habitat ◊ Reduce degradation of air and water quality
                  Measures                         2007 Baseline                2008 Status        Progress             Comments
Measure 4.1 Fish Passage                       12 culverts in 2007        8 culverts in 2008                   Needs to be evaluated in
Number of culverts fixed and miles of stream
habitat opened up
                                                                                                      ♦        conjunction with miles of
                                                                                                               habitat opened up.
                                               50 miles of stream         13 miles of stream                   Targeting stand-alone
                                               habitat in 2007            habitat in 2008                      culvert projects (vs. highway
                                                                                                      ♦        projects) yields significant
Measure 4.2 Stormwater Runoff Quality          129 facilities in 2007     92 facilities in 2008                New stormwater
Number of WSDOT stormwater treatment
facilities constructed
                                                                                                      ♦        requirements expected in
                                                                                                               early 2009.
Measure 4.3 Air Quality                        94.8 million metric        New data will not be                 2005 data showed a
Tons of greenhouse gases produced              tons CO2 equivalent        available until 2010                 decrease from 105 million
statewide                                      in 2005                                                         metric tons CO2 equivalent
                                                                                                               in 2000.

               • Performance is improving or holding steady             ♦ Performance is not improving or is an area of concern

Summary of Progress (continued)
                                                     GOAL 5. STEWARDSHIP
                  To continuously improve the quality, effectiveness and efficiency of the transportation system.
                                     Objective: ◊ Improve program and project delivery
                  Measures                        2007 Baseline           2008 Status        Progress             Comments
Measure 5.1 Capital Project Delivery          78 percent on-time    79 percent on-time                   Goal is 90 percent. As of
Percent of 2003 (Nickel) and 2005             and on-budget in      and on-budget in                     Dec. 2008,185 of 391
                                              2007                  2008                                 projects funded by the
(Transportation Partnership Act or TPA)
revenue packages capital projects completed                                                              Nickel and TPA packages
on time and within budget                                                                                were successfully
Measure 5.2 Tolling                           TBD                   TBD                                  Still developing a high-level
                                                                                                na       measure.
Placeholder – still being developed

                • Performance is improving or holding steady       ♦ Performance is not improving or is an area of concern

                                                        Measure 1.1 Traffic Fatalities
SAFETY                                                  Number and rate of traffic fatalities per 100 million vehicle miles traveled
                                                        Statewide, traffic fatalities decreased from 633 in 2006 to 571 in 2007.
                                                        Traffic fatalities decreased from 1.12 per 100 million vehicle miles
The state is taking aggressive action to                traveled in 2006 to 1.00 in 2007. This is the lowest rate in state history.
reduce traffic fatalities and disabling injuries
through education, enforcement and safety improvements. The state’s target as                     What's been happening?
adopted through the Strategic Highway Safety Plan is zero traffic fatalities by 2030.             As a result of the corridor safety
                                                                                                  program, the number of fatal-
To meet Target Zero, state and local partners are taking an integrated approach                   disabling collisions on 28 corridors
                                                                                                  has decreased by 34 percent and
to traffic safety. The primary focus is on reducing traffic fatalities that involve               alcohol-related collisions decreased
impairment, speed and/or no seat belt use, which account for 77 percent of all traffic            by 15 percent.
deaths. Additional emphasis is on reducing motorcyclist deaths and reducing fatalities
and disabling collisions on specific corridors. The Nickel and TPA revenue packages               What's the focus now?
funded more than 150 safety improvement projects, ranging from complex capital                    Emphasis on enforcement of
                                                                                                  impaired and speeding drivers,
projects to installing low-cost enhancements such as rumble strips and cable median               particularly at night.
                                                                                                  What's next?
Overall, traffic fatalities are decreasing statewide. Traffic fatalities decreased from       Additional emphasis on two-lane
633 in 2006 to 571 in 2007. Fatalities decreased from 1.12 per 100 million vehicle            rural roads.
miles traveled in 2006 to 1.00 in 2007. This is the lowest rate in state history and
meets the federal goal of no more than one traffic fatality per 100 million vehicle miles traveled.

                                     Washington Traffic Fatalities, 1994–2007


                                                 662                              658
                         653                                              649                         649
              640                                      637     631


                                                                                                567                  571

                         —— Trendline
              1994   1995    1996    1997     1998     1999   2000       2001   2002    2003   2004    2005   2006      2007

            Source: WTSC 2008 (FARS data)

However, traffic fatalities on rural two-lane roads have increased. The number of fatal and serious collisions on rural
two-lane roads increased from 273 in 2005 to 310 in 2007. WSDOT’s analysis showed that 61 percent were caused by
drivers running off the road and 30 percent involved crossover collisions.

State and local agencies are using tools such as the corridor safety program and specific safety projects to address
rural two-lane roads. Within the past year, WSDOT began roadside safety projects and centerline rumble strip projects,
which have proven to be effective. See Measure 1.2 for the before-and-after results of rumble strips.

                                                     Measure 1.2 Collision Reduction
SAFETY                                               Percent reduction in injury and damage collisions before and after safety
                                                     Rumble strips and cable median barriers reduce the risk of serious injury
                                                     and fatal collisions. Preliminary results indicate that fatal and serious
                                                     injury collisions are reduced 62 percent by cable median barriers and 28
                                                     percent by rumble strips.

Barriers and safety improvements reduce deaths, injuries and property damage.               What's been happening?
There were 65 fatal collisions in 2006 where “over centerline” was a contributing           WSDOT has installed rumble
circumstance. Many transportation projects include safety improvements to roadways.         strips on 960 miles of roadway
                                                                                            and cable median barriers on 177
Data show these investments are working to reduce injuries, collisions and fatalities.
                                                                                            miles of highway.

Cable median barriers reduce collisions and fatalities. Concrete barriers and steel         What's the focus now?
beam guardrails reduce the risk of vehicles crossing into oncoming traffic or leaving       WSDOT is gathering data for its
the roadway. While it’s not possible to prevent all crossover collisions or vehicles        annual before-and-after safety
                                                                                            study for projects.
leaving the road, cable barriers help reduce the risk of very severe collisions.
                                                                                            What's next?
WSDOT installed 43 miles of cable median barriers in 2007, bringing the statewide           The state is focusing on replacing
total to 177 miles. An analysis of almost 2,550 collisions from 1995 to 2007 found:         large, vulnerable bridges,
                                                                                            including the Alaskan Way Viaduct
          • A 62 percent reduction of serious and fatal collisions (from 24.8 per year
                                                                                            and SR 520.
             before to 9.5 per year after installation); and
          • Annual cross-median collisions decreased 73 percent.

Rumble strips also reduce collisions and fatalities. Rumble strips are grooves or rows of raised pavement markers located
on the shoulder or centerline of highways that produce noise and vibration to alert drivers they are drifting from their lane.
WSDOT has installed centerline rumble strips on about 960 miles of highways. In some cases, other safety improvements
have been installed at the same time. Preliminary before-and-after analysis of 518 of these miles indicates:
         • 28 percent reduction in fatal and serious injury collisions;
         • 26 percent reduction in cross-centerline collisions; and
         • 50 percent reduction in fatal and serious injuries resulting from cross-centerline collisions.

                                                             Measure 2.1 State Highway Pavement
PRESERVATION                                                 Percent of state highway pavement in fair or better condition
                                                             In 2007, 93.3 percent of state highway lane miles were in fair or better
                                                             condition, above the target of 90 percent.

Maintaining and preserving highway pavement is important to ensure ongoing
                                                                                                        What's been happening?
usability and safety. WSDOT conducts an annual assessment of 18,000 lane miles to                       The cost of hot mix asphalt has
determine road condition. Since 1999, the state has consistently maintained 90                          gone up 85 percent since 2003
percent or more of the pavement on state highways in good or fair condition.                            and will remain high in spite of
                                                                                                        falling oil prices. This affects the
                                                                                                        state’s ability to preserve roughly
           State Highway Pavement Trends (1975-2007)                                                    two-thirds of the state highway
  100%                                                                                                  system.

                                                                                                        What's the focus now?
                                                                                     93.3% in 2007
   80%                                                                                                  Address the growing asphalt
                                                                                                        preservation backlog.
   60%                                                                                                  What's next?
                                                                  Fair or Better Condition
                                                                                                        Replacing concrete pavement on
                                                                  Poor Condition
   40%                                                                                                  some of the most important
                                                                                                        locations in the state highway
                                                                                      6.7% in 2007

       1975        1981                1987           1993           1999            2005
         Source: WSDOT 2008

Chip seal and asphalt comprise the majority of highway lane miles. Asphalt makes up 63 percent of lane miles and
supports 69 percent of total traffic volume.

                                                Condition by Type of Pavement - 2007
                             Percent in                                               Traffic
          Pavement          fair or better      Total lane        Percent of         volume          Total volume       Percent total
            Type             condition *         miles **         lane miles       (billions) ***    per lane mile     traffic volume
         Chip seal               91.50%               4,365             24%                   1.2        254,984                   3%
         Asphalt                     94%            11,624              63%                 21.8       1,863,461                 69%
         Concrete                93.30%               2,384             13%                   8.8      3,685,092                 28%
         Source: WSDOT 2007
         * Data Source: WSDOT Materials Lab
         ** Data Source: State Highway Log Planning Report, 2005; includes all lane miles
         *** Data Source: Transportation Data Office; excludes ramps, collector-distributors and frontage roads

Much of the concrete is nearing the end of its life cycle. Concrete does not age evenly: It deteriorates more quickly at
the end of its life cycle. While most concrete is in fair or better condition, a substantial amount is nearing that end. A
University of Washington study will help WSDOT determine how quickly this process occurs.

Concrete pavement on I-5 in Seattle will have significant preservation needs. The concrete pavement on I-5 through
Seattle is more than 40 years old. Preservation work, such as grinding and dowel bar retrofits, has allowed the pavement to
outlive its expected life cycle of 25 years. However, many of these efforts to prolong the life cycle of the concrete pavement
have run their course. In a recent study, WSDOT determined that out of 196 lane miles examined, 129 lane miles need
rehabilitation or reconstruction.

                                                   Measure 2.2 Local Roadway Pavement
PRESERVATION                                       Percent of city and county roadway pavement in fair or better condition
                                                   In 2008, the majority of local road pavement inventoried (about 75
                                                   percent of roads) was in fair or better condition (83 percent for large
                                                   cities, 72 percent for medium cities, 66 percent for small cities and 93
                                                   percent for counties). (Year-to-year comparison will require 100
                                                   percent data collection, expected to occur in 2009.)

                                                                                      What's been happening?
Preservation of local roadways is vital to the state’s economy, providing             Cities partner with the state to reduce
                                                                                      road preservation costs.
critical links for the movement of people and goods. City streets and county
roads comprise 67 percent of total miles in the state, and carry more than 42         What's the focus now?
percent of the traffic. Replacing pavement costs more than rehabilitating it, so      While small cities have the fewest
most agencies work to preserve pavement based on the lowest life cycle cost.          miles of road, they have the largest
                                                                                      percentage in poor or failed condition.
                                                                                      The Transportation Improvement
The majority of the pavement on local roadways is in fair to excellent                Board (TIB) targets 9 towns with
condition. Existing pavement condition data for cities covers about 75 percent        critically low pavement condition to
of the large and medium city arterial and collector network statewide.                bring the roads up to the state
                                                                                      average pavement rating.

                                                                                      What's next?
                                                                                      TIB is initiating new sustainability
                                            Road Condition Rating                     practices, including recycling asphalt.


                                                          2008 Centerline Miles Inventoried
          60%                                                         (approx. 75%)
                                                        Counties                          10,975
                                                        Large Cities (>25,000 Pop.)        1,955
          50%                                           Medium Cities (5,000 - 25,000 Pop.) 915
                                                        Small Cities (>5,000 Pop.)           306





                    Excellent          Good                Fair            Poor             Failed
                                 Counties     Lg. Cities     Med. Cities     Small Cities

                 Source: WSDOT and CRAB (Prepared by OFM 2009)

                                                      Measure 2.3 Bridges
PRESERVATION                                          Percent of state, city and county bridges in fair or better condition
                                                      In 2008, more than 96 percent of all state, city and county bridges were
                                                      in fair or better condition, the same as in 2007. State-owned bridges met
                                                      the target of 97 percent in fair or better structural condition.

Maintaining state, city and county bridges in safe, sound and usable condition is                  What's been happening?
                                                                                                   Increased inspections on bridges
a high priority for state and local government. WSDOT manages more than                            in poor conditions.
3,600 state bridges and related structures that carry vehicle and pedestrian traffic, and
oversees the management of more than 4,000 local government bridges.                               What's the focus now?
                                                                                                   Several large and expensive
                                                                                                   state bridge replacements are
Bridges are inspected at least every two years. Each bridge is inspected every two                 needed, including the Alaskan
years. Some bridges are inspected annually due to their condition or design. A few                 Way Viaduct and State Route
structures require more frequent inspection, such as the Alaskan Way Viaduct, which                520 Bridge.
is inspected every six months. Inspections use federal standards for superstructure,
deck, substructure, overall structural adequacy and waterway adequacy.                             What's next?
                                                                                                   Replacing the 82-year-old
                                                                                                   Columbia River Crossing.
The majority of the bridges are in fair or better structural condition. In 2008,
more than 96 percent of all bridges in the state were in fair or better condition
structurally, the same as in 2007. (Note: The data for 2007 was adjusted to more accurately reflect local ownership.) State-
owned bridges met the target of 97 percent in fair or better condition structurally.

                                 2008 Condition of State- and Locally Owned Bridges
                                Bridges                             State    County         City
                                Total Bridges 7,460                 3,607     3,201         652
                                Bridge Condition
                                   Good                             88%        85%          78%
                                   Fair                              9%        11%          14%
                                   Poor                              3%        4%           8%
                               Source: WSDOT 2009

“Structurally deficient” bridges are not unsafe for public travel. Being structurally deficient does not imply that the
bridge is in danger of collapse or unsafe to the traveling public. Of the 3 percent of state-owned bridges rated in poor
structural condition, none are unsafe for public travel, based on federal standards, though some are subject to weight
restrictions. A list of the 142 structurally deficient bridges on the state highway system can be found at
In addition, about 25 percent of Washington’s bridges are “functionally obsolete.” This occurs when bridges do not meet
operational needs, such as height and roadway alignment, because of their age.

                                                    Measure 2.4 State Highway Maintenance
PRESERVATION                                        Percent of targets met for state highway maintenance
                                                    In 2008, 50 percent of state highway maintenance targets were met
                                                    compared to 53 percent in 2007.

Washington achieved 50 percent of its
maintenance accountability targets in                  WSDOT Maintenance Accountability Process Performance
2008. In 2004, WSDOT failed to meet                                              2004-2008
only one of its maintenance targets. In                          Target                2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
2008, WSDOT failed to achieve16 of its         Movable and floating bridges
32 targets. (See prioritized list to the       Signal systems                             
right.)                                        Snow and ice                                                               
                                               Keller Ferry
                                               Urban tunnels
Challenges in meeting the targets include:     Structural bridge
  • Inflation drives up costs.                 Regulatory signs                                                            
  • Miles added to highways require            Slope repair                                                              
       maintenance.                            ITS
  • Backlog of essential maintenance           Catch basins
       continues to grow.                      Pavement repair and crack seal                                              
                                               Bridge decks                                                                
  • Additional environmental                   Guardrail                                                                   
       requirements and related cost           Striping                                                                     
       increases.                              Raised/recessed markers                                                     
  • Severe weather patterns strain             Vegetation obstructions                                                    
       resources at the expense of             Crack sealing                                                               
       performing preventive                   Rest areas
       maintenance.                            Sweeping
                                               Hwy lighting
Record snow and ice diminishes
                                               Guideposts                                                                  
resources to meet maintenance needs.           Safety patrol                                                               
The maintenance budgets of state and           Culverts                                                                     
local agencies have been strained by winter    Permits                                                                    
storms. Almost 600 inches of snow fell on      Pavement marking
Snoqualmie Pass in 2007–08, 200 inches         Noxious weeds                                                      
more than during the 2006–07 winter.           Shoulder maintenance
Between January 26 and February 10,            Guide signs
                                               Detention basins
2008, Snoqualmie Pass was closed 145
                                               Bridge cleaning
hours in the eastbound direction and 147
                                               Nuisance weeds
hours in the westbound direction,              Landscape
compared to 75 hours for the entire            Litter                                                                     
previous winter.                               Targets missed                            1         1        5     
                                                                                                                  15        
                                                     Target missed
In 2009, Spokane experienced the fourth
highest January snowfall in the city’s history. The overall winter snowfall of 63 inches was Spokane’s seventh highest on

                                                                 Measure 2.5 Ferry Vessels and Terminals
PRESERVATION                                                     Percent of state ferry terminals in fair condition or better
                                                                 In 2008, 84 percent of state ferry terminals were in fair or better
                                                                 condition, compared to 87 percent in 2007.

Ferries are a critical part of the state transportation system. WSDOT manages a
state ferry system with 20 vessels, 20 terminals and a repair facility. It is the largest                      What's been happening?
operating auto fleet in the country, carrying 10 million vehicles and 23.3 million                             Cedar River Associates completed
                                                                                                               a comprehensive study on a
passengers each year.
                                                                                                               number of issues, including vessels
                                                                                                               and terminals. The Transportation
Fewer terminal systems are in fair or better condition than last year. In 2008,                                Commission completed a customer
84 percent of key terminal system facilities are in fair or better condition, while 11                         survey and launched a finance
percent are in poor and 4 percent in substandard condition. In 2007, 87 percent of                             study.
key terminal facilities were in fair or better condition. Facilities in poor condition
show signs of deterioration or distress (rotting timbers, cracking concrete), while                            What's the focus now?
substandard facilities show advanced deterioration (broken pilings, severe anchor                              A new 64-car Island Home Class
chain erosion).                                                                                                vessel is expected to be in service
                                                                                                               by mid-2010.
           2008 Structural Condition Rating for Terminal Systems
                                                                 Condition by percentage                       What's next?
                                                                                                               Governor and Legislature will take
                                       # of facilities                                        Sub-
Type of Facility or System              or systems        Good         Fair        Poor     Standard           action on a single long-term plan.
Landing Aids                                176           53%          19%         16%         11%             Two are under consideration. Both
                                                                                                               require additional funding: Plan A
Vehicle Transfer Spans                      210           27%          59%         13%          1%
                                                                                                               requires $3.3 billion and Plan B
Overhead Loading Systems                    66            55%          42%          3%         0%              $1.3 billion.
Trestle & Bulkheads                         72            24%          69%          7%         0%
                                                                                                               • Plan A assumes 23 vessels,
Pavement                                    73            58%          33%          5%         4%
                                                                                                                 including replacement of 11
                Total Average               597           41%          43%         11%         4%                vessels that are scheduled to be
"Landing aids" includes wingwalls and dolphins; buildings and passenger-only facilities are not rated.           retired in the next 22 years.
Source: WSDOT 2009
                                                                                                               • Plan B assumes a total of 17
                                                                                                                 vessels with only 5 vessels being
A condition rating system          for vessels is under development.                                                 l d
Vessels receive
inspections by the U.S.                                                            Age of WSDOT Ferry Vessels
Coast Guard quarterly                   Vessel Class/         Year      Year        Expected              Vessel Class/   Year      Year      Expected
and annually, and are                      Vessel             Built    Rebuilt     Retirement                Vessel       Built    Rebuilt   Retirement
dry-docked for detailed              Evergreen State                                                     Issaquah
hull examinations                     Evergreen State         1954       1988         2010-15             Issaquah        1979    ongoing       2037-42
twice every five years.               Klahowya                1958       1995         2023-28              Kitsap         1980    ongoing       2038-43
More than half of all                 Tillikum                1959       1994         2022-27             Kittitas        1980    ongoing       2038-43
ferry vessels were built             Super                                                                Cathlamet       1981    ongoing       2039-44
more than 30 years                    Elwha                   1967       1991         2025-30             Chelan          1981    ongoing       2039-44
ago. In general, vessels              Hyak                    1967          -         2010-15              Sealth         1982    ongoing       2040-45
                                      Kaleetan                1967       1999         2027-32            Jumbo Mark II
are expected to be
                                      Yakima                  1967       1999         2028-33             Tacoma          1997       2027       2055-60
replaced in 60 years,
                                     Jumbo Mark I                                                         Puyallup        1998       2028       2056-61
assuming one major
                                      Spokane                 1972       2004         2032-37              Wenatchee      1998       2028       2056-61
refurbishment. Many
                                      Walla Walla             1973       2003         2031-36            Miscellaneous
older vessels have
                                                                                                          Hiyu            1967          -       2008-13
undergone significant
                                     Source: WSDOT 2009                                                   Rhododendron    1947       1991          2011
rehabilitation since
original construction.

(Addressing Congestion)
The statewide mobility goal is to improve the
predictable movement of goods and people throughout
the state.
The focus is on addressing congestion, primarily on
highways and roads in urban areas. Highway congestion is a
condition characterized by an increase in the number of
hours of delay (Measure 3.1), longer travel times (Measure
3.2) and longer 95 percent reliable travel times (Measure

Growth in the state’s population, employment                          Source: FHWA 2008
and vehicle miles traveled contribute to more traffic and congestion.
Of 6.4 million in population in 2007,
4.8 million are licensed to drive. The                           Growth in Statewide VMT, Population, Employment
number of vehicle miles traveled (VMT)                                     and Lane Miles from 1990 to 2007
in Washington has more than doubled        140%
since 1980, to nearly 57 billion miles in                    VMT
2007. In contrast, the number of lane                        Emp
miles in Washington has increased by       100%              Pop
10 percent during that same time
                                            80%              Lane Miles
Most factors that cause congestion are
unpredictable. Non-recurrent
congestion accounts for 55 percent of all     20%
delays in our system. Traffic collisions
alone are responsible for at least 25
                                                    1990     1992   1994   1996    1998    2000    2002   2004    2006
percent of all congestion. Bottlenecks,
where heavy traffic causes backups, are             Source: OFM 2009
more predictable and account for 40

Congestion affects our economy and quality of life, and is closely related to traffic safety. Congestion’s effects are
excess fuel consumed while idling and delays to commuters, which translates to lost productivity.

Congestion in the Puget Sound region is consistent with other urban areas nationwide. In fact, the central Puget
Sound region’s rank relative to urban areas across the country has been improving. Forbes Magazine recently identified
Seattle as having one of America’s 10 most improved commutes. This is attributed in part to expanded highway lanes and
increased use of public transit.

(Addressing Congestion)                                                                 What’s been happening?
                                                                                        By June 30, 2011: 92 percent of
                                                                                        the 151 Nickel projects and 82
The state has three key strategies to address congestion:                               percent of the 240 TPA projects
                                                                                        will either be under construction or
    1. Provide options. Choices such as HOV lanes, commute trip reduction               operational.
       programs, transit, rail, bicycling and sidewalks reduce demand on highways
       and roads. Performance measures such as the percentage of commuters who          What’s the focus now?
       drive alone and travel times for HOV lanes illustrate effectiveness.             The state will continue with large
                                                                                        capital construction projects that
    2. Operate efficiently. By using tools such as ramp meters, synchronized            relieve congestion and improve
                                                                                        safety, including the Alaskan Way
       traffic signals, variable message signs, Web-based travel information and
                                                                                        Viaduct, SR 520 and I-405 in
       incident response trucks, the system can be made more efficient. Performance     Tukwila, which has become one of
       measures such as the average amount of time to clear incidents illustrate        the most congested areas in the
       effectiveness.                                                                   state.

    3. Strategically add capacity. The state is adding capacity by relieving choke      What’s next?
       points and reducing collisions that cause congestion. Examples of such           During the next 5 years, tolling is
       projects funded by the 2003 and 2005 revenue packages include the Everett        likely to come to the central Puget
       HOV project on I-5, widening I-405 near Tukwila, and widening SR 16              Sound region as a way of paying
                                                                                        for megaprojects and managing
       between I-5 and the Tacoma Narrows Bridge.
When combined, these strategies can provide more “bang for the buck.”

                                                  One example is the I-5 corridor from Tukwila to the Pierce County
                                                     Currently 372 vanpools carry roughly 3,124 commuters each day
                                                      on this corridor. Eight Sound Transit Express trains carried
                                                      2,161,021 commuters during the first 10 months of 2008. King
                                                      County Metro buses make 276 vehicle trips that transport 7,440
                                                      commuters each day. In addition, 66 Commute Trip Reduction
                                                      sites provide incentives to use alternatives to driving alone in this
                                                      area where 31,000 are employed.
                                                     Completion of the ramp metering network with eight proposed
                                                      ramp meters between Tukwila and Federal Way will help maximize
                                                     Adding 29.8 miles of HOV lanes in each direction will provide
                                                      more capacity.

                                                       Measure 3.1 Hours of Delay
MOBILITY                                               Hours of delay on the most-congested state highways
(Addressing Congestion)                                Statewide, drivers were delayed about 101,960 hours daily in 2007,
                                                       compared to 99,400 in 2005, a 2.6 percent increase. In the Puget
                                                       Sound region, drivers were delayed about 23,185 hours daily in 2007,
                                                       compared to 20,791 in 2005, an 11.5 percent increase.

Delays are increasing. Delay is the extra period of time it takes a driver to get to a destination when the driver is
slowed by congestion. Sometimes it is due to vehicles using the system at the same time, as during the morning or
evening commute. Delays also occur due to a traffic incident, inclement weather, road construction or special event
such as a football game.

Hours of delay have increased over the past four years, but are leveling off. In 2007, there were 101,960 hours of
delay statewide, compared to 99,400 in 2005, a 2.6 percent increase.

Most of the delay is concentrated in the central Puget Sound region, primarily on I-5 and I-405. On the major
freeway corridors in the central Puget Sound region, there was an 11.5 percent increase in the overall hours of delay
between 2005 and 2007, far less dramatic than the 35 percent increase between 2004 and 2006. Corridors had
increases in delay ranging from 3 percent and 28 percent relative to maximum throughput speeds. For example, on
I-5, there were 7,920 hours of delay in 2004, compared to 10,284 in 2007, a 30 percent increase. (This is based on
“peak efficiency” or “maximum throughput,” usually around 51 mph.)

                                        Numbers of Hours of Delay Per day
                                     (Based on Peak Efficiency Speed of 51 MPH)
                   Hours of Delay         2004                2005              2006             2007
                   I-5                         7,920                9,478          10,490            10,284
                   I-90                          470                  795             870               817
                   SR 167                        770                  957             970             1,223
                   I-405                       6,310                7,753           8,730             8,841
                   SR 520                      1,850                1,808           2,270             2,020
                  Source: WSDOT 2008

Nickel and TPA projects will provide improved safety and more capacity. When all projects in the 2003 (Nickel) and
2005 (Transportation Partnership Act or TPA) funding packages are complete, WSDOT estimates a total annual time
savings of nearly 15 million hours, or about five hours per family member every year.

I-5/Salmon Creek to I-205 – widening reduces congestion, improves mobility. Completed in October 2006, this
$44 million project widened two miles of I-5 in Clark County to six through lanes, plus an additional lane in each direction
between interchanges. In addition, the N.E. 129th Street overpass and the Salmon Creek/N.E. 117th Street bridges were
replaced with structures that meet current design, safety and seismic standards. This project was one of several aimed at
improving traffic flow in the I-5 corridor between the Main Street interchange in Vancouver and the I-205 junction. Result:
Travel speeds have improved 19 percent, from 42 mph to 50 mph.

                                                                            Measure 3.2 Travel Times
MOBILITY                                                                    Travel times on the most-congested state highways
(Addressing Congestion)                                                     In the central Puget Sound region between 2005 and 2007, 10
                                                                            commutes had travel times improve (shorten), 12 commutes remained
                                                                            unchanged and 30 had travel times worsen. This is an improvement
                                                                            over the prior two-year period.

Travel times on major central Puget Sound corridors have generally increased since 2001, but the rate of increase
has started to level off. “Travel time” refers to how long it takes to get to a destination during congested periods. This
performance measure shows the trend in travel times for key central Puget Sound corridors. Peak efficiency is about
51 mph.
                                                 Changes in average travel times for 13 selected routes
                                          Travel times for morning peak direction commute: 2001-2007, in minutes
                                                                                              Average travel times at peak periods

        1Performance graphs based on scale of 0 to 60 minutes.
        2Route length in 2001 was 12.4 miles; route length was 16 miles for 2002-2007.
        3Peak efficiency is travel at 51 mph.

        Source: WSDOT Traffic Office

North to south commutes
Commuters from Everett and Lynnwood to Seattle and Bellevue have seen increases in their travel times over the past seven
years, particularly from Lynwood to Bellevue.

South to north commutes
Commuters from Auburn, Federal Way, SeaTac and Tukwila have experienced some of the largest changes in the Puget
Sound region. The commute on I-405 between Tukwila and Bellevue has experienced an 11-minute increase since 2001.

East to west commutes
Commuters from Issaquah and Redmond have experienced little to no change in travel times since 2001.

West to east commutes                                                        Traffic volumes fell during the first six months of 2008, in
The next Progress Report will include commute                                large measure due to high fuel prices. In June 2008, the
routes originating in Seattle to Bellevue and                                national average price for a gallon of gas was $4.33, 33 percent
Redmond.                                                                     higher than in June 2007. Like those across the country, drivers in
                                                                             the Puget Sound region drove less, particularly during non-peak
                                                                             periods and weekends.

                                                                        Measure 3.3 Trip Reliability
MOBILITY                                                                Reliable travel times on the most-congested state highways
(Addressing Congestion)                                                 In the central Puget Sound region between 2005 and 2007, 13
                                                                        commutes had 95 percent reliable travel times improve (shorten),
                                                                        seven commutes remained unchanged and 32 had increases. This is
                                                                        consistent with the increases in the prior two-year period.

Commuters want to reach their destination on time. Average travel times during peak congestion are good indicators
of how long it will take to get somewhere. But some days are better than others, and incidents and inclement weather
can make a commute take longer than the average travel time. The “95 percent reliable travel time” is how long that
trip takes 19 out of 20 times.

Reliable travel times in the Puget Sound region have been increasing steadily over the past five years. This is
generally a result of travel times increasing during peak congestion.

The table below shows changes in reliable travel times for selected morning commutes. For example, for the Everett
to Seattle morning commute, at peak efficiency, it takes 28 minutes to complete the 23.7 mile commute. In
2007, during peak congestion, the average travel time during peak congestion was 47 minutes. However, in order
to make the commute reliably 95 percent of the time, a driver needed to allow 76 minutes. This was a 12 percent
increase over the 95 percent reliable travel time in 2005.
                                      Travel Time       Travel Time
                                                                          Travel Time
                                        at Peak          at Posted
                                                                            at Peak
                                      Efficiency1          Speed
                                                                            Period                    95% Reliable Travel Time (minutes)
                                          2007              2007             2007        2001   2002       2003     2004     2005    2006   2007

  Everett to Seattle                        28                24               47         62     66          70      73       68       81    76

  SeaTac to Seattle                         15                13               27         31     28          29      31       40       37    36

  Lynnwood to Bellevue2                     19                16               39         27     47          61      64       64       67    62

  Tukwila to Bellevue                       16                13               42         43     51          42      52       54       63    58

  Auburn to Renton                          12                10               18         24     22          24      24       25       30    30

  Issaquah to Seattle*                      18                15               25         31     31          32      30       37       38    37

  Redmond to Seattle*                       17                15               22         30     30          29      32       33       32    31

  Bellevue to Seattle via SR 520            12                10               18         21     24          24      26       26       26    23

  Bellevue to Seattle via I-90              13                11               17         23     21          23      22       24       27    29

  Redmond to Bellevue                        8                7                 9         12     11          12      12       10       9     10

  Issaquah to Bellevue                      11                9                17         23     25          24      25       26       27    26

  Federal Way to Seattle                    26                22               47         Data Not           54      56       59       66    65

  Everett to Bellevue                       28                23               49         Available                  74       79       83    78

  1   Route length in 2001 was 12.4 miles; route length was 16 miles for 2002-07.
  2 Peak   efficiency is travel at 51 mph.

  Source: WSDOT 2008

                                                      Measure 3.4 High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) and
MOBILITY                                              High Occupancy Toll (HOT) Lanes
(Addressing Congestion)                               Potential new measures:
                                                          • HOV/HOT lane reliability
                                                          • HOV/HOT travel times
                                                          • HOV/HOT person throughput
                                                                                              What’s been happening?
High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) lanes are an important part of the state’s strategy              The state recently completed
for addressing congestion. The HOV system is carrying an increasing share of traffic          29.8 miles of HOV lanes on I-5
on state highways.                                                                            between Tukwila and the Pierce
                                                                                              County line.
The state has planned 300 miles of HOV lanes. By the end of 2006, the state spent $1.5
                                                                                              What’s the focus now?
billion to construct 195 HOV lane miles. Washington monitors and evaluates HOV                In the next two years, WSDOT
speed, travel time reliability and person throughput on an annual basis.                      will extend the HOV lanes on I-5
                                                                                              from King County south to the
HOV lanes continue to have better travel times than general purpose lanes. While              Port of Tacoma.
congestion has increased on HOV lanes in recent years, HOV lanes continue to offer
substantial time savings when compared to general purpose lanes. The table below              What’s next?
displays this information for several commutes. For example, it takes 18-20 minutes           Over the next eight years,
longer to complete a commute using general purpose lanes during the three morning             WSDOT will add 78 HOV lane
                                                                                              miles on I-5, SR 16 and SR 167
commutes on I-405.
                                                                                              in Pierce County. Based on the
                                                                                              results of the four-year SR 167
                                                                                              HOT Pilot Program, some HOV
                                                                                              lanes may be converted to HOT

        Comparing HOV Lane Travel Times to General Purpose Lanes on Commutes to Bellevue
                                                                                                      HOV Lane
                                                              Peak                    General
                                                                           HOV                          Time
                         Commute                            Congestion                Purpose
                                                                          Lanes                        Savings
                                                              Time                     Lanes
    I-405 Everett to Bellevue                                7:25 a.m.      30           49              19
    I-405 Lynnwood to Bellevue                               7:35 a.m.      21           39              18
    I-405 Tukwila to Bellevue                                7:45 a.m.      22           42              20
    I-90 Seattle to Bellevue, HOV & General Purpose Lanes    8:45 a.m.      14           15               1
    SR 520 Seattle to Bellevue                               8:35 a.m.      23           23               0
    I-90 Issaquah to Bellevue                                7:45 a.m.      12           17              5
    SR 520 Redmond to Bellevue                               7:50 a.m.       9            9               0
   Source: WSDOT 2008

HOT lanes are providing options for single occupant vehicles. The four-year HOT lanes pilot project to provide single
occupant vehicles the option of paying to use HOV lanes started in May 2008. Between May and December 2008, HOT
lane users paid an average toll of $1.25 for an average time savings of nine minutes northbound and five minutes

                                                    Measure 3.5 Commute Modes
MOBILITY                                            Percentage of commute trips taken while driving alone
(Addressing Congestion)                             In 2007, 73.1 percent of Washington commuters drove alone,
                                                    compared to 72.8 percent in 2006.

                                                                                              What's been happening?
Reducing the number of commuter trips taken in single-occupancy vehicles                      Sound Transit’s Sounder
helps reduce congestion, air pollution and fuel consumption. In 2007, commute                 commuter rail provides service
trip reduction programs eliminated about 26,000 vehicles on state highways each               from Everett to Tacoma, with a
weekday morning. This reduced gas consumption by about 7.9 million gallons, saving            new station added in Mukilteo in
commuters about $23.7 million. It also reduced air pollutants by nearly 4,000 tons
and emissions of carbon dioxide-equivalent gases by nearly 85,000 tons.                       What's the focus now?
                                                                                              Sound Transit’s Link Light Rail
The percentage of Washington commuters who drive alone is lower than the                      from Seattle to SeaTac opens in
national average. State, regional and local jurisdictions work to provide commuting
alternatives for workers, including carpools, vanpools, walking, bicycling, public            What's next?
transit and telecommuting. The number of Washington commuters who drove alone                 Sounder service from Tacoma to
in 2007 was 73.1 percent, up slightly from the 2006 level of 72.8 percent.                    Lakewood begins in 2012.

                      Percent of commuters who drive alone: U.S., WA and
                           Commute Trip Reduction (CTR) work sites
      78%                                                                      U.S. average
      74%                                                                      Washington

                                                                           All CTR sites
                                                 CTR sites
      62%                                      continuously in
               1999     2000     2001      2002     2003         2004   2005    2006       2007
             Source: U.S. Census, 2009

The state’s Commute Trip Reduction (CTR) program is effective at reducing drive-alone commute trips. The state
works with local jurisdictions and major employers (those with more than 100 employees) in the state’s nine most-
congested counties to provide commuter choices. In 2008, about 570,000 workers had access to CTR programs at nearly
1,200 work sites. About half of eligible workers at these sites used some of the available commute alternatives.

Vanpool, bus and commuter train ridership is increasing. Washington has the nation’s largest vanpool program. Nearly
2,800 vanpools are in operation. In 2007, 7.2 million passenger trips were on vanpools, up from 6.7 million in 2006. In
2006, ridership for the 28 public transit agencies for all modes, including vanpools and commuter rail, exceeded 180
million passenger trips. More than 56 percent of these trips were provided by King County Metro. The 2006 ridership data
reflects four years of ridership growth. Sound Transit, in particular, is seeing growth in ridership on buses and trains — 14
million passengers in 2007 and 16 million in 2008.

                                                  Measure 3.6 Incident Response Times
                                                  Average length to clear major incidents lasting more than 90 minutes on
                                                  key highway segments
                                                  As of September 2008, the average clearance time for major incidents
(Addressing Congestion)                           lasting longer than 90 minutes was 154 minutes, compared to 161
                                                  minutes in 2007.

Improved incident response increases travel reliability. Highway incidents such as      What's been happening?
                                                                                        Improved coordination with
collisions and vehicle breakdowns can increase congestion and reduce motorist           counties on clearing fatal
safety. The Federal Highway Administration estimates 25 percent of congestion is        collisions.
caused by collisions and other highway incidents. The Washington State Patrol
(WSP), WSDOT and local responders work together to clear highways as quickly as         What's the focus now?
possible.                                                                               Clearing large truck incidents
                                                                                        more quickly.
All incidents. Average clearance time for all incidents decreased from 33 minutes in    What's next?
2001 to 12.6 minutes in the third quarter of 2008, a reduction of more than 50          Expansion of the incident
percent. In 2007, WSDOT responded to more than 52,500 incidents.                        response program across the

Major incidents. WSP and WSDOT are focusing on
reducing the length of major incidents lasting more than
90 minutes, such as fatality collisions or collisions
involving large trucks. As of Sept. 30, 2008, the
annualized average clearance time has been reduced to
154 minutes, below the target of 155 minutes.

                                                         Measure 3.7 Freight
MOBILITY                                                 Placeholder – still being developed
(Addressing Congestion)                                  Placeholder – still being developed

Across all modes and                                   Freight Shipments To, From and Within Washington
systems, freight
                                                                   Tons (millions)                                Value (billions $)
volumes are
                                                        2002       2010       2020        2035       2002       2010        2020       2035
projected to grow.
                                   State Total          477         612        727        976         371        534         709       1,239
According to the          By Mode
Federal Highway             Air                          <1         <1          <1         <1         10          18          23        50
Administration, in          Highway                     283         369        437        581         238        355         473       812
2002 more than 477          Rail                         46         51          61         86         14          14          15        20
million tons of freight     Water                        48         72          91        124          4          6           8         11
worth more than           Pipeline & Unknown             98         115        132        176         67          81         109       190
$371 billion was          Intermodal (a)                 4           5          6          10         38          60          81       156
moved to, from and        By Destination / Market
in Washington. By         Domestic                      416         526        628        846         306        414         535       902
2035, this is expected    International                  61         85          99        130         66         121         174       337

to increase to 975        Note: Modal numbers may not add to totals due to rounding.
                          aIncludes truck and rail and other intermodal.
million tons of freight
                          Source: Compiled by WSDOT Rail Office based on data from FHWA – FAF2 Database, January 2009
worth $1.3 trillion.

Trucks carry most of the freight, with the largest volumes (annual tonnage) along the I-5 corridor. WSDOT collects
data on truck volumes at selected mileposts on I-5, I-90, SR 18, US 97 and US 395. At most locations, truck volumes
increased from 2004 to 2006. For example, on I-90 near North Bend (MP 33), the average daily volume of trucks increased
14 percent, from about 5,890 trucks per day in 2005 to 6,694 trucks per day in 2006.

                                                     Measure 3.8 State Ferries On-time Performance
MOBILITY                                             Percent of trips on time and ridership
(Addressing Congestion)                              On average, more than 90 percent of state ferry trips were on time in FY
                                                     2008, the same as in FY 2007. Ridership on state ferries was 23.3 million
                                                     in FY 2008, a decrease from 24.0 million in FY 2007.
Washington has the largest ferry system in the nation. Washington State Ferries
(WSF) has 20 ferry vessels, 12 ferry routes and about 160,000 sailings annually. In                    What's been happening?
addition, King, Pierce, Skagit, Whatcom and Wahkiakum counties operate car and/or                      The removal of the Steel Electric
                                                                                                       Class vessels in November 2007
passenger-only ferries.                                                                                has reduced service on some
State ferries on-time performance is excellent. During the past five years, state ferry
on-time trip departures have consistently averaged around 92 percent. Summer season                    What's the focus now?
                                                                                                       A new 64-car Island Home Class
performance averaged 86 percent during this time period, while performance during the
                                                                                                       vessel is expected to be in service
other three seasons averaged between 93 percent and 95 percent. Greater traffic volumes                by mid-2010.
and number of trips in the summer make on-time performance more difficult to achieve.
                                                                                                       What's next?
                                                                                                       Determining how many new and
             State Ferries On-Time Performance Improves for Summer Sailings                            replacement vessels are needed.
                                                                                                       Subsequent reports will include
   100%                   Winter                                                                       data for county ferries and
             Fall                                                                                      ridership-to-capacity data.
    80%         Summer
              2002        2003       2004     2005           2006          2007       2008
           Source: WSDOT 2009

Ridership on state ferries has declined.                                 WSDOT Ferry System Passenger Ridership
Ridership on state ferries was 24 million                                       Fiscal Years 1994-2008
                                                  Millions of
                                              Passengers per Year
in 2007 and 23.3 million in 2008. Some          30
of the decline can be attributed to higher                                                      Initiative 695 becomes effective
                                                28                                              January 2000
fuel prices for travelers, who have reduced
discretionary travel in western
Washington. Both in-state and out-of-           24

state holiday travelers are an important        22
portion of ridership, particularly in the       20
late spring.                                           1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

                                                      Source: WSDOT Gray Notebook March 31, 2008, page 79

                                                    Measure 3.9 Passenger Rail
MOBILITY                                            Ridership and percent of trips on time on state-supported Amtrak
(Addressing Congestion)                             Ridership increased to 521,493 in 2008 from 457,498 in 2007. On-time
                                                    trips increased to 64 percent in 2008 from 60 percent in 2007.

                                                                                                 What's been happening?
Washington is one of 13 states that provide operating funds to Amtrak for                        WSDOT and Amtrak developed a
intercity passenger rail service. Amtrak Cascades service is jointly funded by                   long-range plan for Amtrak
Amtrak, Washington (through WSDOT) and Oregon, and runs from Eugene,                             Cascades service and ridership.
Oregon, to Vancouver, B.C. WSDOT provides funding to cover capital costs (rail
                                                                                                 What's the focus now?
line construction, train equipment and station improvements) and operating costs for             Implementation of WSDOT’s mid-
four of five Amtrak Cascades round-trips.                                                        range plan to increase reliability,
                                                                                                 increase ridership and,
Amtrak ridership is growing. Since state funding began in 1993, ridership on                     eventually, add four to six train
Washington-sponsored routes has grown substantially, from 72,000 in 1994 to
457,000 in 2007. Ridership increased to 521,493 in 2008 from 457,498 in 2007,                    What's next?
a 14 percent increase.                                                                           WSDOT is working to resolve
                                                                                                 border crossing issues for more
                                                                                                 trips to Vancouver, B.C., for the
                                                                                                 2010 Olympics.
                     State-Supported Amtrak Cascades Monthly Ridership
         60,000                                                     2008 total 521,493
                                                                    2007 total 457,498
         50,000         2007
                                                                    2006 total 417,671





                  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun        Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
                  Source: WSDOT 2009

Amtrak on-time performance is
improving. On-time performance
increased from 60 percent for 2007 to 64
percent for 2008. The November 2008 on-
time performance of 81.7 percent was the
best ever. Trains can be delayed for a
number of reasons, including freight train
interference due to limited rail line capacity
(the main cause of delay), landslides, slower
train speeds through railroad construction
areas, delays at the international border
crossing and mechanical equipment                             Source: WSDOT State Rail and Marine Office, 2009


                                                     Measure 3.10 Transportation-Efficient Land Use
MOBILITY                                             Placeholder – still being developed
(Addressing Congestion)                              Placeholder – still being developed

                                                                                            What's been happening?
When people live close to work, they can save time commuting, reduce vehicle                The Transportation Improvement
miles driven and lessen environmental impacts. The balance among population,                Board’s Urban Corridor Program
jobs and housing has a significant effect on mobility. Transportation-efficient land use    targets projects for funding that
                                                                                            provide capacity and supports
promotes walking, biking, carpooling, transit use and other means of efficient              urban density.
transportation. State, regional and local governments play a role in encouraging and
supporting such practices.                                                                  What's the focus now?
                                                                                            WSDOT’s Regional Mobility
There is an imbalance between employment and population growth in the central               Grant Program focuses on
                                                                                            improving connectivity among
Puget Sound region. As shown below, population growth in Snohomish County has               jurisdictions, and increasing
exceeded employment growth, indicating that people live there but commute to work           integration of public
elsewhere. Conversely, King County has seen more growth in employment than in               transportation and the highway
population. More people are commuting to King County for work than in other                 system.
counties.                                                                                   What’s next?
                                                                                            The Puget Sound Regional
                   Job and population growth among central Puget Sound                      Council is developing a long-
                                    counties 1995–2005                                      range transportation plan built
                                                                                            around four areas: better
                            Population          Employment                                  commute choices, system
                                                                                            efficiency improvements, tolling
                                                                                            and strategic investments.




                          0%     10%      20%      30%       40%        50%   60%   70%
                                         Percent of regional growth

                           Source: OFM 2008

Housing growth is primarily in urban growth areas. The Puget Sound Regional Council recently reported that the
region has successfully directed shares of permitted new residential development to its designated urban growth areas, up
from 77 percent in 1995 to 88 percent in 2006.
By targeting development within established urban growth areas to the urban cores, there is less need for new
transportation infrastructure. Of new residential expansion that occurred in the urban growth area since 1995, roughly
half was absorbed by communities in the region’s urban core. However, a sizeable share of new growth occurred in the
region’s outlying areas that are less easily served by public infrastructure. (Puget Sound Trends [No. D5, April 2008])

                                                         Measure 4.1 Fish Passage
ENVIRONMENT                                              Number of culverts fixed and miles of stream habitat opened up
                                                         In 2008, eight culverts were fixed or removed, compared to 12 culverts
                                                         in 2007. The 2008 projects opened up an estimated 13 linear miles of
                                                         stream habitat, compared to 50 linear miles in 2007.

Fixing or removing culverts under state highways that block fish from accessing                          What's been happening?
                                                                                                         Statewide inventory of culverts in
upstream habitat is a priority for the state. WSDOT works with the Washington                            the 7,000-mile state highway
Department of Fish and Wildlife to conduct habitat studies and to inventory,                             system, 1,440 of which have
prioritize, fix or remove fish passage barriers.                                                         potentially significant upstream
                                                                                                         habitat gain.
Priority projects are often “stand-alone” projects. WSDOT fixes culverts as part of
                                                                                                         What's the focus now?
larger highway projects, as stand-alone projects or as part of highway maintenance                       Prioritization of culverts to be
projects. Prioritization is important because not all culverts are equally important to                  fixed or removed, with emphasis
restoring fish habitat. Correcting the top 40 percent of culverts statewide is estimated                 on “stand-alone” projects.
to yield more than 80 percent of the habitat gain.
                                                                                                         What's next?
                                                                                                         Future reports will include local
Stand-alone fish barrier corrections are prioritized to provide the largest habitat gains                results.
for the greatest number of “at-risk” fish species, for the best value. The number of
stand-alone projects built in any one year is driven by legislatively mandated project lists, construction schedules,
funding, technical complexity and regulatory approval processes.

Projects are yielding results. From 1991 through 2008, WSDOT has fixed 225 fish passage barriers that have gained an
estimated 754 miles of potential habitat:
    •    72 were stand-alone projects built with dedicated funding that gained an estimated 383 miles of habitat.
    •    153 were completed as part of highway projects that gained an estimated 371 miles of habitat.

                  Projected lineal miles of habitat gained and completed fish passage correction projects
                                              Number of projects completed per year
                                     Lineal habitat gain is projected cumulative total (in miles)

                                                                                              754 potential miles
   50                                                                                          of habitat gained
   45                                                                        miles
                                                                          of potential
   40                                                                       habitat
                                                                            created                                                 600
                                                                                                                        Fish        500
   30                                                                                                                 passage
   25                                                                                                                 projects      400
   20                                                                                                                 annually      300

    0                                                                                                                               0
        1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
          Source: WSDOT 2007

        Source: WSDOT 2007

                                                          Measure 4.2 Stormwater Runoff Quality
    ENVIRONMENT                                           Number of WSDOT stormwater treatment facilities constructed*
                                                          In 2008, 92 stormwater treatment facilities were constructed statewide,
                                                          a decrease from 129 facilities in 2007.

    Managing stormwater effectively cuts down on pollutants entering streams and                 What's been happening?
    rivers, contributes to Puget Sound and salmon recovery, and reduces flooding                 The state is minimizing the
                                                                                                 effects of stormwater runoff on
    and erosion. Stormwater is a particular concern in Western Washington.                       WSDOT highways and facilities,
                                                                                                 which cover more than 40,000
    Federal regulations and permits govern stormwater runoff. The state and a                    acres with impermeable surface.
    number of local governments are governed by federal Clean Water Act and National
    Pollution Discharge Elimination System permits for municipal stormwater discharges           What's the focus now?
                                                                                                 While new highway projects are
    to surface waters.                                                                           designed to manage stormwater
                                                                                                 appropriately, older highways
    Originally, federal stormwater permits included only the cities of Seattle and Tacoma;       and facilities need to be
    King, Pierce, Snohomish, and Clark counties; and the ports of Seattle and Tacoma.            retrofitted. For example, only
    In 2007, the permit program was expanded to include approximately 100 urbanized              about 12 percent of state
                                                                                                 highway miles in the four permit
    areas across the state. Permits are also required for public entities within specified       counties have stormwater
    geographic areas that own or operate a separate storm sewer system, such as ports.           treatment facilities.

    WSDOT has projects statewide to manage stormwater runoff. Under federal                      What's next?
                                                                                                 The State Department of
    permits, WSDOT constructs facilities, such as catch basins, culverts, vaults and filters,
                                                                                                 Ecology will issue a new
    to control and remove pollutants from stormwater. The permits also require                   stormwater permit in early 2009.
    maintenance and operation of these facilities, as well as vegetation management.             In addition to constructing new
                                                                                                 stormwater facilities,
    WSDOT has constructed 1,964 stormwater treatment facilities statewide since 1996,            transportation agencies will be
                                                                                                 required to inventory stormwater
    including 866 in King, Snohomish, Pierce and Clark counties. The number of                   drainage networks and
    stormwater treatment facilities built in any one year is driven by legislatively mandated    associated facilities, increase
    project lists, construction schedules, funding, technical complexity and regulatory          inspection and maintenance, and
    approval processes.                                                                          retrofit priority highway
                                                                                                 segments, when possible.

                           Number of WSDOT Stormwater Facilities Built in                         * The installation of
                            King, Pierce, Snohomish and Clark Counties                            stormwater treatment facilities
                                                                                                  is an important measure of
                                                                                                  water quality improvement.
                                                                                                  The Department of Ecology
                                                                                                  presumes that by using "best
                                                                                                  management practices" and
                                                                                                  proven treatment technologies,
           510                                                          Facilities per Year       stormwater is being treated to
   of                                                                                             meet water quality standards.
Facilities                                                              Cumulative Facilities     This approach avoids the need
                                                                                                  for costly measurement at each
          170                                                                                     discharge point. Expanded
                                                                                                  monitoring and reporting will be
            0                                                                                     required under the new federal
                  1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

                                            Report Year
                 Source: WSDOT 2008

                                                                       Measure 4.3 Air Quality
ENVIRONMENT                                                            Tons of greenhouse gases produced statewide
                                                                       As of 2005, 95 million metric tons CO2 equivalent were produced
                                                                       statewide (2020 target is 88 million metric tons CO2 equivalent ). New
                                                                       data will be available in 2010 and then every two years.

Reducing greenhouse gas and airborne emissions will bring benefits to the                                     What's been happening?
                                                                                                              Climate Action Team issued its
environment and our citizens’ health. Emissions from cars, trucks, construction                               report and recommendations on
equipment, buses, cargo vessels, ferries and trains are the state’s largest source of                         reduction of GHG emissions
greenhouse gases (GHG) and air pollution. Transportation-related emissions                                    across all sectors of the state,
produced almost 47 percent of the GHG emissions in the state in 2005, and 57                                  including transportation.
percent of the toxic fine particles from diesel exhaust in 2005.
                                                                                                              What's the focus now?
                                                                                                              Reducing air pollution during
Greenhouse gases levels are decreasing. These gases are substances such as carbon                             construction, reducing
dioxide (CO²) which trap the sun’s heat as it is released from the earth and prevent it                       congestion, conserving fuel,
from escaping back into space, thus contributing to the global warming effect. The                            using cleaner fuels on the state
                                                                                                              ferry system, using hybrid
level of GHG in the state decreased from 105 million metric tons CO² equivalent                               vehicles, increasing use of
(MMTCO²e or CO²e) in 2000, to 95 MMTCO²e in 2005. Statute commits the state                                   renewable energy, increasing
to reduce GHG emissions to 1990 levels (88 MMTCO²e) by 2020.                                                  energy efficiency, and reducing
                                                                                                              port, rail and highway diesel
              Washington State Greenhouse Gas Emissions, 1990 and 2005
                                                                                                              What's next?
                                                                                                              Development of measures such
  Road transportation
                                                                                                              as vehicle miles traveled and
                                                                                                              carbon emissions as tools to
                                                                              2005         1990               evaluate progress in reducing
                                                                                                              GHG and air pollution.
  other transportation                                                    Total GHG Emissions
                                                                          1990 - 88 MMTCO2e
                                                                          2000 - 105 MMTCO2e
  Industrial processes                                                    2005 - 95 MMTCO2e
  Waste management

   Fossil fuel industry

                          0                10                 20              30                    40
                                                Millions of Metric Tons CO2 Equivalent
                          Source: Ecology and CTED 2007 Washington State Greenhouse Gas Inventory and
                          Reference Case Projections, 1990-20 (prepared by OFM 2007)

Air pollution is decreasing, but diesel emissions remain a concern. Stricter federal standards for emissions from
vehicles have contributed to the decrease of key airborne pollutants such as carbon monoxide since 1980. However, despite
those decreases, toxic fine particles from diesel exhaust remain a key concern. These are known to have significant adverse
health effects. The state has been working to reduce diesel emissions from school buses and local transit fleets. Additional
emphasis is needed for state and private sector fleets, as well as trains, ships and construction equipment, which also emit
toxic fine particles from diesel exhaust.

                                                              Measure 5.1 Capital Project Delivery
 STEWARDSHIP                                                  Percent of 2003 and 2005 revenue package highway capital projects
                                                              completed on time and within budget
                                                              As of December 2008, 79 percent of the 185 completed revenue
                                                              package projects were on time and within budget.

 WSDOT is in the process of delivering the largest capital construction program                    What’s been happening?
                                                                                                   Declining fuel tax revenues and
 in state history. Funded by revenue increases in 2003 (Nickel) and 2005                           substantial increases in the cost
 (Transportation Partnership Act or TPA), the revenue packages include road, rail and              of construction material pose a
 other types of projects, valued in excess of $15 billion. The highway project portion,            financial challenge for all
 with a total value of $11 billion, comprises 391 projects focused on safety,                      transportation agencies.
 preservation and congestion relief.
                                                                                                   What’s the focus now?
                                                                                                   The Governor’s 2009-11
                                                                                                   proposed budget includes a 6-
                                                                                                   year balanced plan. Due to
                                                                                                   inflation increases on
                                                                                                   construction and declining gas
                                                                                                   tax revenues, some projects are
                                                                                                   being delayed.

                                                                                                   What’s next?
                                                                                                   With the state and federal
                                                                                                   economic recovery bills under
                                                                                                   consideration, the drive is to
                                                                                                   begin as many “shovel-ready”
                                                                                                   projects as possible to create

          Data Source: WSDOT Project Control and Reporting

 Construction costs have soared since 2003. Between 2003 and 2007, the cost of key construction materials
 increased by nearly 60 percent, and subsequently has increased 22 percent in the first three quarters of 2008. One
 reason was rapidly changing fuel prices during the summer of 2008, driven by the price of a barrel of oil, which topped
 out at $147.27 per barrel. Beginning in late 2008, prices began to drop.

      Extent of Bid Price Increases Compared
            to General Inflation Rates
   Percentage Increase Experienced Since 2003
 WSDOT CCI                                              66%
 Concrete Pavement (WSDOT)                             169%
 Steel Reinforcing Bar (WSDOT)                         166%
 Structural Steel (WSDOT)                              161%
 Roadway Excavation (WSDOT)                            121%
 Hot Mix Asphalt (WSDOT)                                85%
 Structural Concrete (WSDOT)                            55%
 Crushed Surfacing (WSDOT)                              33%
 CPI-U General Inflation (USBLS)                        17%
 2.5%/Year x 6 Years Inflation Rate                     15%
Source: WSDOT 2008

STEWARDSHIP                                          5.2 Tolling
                                                     Placeholder – still being developed

                                                                                             What’s been happening?
Taxpayers demand accountability for toll revenue. In order to be transparent                 In 2008, the Legislature passed
about the collection and use of toll revenues, we are reporting on tolling measures for      a broad framework on how tolls
the first time.                                                                              can be imposed on roads and
                                                                                             bridges, and what the tolls can
                                                                                             be used for (Chapter 122, Laws
Two types of tolling. Currently, two types of tolling are used: tolling on the new           of 2008).
Tacoma Narrows Bridge and the four-year High Occupancy Toll lanes pilot project
on SR 167 between Auburn and Renton. Tolling on the Tacoma Narrows Bridge is                 What’s the focus now?
used to pay only for the cost to construct, maintain, preserve and operate the facility.     The Legislature is exploring how
                                                                                             tolling can be used on
“Variable price tolling” is used on SR 167 to test whether tolls can help maximize the       megaprojects such as the
number of vehicles able to use our highways.                                                 Alaskan Way Viaduct, SR 520
                                                                                             floating bridge and other projects
Tacoma Narrows Bridge – uses of toll collections. On the Tacoma Narrows                      to address funding shortfalls and
Bridge, drivers with transponders pay a $2.75 toll ($4.00 to manually pay the toll) to       make the transportation system
                                                                                             work more efficiently.
go east in Tacoma. Tolls are used to pay the debt service on the bridge as well as to
help pay for bridge maintenance, preservation and operation. The table below shows           What’s next?
how toll revenue supports these activities.                                                  WSDOT is moving to make all
                                                                                             tolling on SR 520 electronic to
Use of variable tolls on the HOT lanes on SR 167 improves the efficiency of the              keep traffic moving and eliminate
                                                                                             congestion associated with
transportation system. These tolls are variable: When general purpose lanes are              tolling plazas.
congested, drivers who drive by themselves have the option of paying a toll based on
how congested traffic is. Tolls have ranged from $0.50 to $9.00, depending on how
congested the highway is and 7.3 percent of all traffic in the SR 167 HOV lanes has been HOT lane users.

                                  Use of Tolling Revenue on the Tacoma Narrows Bridge
                                                    (July 2007–October 2008)

                                                                            Biennium $     Percentage
                           WSP Enforcement                                      $633,000         0.9%
                           WSDOT Administration of Toll Operations             2,960,000         4.2%
                           Credit Card Fees Paid by WSDOT                      1,253,000         1.8%
                           WSDOT Maintenance of New Bridge                     1,486,000         2.1%
                           WSDOT Preservation of New Bridge                      477,000         0.7%
                           Insurance                                           4,020,000         5.7%
                           Toll Systems Operations (TransCore Contract)       17,403,000        24.9%
                           Subtotal of Operations and Maintenance
                           Expenses                                          28,322,000        40.3%
                           Debt Service                                      42,010,000        59.7%
                                                                    Total   $70,332,000         100%
                          Source: WSDOT 2008

Key Terms
       Goals: Goals are high-level statements of a desired direction, policy or outcomes. Transportation goals have
       been set by the Legislature in RCW 47.01.012.
       Objectives: Objectives break goals into smaller, more specific pieces. They describe the measurable results an
       agency or program is expected to accomplish within a given time period.
       Performance measures: Performance measures are based on data, and tell a story about whether an agency or
       activity is achieving its objectives and if progress is being made toward attaining policy goals.

State Transportation-Related Agencies
       County Road Administration Board
       Department of Ecology
       Department of Licensing
       Freight Mobility Strategic Investment Board
       Joint Legislative Transportation Committee
       Pilotage Commissioners, Board of
       Transportation Improvement Board
       Utilities and Transportation Commission
       Washington State Department of Transportation
       Washington State Patrol
       Washington State Transportation Commission
       Washington Traffic Safety Commission

       •     Agency-specific activities, performance measures and strategic plans
       •     Climate change
       •     Government Management Accountability & Performance (GMAP)
       •     Key facts
       •     Priorities of Government (POG)
       •     WSDOT’s Gray Notebook
       •     For topic-specific information, see:
       •     Washington Strategic Highway Safety Plan: Target Zero
       •     Washington Transportation Plan

OLYMPIA, WA 98504-3113 (360) 902-0555 FAX (360) 664-2832

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