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					    COMPANIES TO WATCH




INNOVATIONS
    IN MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING




IN MATERIALS AND PROCESSES
    AM&P asked companies involved with materials and processes to submit their innovations
    to a competition we call Companies to Watch in Materials Science and Engineering.
    The companies in this article have been selected as exceptional contributors to innovation in
    the materials industry. Congratulations to these outstanding innovators!
    ATI Allvac                                                  stable, with a much slower growth rate at elevated
„




       Allvac 718Plus is a new precipitation-hardened           temperatures.
    nickel-base superalloy that is capable of main-                For more information: Howard Freese, ATI
    taining excellent strength and stress-rupture prop-         Allvac, 2020 Ashcraft Avenue, Monroe, NC 28110;
    erties to 704ºC (1300ºF). The alloy is designed to          tel: 704/289-4511; howard.freese@allvac.com;
    have the temperature capability and thermal sta-            www.allvac.com.
    bility of Waspaloy, while retaining the processing
    characteristics of standard alloy 718.                      Carpenter Technology Corporation
                                                            „




       In addition, 718Plus has a cost advantage over              The AerMet ultrahigh-strength alloys, including
    Waspaloy because of lower intrinsic raw material            AerMet 100 and the more recently introduced
    costs, as well as improved hot workability and              AerMet 310 and AerMet 340, have been devel-
    weldability that leads to better material yields            oped to meet the demanding service requirements
    in finished parts. These characteristics make it            that designers of high-performance components
    ideal for both rotating and non-rotating compo-             require for aerospace
    nents in next-generation turbine engines, or for            structural applications. As
    replacing incumbent alloys such as Waspaloy and             a family, these alloys offer
    René 41 in legacy engines.                                  a unique combination of
       The primary strengthening phase is gamma-                high strength, excellent
    prime, with a volume fraction ranging from 19.7             ductility, high fracture
    to 23.2 %, depending on the quantity of delta               toughness, and resistance
    phase. Studies of the gamma-prime                                to corrosion, pro-
    phase in 718Plus show it to be high in                                 viding a range of
    niobium and aluminum, which is
    very different from the gamma-
    prime present in Waspaloy and
    René 41. In fact, this may ac-
    count for its unique precip-
    itation behavior and
    strengthening effects.
       Alloy 718Plus also con-
    tains the delta phase,
    which is beneficial for
    conferring stress-rupture                                                                                        Carpenter
    notch ductility and con-                                                                                         Technology’s
    trolling microstructure                                                                                          ultrahigh-
    during thermomechanical                                                                                          strength
    processing. However, the                                                                                         Aermet
    volume fraction of the delta                                                                                     alloys are
    phase is considerably less than is                                                                               available in a
                                                                                                                     range of sizes
    found in alloy 718, and tends to be more                                                                         and forms.

       Allvac 718Plus is being considered for applications in both new and legacy engines, in-
    cluding advanced engines such as the General Electric Aircraft Engines GEnX shown here.

    ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES/JULY 2007                                                                                      25
         strength from 235 ksi to 275 ksi, and fracture             User-friendly, the
         toughness of 60 ksi in. to 100 ksi in.                     InductoScan is easily pro-
            Another alloy, Custom 465 stainless, possesses          grammed through the
         a superior combination of strength, toughness,             PC operator inter-
         corrosion resistance, and strength-to-weight ratio         face providing max-
         compared with other high-strength stainless                imum flexibility and
         steels.                                                    easy use through
            Carpenter Ferrium S53 is an ultrahigh-strength,         simple parameter
         corrosion-resistant stainless steel developed for          entry. Components
         U.S. Air Force aircraft landing gear. This alloy is        and designs are field
         produced and marketed by Carpenter, under li-              proven with more
         cense from QuesTek Innovations LLC.                        than 40 years of expe-
            For information: Lisa MacGregor, Carpenter              rience behind each
         Technology Corp., 101 West Bern Street, Reading,           machine. All equip-
         PA 19601; tel: 610/208-3479; e-mail: lmacgregor@           ment and tooling are backed
         cartech.com; www.cartech.com.                              by the world’s largest designer and manufacturer
                                                                    of induction heating equipment.
         Hysitron Inc.                                                 Mechanical modules provide various process
     „




           In the last year, Hysitron has released two in-situ      solutions; scan, lift/rotate, pick & place, linear
         nanoindentation tools, the TEM PicoIndenter and            transfer, and rotary index. Flexible design also al-
         nanoECR. The TEM PicoIndenter is the first in-             lows for a wide range of power supplies and con-
         strument to enable real-time, direct-observation           trols to be changed or upgraded to meet future
                                  (or in-situ) depth-sensing in-    needs. Removable tank cover enables full access
                                  dentation inside a transmis-      to all mechanical components for ease of mainte-
                                  sion electron microscope.         nance or changeover.
                                  Depth-sensing indentation            InductoScan is a self-contained system on a
                                  (often called nanoindenta-        common base to support standalone work cell re-
                                  tion) involves continuously       quirements. User friendly PC/PLC based controls
                                  acquiring direct measures of      simplify setup, changeover, diagnostics, and
                                  the depth of penetration as       process monitoring. It includes a quench recircu-
                                  a function of applied contact     lating system with plate and frame heat ex-
                                  load while indenting a            changer, and a water cooling recirculating system
         sample, usually with a sharp diamond indenter.             for inverter and coils.
         With this coupling of high-resolution techniques,             For more information: Lauren Trimble, Induc-
         the load-depth (or force-displacement) curve can           toheat Inc., 10 Indel Ave., Rancocas, NJ 08073-0157;
         be time correlated to the TEM movie. For example,          tel; 609/267-9000; www.inductoheat.com.
         it could show the indentation-induced microstruc-
         ture evolution of the sample.                              JEOL USA
                                                              „




             Hysitron’s nanoECR system is a multifunctional            JEOL electron microscopes deliver extremely
         instrument capable of simultaneously measuring             high resolution for nanotechnology research and
         nanomechanical and electrical material proper-             unprecedented quality for imaging fine surface de-
         ties from nanoscale contacts. NanoECR combines             tails, analyzing biological and fabricated samples
         nanoindenter hardware with a conductive in-                at the atomic level, and seeing microscopic details
         denter probe and a voltage/current source to               as they really are, magnified hundreds of thou-
         achieve a time-based correlation of force, displace-       sands of times. Easy to use, flexible for a variety of
         ment, voltage, and current. Both the TEM Pico-
         Indenter and nanoECR are revolutionary instru-
         ments that provide the ability to obtain an in-situ
         correlation of the mechanical properties, material
         deformation behavior, and electrical characteris-
         tics that are important in areas ranging from fun-
         damental material and device understanding to
         product performance and reliability.
             For more information: Dr. Ryan Major, Sr. R&D
         Staff Scientist, Hysitron Inc., 10025 Valley View
         Road, Eden Prairie, MN 55344; tel: 952/835-6366;
         fax: 952/835-6166; rmajor@hysitron.com; www.
         hysitron.com.

         Inductoheat Inc.
     „




           Inductoheat Inc. has developed the Inducto-
         Scan, a high-performance induction heat-treating
         system for mid-to-high volume and/or multi-shift
         operations. Multiple scan-tower modules are                   The JEOL transmission electron microscope helps re-
         available to accommodate a wide variety of parts.          searchers develop improved materials.

26                                                                 ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES/JULY 2007
    applications, and backed by award-winning sup-
    port, JEOL electron microscopes play an influen-
    tial role in the development of new products and
    materials, analysis for quality control and forensic
    investigations, and materials characterization.
       For the crystallographer, metallurgist, or semi-
    conductor research scientist, current high
    voltage/high resolution TEMs, utilizing 200 keV
    to 1 MeV, have permitted the routine imaging of
    atoms, allowing materials researchers to monitor
    and design materials with custom-tailored prop-
    erties. With the addition of energy dispersive X-
                                                              Left, a TEM micrograph shows the nanometer-size grain structure of one of
    ray analysis (EDXA) or energy loss spectrometry        NanoSteel’s SHS alloys. Right, the SHS hardfacing applied to the excavator bucket
    (EELS), the TEM can also serve as an elemental         tooth in the foreground provides a sharp contrast in wear protection when com-
    analysis tool, capable of identifying the elements     pared to bucket teeth in the background which have not been hardfaced.
    in areas less than 0.5μm in diameter. Cryo-EM and
    tomography help to develop 3D models of
    viruses, enabling researchers to mimic the self-
    assembling molecular structure to create new
    nanoparticles for materials science.
       For more information: Pamela Mansfield, JEOL
    USA Inc., 11 Dearborn Road, Peabody, MA 01960;
    tel: 978/536-2309; www.jeolusa.com

    Nanosteel Co.
„




       The key to NanoSteel’s new family of alloys,
    known as Super Hard Steel (SHS), is their ability
    to form very small property-enhancing,                    After extensive testing, NSL chemists determined that
                                                           microwave-digestion would be a reliable test method that
    nanometer-sized grain structures. In doing so,
                                                           would save considerable time and cost for customers trying
    SHS provides performance well above that of con-       to comply with RoHS directives.
    ventional steel and into the realm of tungsten-
    carbide products for wear and nickel-based             system. Second, the entire operational part of the
    superalloys for corrosion, without the associated      system rests on a floating platform of air cylinders,
    high cost. Enhancing their ease of use, the            enabling it to accommodate different plate thick-
    patented SHS alloys are designed for conventional      nesses and distortions from heat treating.
    processing and application equipment.                     Having two test methods provides the steel mill
       Now applied by thermal spray, welding, and          with the ability to test with standard E-10 method
    laser cladding processes, NanoSteel’s SHS atom-        for customers with stricter requirements, or to use
    ized powder and wire products are extending the        the more efficient depth-Brinell for other cus-
    service life of mission-critical industrial compo-     tomers. The methods are equally accurate, but
    nents in the oil & gas, power generation, mining,      the E-10 method is more traditional.
    and raw materials processing industries. After            The test cycle takes less than a minute. First, a
    initially introducing SHS for thermal spray appli-     trolley moves the tester into position next to a plate
    cations in 2002, Nanosteel extended the product        on the production line. The tester slightly lifts and
    line for service as a weld overlay in 2006.            clamps the edge of the plate, grinds the test lo-
       The company is now developing new alloys to         cation, then makes and measures an indentation
    be the basis of nanostructured sheet steel and plate   via 3000 kg of test force. The waviness of the plate
    that will offer a unique combination of high per-      after heat treating necessitates the floating design,
    formance with low cost from a highly recyclable        which allows so the tester to automatically accom-
    and easy to use material. This combination has         modate different working heights.
    the potential to redefine steel for many different        For more information: Jeb Blair, Newage Testing
    worldwide industries.                                  Instruments Inc., 147 James Way, Southampton,
       For more information: Greg Nixon, The Nano-         PA 18966-3817; tel: 215/526-2200; jblair@newage-
    Steel Company, 67 Cedar Street, Suite 101, Prov-       instruments.com; www.newageinstruments.com.
    idence, RI 02903; tel: 401/270-3549; fax: 401/270-
    9306; www.nanosteelco.com.                             NSL Analytical Services
                                                      „




                                                              NSL recently solved a major testing problem
    Newage Testing Instruments Inc.                        faced by customers trying to comply with the RoHS
„




       Newage has developed a Brinell hardness testing     Directive restricting the amount of high-mass-unit
    system that combines several unique features for       additives such as PBB and PBDE flame retardants
    inline testing of hardened steel plate. First, the     in electrical equipment. The problem was the lack
    Brinell system allows the operator to select the       of a reliable, cost-effective way to test for flame re-
    system: ASTM E-103 for Brinell depth-of-indenta-       tardants in polymers. An EPA method was origi-
    tion measurement, or E-10 for traditional optical      nally adapted for this analysis, but it requires large
    Brinell measurement by an automatic scanning           samples and solvents that are expensive to dispose
    ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES/JULY 2007                                                                                           27
                            of, and can take up to 24 hours to run. After exten-       tion capabilities and a struc-
                            sive testing, NSL chemists determined that mi-             ture closely approximating
                            crowave-digestion would be a reliable test that            that of bone or wood.
                            would save considerable time and cost.                         S Comp’s unique structure
                               Basic steps in the process include FTIR analysis        is a space-filling array of hol-
                            to determine polymer chemistry, and cryogenic              low reinforcements or micro-
                            grinding for efficient extraction. In the next step,       balloons, embedded in a metal
                            a proprietary solvent is added for accurate quan-          matrix. These microballoons
                            tification. Then the microwave digestion process           can be SLS glass, E-glass, mul-
                            is run three times to extract 99.999% of the addi-         lite, alumina, SiC, or carbon, de-
                            tive. The material is then analyzed with GC/MS             pending upon the metal matrix
                            to determine the amount of additive.                       density and properties needed.
                               This new method can serve to extract materials          S-Comp densities are typically
                            other than flame retardants, and future work will          30 to 70% of the pure metal alloy. Modulus typi-
                            concentrate on proving applicability to other high-        cally ranges from 25 to 50% of the parent metal
                            mass-unit additives in plastics, such as UV ab-            alloy, while other mechanical properties can be 50
                            sorbers, stabilizers, plasticizers, and flow additives.    to 75% of the parent material.
                               For more information: Greg CiCillo, NSL Ana-               S-Comp materials have an exceptional ability
                            lytical Services Inc., 4450 Cranwood Parkway,              to absorb high impact energies, whether from
                            Cleveland, OH 44128; tel: 216/438-5200; 800/497-           large-body impact, ballistics, blade fragments, or
                            6752; www.nslanalytical.com.                               collisions. Higher initial crushing strength make
                                                                                       them ideal in situations where only high-energy
                            Olympus NDT                                                threats are of concern, allowing smaller impacts
                       „




                               Olympus NDT has been instrumental in the de-            to be deflected with no structural deformation
                            velopment of ultrasound phased array technology            while large threatening impacts are effectively
                            that offers considerable potential in the niche            absorbed. With more than five times the energy
                            world of nondestructive testing. Phased array              absorption per unit volume, and more than twice
                                            provides many advantages over              the energy absorption relative to weight than com-
                                              conventional ultrasound and              petitive metal aluminum foams, S-Comp metallic
                                              other NDT technologies. It has           composites are ready for your impact and ballistic
                                              become user-friendly and realis-         mitigation needs.
                                              tically priced, with more prod-             For more information: Brian Doud, Powdermet
                                              ucts and applications, and lower         Inc., 24112 Rockwell Drive, Euclid, OH 44117; tel:
                                              prices predicted in the future.          216/404-0053; bpdoud@powdermetinc.com;
                                              Phased arrays are remarkably             www.powdermetinc.com.
                                              versatile, with economical solu-
                                              tions to many industrial prob-           QuesTek Innovations LLC
                                                                                 „




    The OmniScan is a                       lems. Advantages of phased ar-                Working with the United States Air Force,
 portable phased array      rays include faster inspection speed, versatility          QuesTek Innovations LLC has computationally
   instrument that has      in applications with easy setup changes, easy-to-          designed and developed a unique high-strength,
   become widely used       read detailed cross-sectional scans of internal de-        high-toughness, corrosion-resistant steel to re-
          in a variety of   fects, small probe footprints for restricted test          place 300M in landing gear systems. 300M, the
industries since it was     areas, and full data analysis and archiving.               steel currently used in the vast majority of USAF
   introduced in 2003.         Olympus has applied this groundbreaking tech-           landing gear components, requires cadmium
      It has a modular      nology to real-world applications by developing            plating for environmental protection. However,
       mainframe with
                            a number of portable and automated inspection              cadmium is a known carcinogen and represents
             replaceable
   technology modules
                            systems for a variety of maintenance and manu-             hazards on install, overhaul, maintenance, and
  (UT, PA, EC, ECA).        facturing applications. The portable modular Om-           repair. The Air Force esti-
                            niScan series of flaw detectors offers high-speed          mates $200M dollars is
                            acquisition rates for both manual and automated            spent annually on landing
                            inspections, the PipeWizard for automated in-
                            spection of pipeline girth welds, the TomoScan
                            Focus LT acquisition unit, TomoView software,
                            and a complete selection of phased array probes.
                               For more information: Meindert Andersen,
                            Olympus NDT, 48 Woerd Avenue, Waltham, MA
                            02453; tel: 781/419-3900; www.olympusndt.com.

                            Powdermet Inc.
                       „




                               Powdermet has developed S-Comp, a family
                            of structural syntactic metal composites with su-
                            perior strength-to-weight ratios, better forma-
                            bility, and lower cost compared to honeycomb
                            and integrally stiffened panel alternatives. S-               The A10 Warthog landing gear contains a piston made of
                            Comp materials have exceptional energy-absorp-             the Questek Ferrium S53 alloy.

      28                                                                              ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES/JULY 2007
    gear overhaul and repair, 80% of which is corro-                     TargetDoser is an automatic dosing station, pro-
    sion-related.                                                     viding preparation methods and process liquids
       QuesTek has applied its Materials By Design                    to TargetMaster. It has seven pumps and ten pre-            Innovations
    methodology to computationally design a corro-                    programmed methods, and accommodates 200
    sion resistant steel named Ferrium S53, which                     user-defined methods.
                                                                                                                                  in materials
    meets Air Force requirements for landing gear.                       The TargetSystem also provides precision au-             and
    QuesTek has patented the alloy and has already                    tomated grinding and polishing to the pre-deter-            processes
    licensed its first licensee for production and dis-               mined target, with an accuracy of +/-5 microns
    tribution. The design, scale-up, qualification, and               or better.                                                  are the
    licensing of S53 validates QuesTek’s unique busi-                    For more information: Struers Inc., 24766 De-            foundation
    ness model as a materials design firm with ex-                    troit Road, Westlake, OH 44145; tel: 440/871-0071;          for advances
    pertise in the development and licensing of intel-                www.struers.com.
    lectual property. AMS and MMPDS specifications                                                                                in every
    for Ferrium S53 are anticipated in 2007, and the                  Thermo-Calc Software Inc.                                   industry,



                                                                 „
    U.S. Air Force is now actively working on com-                       Thermo-Calc is a leading developer of software           especially
    ponent qualification. Once implemented, Ferrium                   and databases for calculations involving compu-
    S53 will reduce corrosion condemnations, dra-                     tational thermodynamics and diffusion-controlled            aerospace,
    matically improve stress-corrosion-cracking re-                   simulations. It is a powerful software package for          automotive,
    sistance, and result in more robust and safe                      thermodynamic calculations for multicomponent
    landing gear for the Air Force fleet.
                                                                                                                                  and
                                                                      systems relevant to iron, nickel, aluminum, tita-
       For more information: Brian Tufts, Materials                   nium, and magnesium-base alloys, as well as                 electronics.
    Design Engineer, QuesTek Innovations LLC, 1820                    other complex systems.
    Ridge Ave., Evanston, IL 60201; tel: 847/425-8241;                   Thermo-Calc sold its first license to a commer-
    fax: 847/328-5855; btufts@questek.com.                            cial company in 1984. Since then, the Calphad
                                                                      methodology on which Thermo-Calc is based, the
    Struers Inc.                                                      software and databases, have been continuously
„




       The Struers TargetSystem is a significant ad-                  developed and are now widely used within in-
    vance in the microelectronics industry’s approach                 dustry, government research labs, and academia.
    to microsectioning and sample preparation for                     Once seen as more of a research tool, Thermo-Calc
    failure analysis. The system has reduced sample                   now serves not only to design new alloys, but also
    preparation times from about eight hours to just                  to predict phase balances and precipitate forma-
    35 minutes, and it provides excellent finished                    tion based on specific chemistries as a way of im-
    polish quality.                                                   proving quality control and anticipating problem-
       The system allows the user, through a fully au-                atic heats ahead of time.
    tomated process, to view both hidden and visible                     Thermo-Calc Software has recently announced
    targets such as microvias and wire bonds. This                    the release of TCFE5, a thermodynamic database
    is done through two setup stations, TargetZ and                   for different kinds of steels and iron-base alloys
    TargetX.                                                          for Thermo-Calc and DICTRA. This release fol-
       TargetZ is a video microscope for viewing and                  lows a three-year collaborative program for stain-
    sighting specific distances to visible targets. With              less steels carried out within the framework of the
    a powerful vision system of up to 680X magnifi-                   Centre for Computational Thermodynamics; the
    cation and its 15-inch TFT monitor, TargetZ makes                 CCT is a collaboration between the Royal Insti-
    it a simple task to map and align even minute                     tute of Technology (Stockholm, Sweden), Kimab,
    targets.                                                          and Swedish industry. Besides improving upon
       TargetX is a console allowing for the positioning              the accuracy of predictions compared with ear-
    of the specimen within the customer’s existing X-                 lier versions of this database, TCFE5 also includes
    ray machine, and for sighting specific distances
    to hidden targets.




       The Struers Target System is the first failure analysis tool     Thermo-Calc can be used to calculate how the tempera-
    that permits real-time alignment and measurement of both          ture at which sigma phase first appears varies within the
    visible and hidden targets, such as microvias and BGAs.           normal range of composition for a particular alloy.

    ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES/JULY 2007                                                                                              29
                                                                         The CRISP system is shown being inspected shortly after its
                                                                      installation by one of the initiators of CRISP, Prof. Dr. Eckhard
                                                                      Quandt (center) who is now at the Christian Albrechts Univer-
                                                                      sity in Kiel; Dr. Markus Dilger, Managing Director of the Nano
                                                                      Technology Systems Division at Carl Zeiss SMT (right); and Dr.
                                                                      Hartwig Bechte (left), Commercial Administrator at the Caesar
                                                                      Institute.

      VisiTec has    molar volume data for the phases, which allows         Carl Zeiss SMT
                                                                      „

      developed a    for the prediction of volume fraction of phases, as       The Nano Technology Systems Division of
  large-chamber      well as density and thermal expansivity based on       Carl Zeiss SMT has developed a unique trans-
        scanning     composition and temperature.                           mission electron microscope (TEM) for the
          electron     For more information: Paul Mason, President,          imaging and analysis of materials with atomic
microscope that      Thermo-Calc Software Inc., 4160 Washington
     is combined                                                            resolution. The CRISP (Corrected Illumination
                     Road, Suite 230, McMurray, PA 15317; tel: 724/731      Scanning TEM Probe) system utilizes a variety
with a hydraulic
   tensile tester.   0074; fax: 724/731 0078; www.thermocalc.com.           of uniquely combined electron-optical innova-
                                                                            tions. These include, above all, an imaging
                     VisiTec of America                                     energy filter from the Zeiss 200kV Libra 200
                „




                        VisiTec has developed a large-chamber scan-         instrument generation, supplemented with an
                     ning electron microscope that combines an LC-          electrostatic electron monochromator and
                     SEM with a MTS Hydraulic Tensile Tester. It in-        an aberration-corrected illumination system.
                     cludes a node control mechanism that creates a         These technological innovations provide un-
                     still observation node at any location on the spec-    paralleled insights into the innermost proper-
                     imen during fatigue cycling, allowing a point of       ties of materials.
                     interest to remain within view. The exceptional           A special CRISP application, in addition to the
                     stability of this machine enables improved in-situ     established projection imaging of the specimen
                     study of the fatigue-cracking phenomenon.              structure, is the possibility of scanning the ob-
                        The tensile testing machine is mounted on a         ject with an atomic-sized electron probe.
                     steel frame and is introduced inside the vacuum           It is also possible to scan an image with the
                     chamber. In this combined test, not only the force     specimen signal generated in the process of scan-
                     and break point of the material are determined,        ning via TEM. In doing so, the special corrector
                     but also the crack is available to be viewed and       in the CRISP illumination system leads to an im-
                     studied thanks to the microscope.                      provement of the spatial resolution down to
                        In this way, the microscope is transformed into     atomic resolution.
                     a complete testing device. The properties of the          In other words, it is possible to image atoms
                     materials can be studied after fatigue testing, de-    at a distance of less than one ten-millionth of a
                     livering complete testing results. This system in-     millimeter (= 1 Angstrom). Furthermore, the
                     creases the ability to record material structural      corrector permits the use of a beam current that
                     changes that precede crack nucleation, and allows      is a factor of ten higher than standard systems,
                     observation of the influences of microstructure        which significantly improves the reliability of
                     on the early stages of crack propagation.              chemical analyses and the acquisition time of
                        For more information: Adriana Romero, Di-           the measurements.
                     rector, VisiTec of America, 200 Prosperity Drive,         For more information: Markus Wiederspahn,
                     Oak Ridge, TN 37923; tel: 895/228-1851; romero         Germany; tel: +49 73 64 20 21 94; email: wiederspahn
                     @visitec-em.de; www.visitec-em.de.                     @smt.zeiss.com; www.zeiss.com.
30                                                                         ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES/JULY 2007