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Industrial Pollution Control Measure in Yokkaichi, Mie Ken by zxg15325


									Seminar Report/6 Feb, 2004/ICETT Yokkaichi

                                 Seminar’s Final Report

  Industrial Pollution Control Measure in Yokkaichi, Mie Ken
 International Center For Environmental Technology Transfer
            Yokkaichi City, February 29th – March 7th, 2004


1. Mr. HOQUE Md. Mosta Gausul (Bangladesh)
2. Mr. Edi MUNAWAR (Indonesia)
3. Ms. Elvagris Segovia Estrada (Mexico)
4. Mr. Luis Enrique Oshiro (Peru)
5. Ms. NGUYEN Thuong Thi (Vietnam)
6. Mr. TRAN Viet Su (Vietnam)
7. Ms. NGUYEN Hoang Tra My (Vietnam)

Seminar Report/6 Feb, 2004/ICETT Yokkaichi



Ⅱ.The development of environment pollution in Yokkaichi city

Ⅲ.The countermeasures to environment problems and the

         establishment of environmental law in Yokkaichi city

Ⅳ.Outcomes of pollution control and environment preservation

         activities in Yokkaichi

Ⅴ.Country lessons


Seminar Report/6 Feb, 2004/ICETT Yokkaichi

      This seminar was carried out at International Center for Environmental
Technology Transfer (ICETT) in Yokkaichi City, Mie Prefecture, from February 29th to
March 7th.

       This Seminar was organized by the Japan International Cooperation Agency
(JICA), JICE, Chubu International Center (CBIC) and International Center for
Environmental Technology Transfer (ICETT), under the Field Focused Course of the
JICA Scholarship Seminar between eight seminars scheduled.

According to this seminar, the achievements goals were:

    1. Collecting Knowledge, experience, technology and information that contribute to
       resolve the environmental problem in their own countries, not only in their
       specialized field but also from comprehensive standards.
    2. Promoting to understand Japanese society and culture through exchange with
       citizens and community in Yokkaichi city.
    3. Understanding the effort, waste measure and environmental education, by the local
       governments that aim for environmental protection and forming cyclical society.

    Thus, the seminar included lectures in the morning at ICETT, about environmental
problem occurred in Yokkaichi, how successful were overcome, the measures done, the
present pollutions problems and what are they doing now to maintain the environmental
quality to protect the human life and ecology systems of this city.
    However, not only we were attending lectures, also we had field observations and
visited places like Yokkaichi Port, waste and wastewater treatment plant, monitoring
center where we could appreciate the efforts that the city, industry and citizens are
involved to solve their environmental problem.
    Beside these activities mentioned before, the seminar was scheduled to join a group of
children and be part in “Kodomo-KankyoJuku” (Children Environmental Circle) and do
different activities with them to learn about the Environmental Education in Yokkaichi
City and be in touch with the Japanese society also because these children are part of this
society. Finally this report was presented to the JICA and ICETT members.

Seminar Report/6 Feb, 2004/ICETT Yokkaichi

    All over the world, during economics development, all the countries have to deal with
environmental problems such as air, water and land pollution. Many environmental
diseases has been happened and cost a lot of money and human lives. Industrial pollution
had been well known on the world and Japan is one of the typical cases. Japan and its high
economic growth policies after the World War II caused intensifying pollution problems
such as Yokkaichi Asthma, Minamata disease and Itai-itai disease. According to these
events, Japanese government has to develop its policy to control pollutant concentration
and protect the environment.
    The Yokkaichi event was well known as its asthma. It was the result of industrial
development in this city. Based on the economy recovery plan, Japanese government
decided to develop the petrochemical industry in Yokkaichi in 1955. After the first
petrochemical complex was full operated, many patients with asthma or other respiratory
organ diseases but there was no knowledge of the relationship between air pollution and
these disease. According to the past researches, there was the relationship between sulfur
dioxide in air and the number of patients in this area. These results were led to establish
the new regulation that was required companies to treat air emission concentration before
discharge. The government of Yokkaichi city has started its program not only to
monitoring the pollution but also conservation the environment. Nowadays, Yokkaichi
city is the symbol of Japanese successes in pollution controlling and establish the
environmentally sustainable socio-economy.
    This course provides the chance for:
(1) Collecting knowledge, experience, technology and information that contribute to
    resolve the environmental problem in their own countries, not only in their specialized
    field but also from a comprehensive standard.
(2) Understanding the effort, waste measure and environmental education by the local
    governments that aim for environmental protection and forming cyclical society.
(3) Promoting to understand Japanese society and culture through exchange with citizens
    and community in Yokkaichi-city.

Seminar Report/6 Feb, 2004/ICETT Yokkaichi

        In an attempt to catch up with West European countries and the United States,
Japan, in the early part of the Meiji Era, (1868), set forth to build up her wealth, much
efforts were directed at fostering industry, such as setting up government-run factories.
Soon the abuse of industrialization and urbanization was beginning to show. During this
time, copper poisoning from the mines contaminated water and sulfur dioxide released by
some chemical companies polluted air that effect on human body seriously. WWI
provided Japan, the opportunity to modernize her heavy and machine industries, which
brought about a rise in coal consumption, the major source of energy, at that time. As a
result, the state of air pollution in industrial zones got worse and worse. However, the
country was heading towards war ignoring these environmental problems.
        After World War II, Japanese economy has developed rapidly and many changes
occurred, for example technical innovation, energy change and transformation of
industrial structures. In 1955, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI)
undertook the Petrochemical Growth Action Project with the First Stage Plan for the
Petrochemical Industry. As a result, the construction of the Number 1 Petrochemical
Complex, which consists of the oil refinery plant, the petrochemical derivatives
manufacturing plant and the power plant, was started in 1956 in Yokkaichi. Worthwhile to
mention that it was the first petrochemical complex in Japan. Ikeda administration, in 1960,
adopted as part of policy for attaining a high level of economic growth the National
Income-Doubling Program, aimed at doubling the nation’s economy and income over a 10
year period. Under this program, the government chose Yokkaichi area as an important
site for petrochemical complex.
        In the same year, MITI announced their Second Stage Plan for Petrochemical
Industry which planned for a second complex, commonly referred to as the Umaokoshi
complex, to be constructed up top reclaimed land in the northern part of Yokkaichi. The
complex was fired up in 1963 making Yokkaichi one of the more prominent petrochemical
industrial cities in Japan. Then to cope with the increased demand of ethylene and
derivatives, the operations of No.3 complex, started in 1972.
        Effects of industrial pollution
        Foul smelling fish
        The first real sign of environmental pollution was seen in fish caught in Ise Bay. It
was observed that the fish from the bay is smelled of petroleum. By 1960, shortly after the

Seminar Report/6 Feb, 2004/ICETT Yokkaichi

No. 1 complex was fired up, the range of foul smelling fish had reached 4 kilometer out in
to the nearby water. At the time, some 350,000 tones of effluents were being pumped daily
from the factories of No. 1 complex in to the port. Pollution spread across the northern
part of the bay. Damage suffered by the fisheries is said to have soared to nearly 0.1
billion yen in the year leading up to the moment. This is when the first problem of
pollution in Yokkaichi became reality. The Government of the MIE prefecture confirmed
it through necessary investigative research.
        Noise and Odors problem
        The residents of Shiohama district, who live around the perimeter of the No. 1
complex, started suffering by the daylong noise, vibration, dust and powerfully poignant
gas causing watering of the eyes and coughing, complained of sleepiness due to noise and
gas released by the complex. They formed a federation and submitted their appeal to the
civil authorities. Then Yokkaichi rank one of the four major cases of industrial pollution in
Japan. Fortunately the prompt research directed that industrial effluents as the cause of the
foul smelling fish and sulfur dioxide emitted from petrochemical complex as the cause of
air pollution.
        Asthma – became a big issue
        The nation, in 1960, was using on the average 41.5% coal as her energy source, but
that proportion in Yokkaichi was a mere 5% now that the shift to petroleum had been
completed ahead of the rest of the country. The Middle East petroleum, containing 3% of
sulfur dioxide commonly known as “white smog”, were being used widely. Ultimately, it
started releasing sulfur dioxide and polluted air and caused sufferings for the people living
nearby. A growing number of persons started complaining of aliments such as coughing,
sore throats and violent attacks of asthma which later to become known as “Yokkaichi
Asthma”, the respiratory organs disease, and developed into a problem of societal
        Of the less than 3,000 people living in the Isozu district, some 2.3% had come
down with asthma as of 1964 while a frightening 10% of those ages 50 and over were
affected. In September 1967, the patients sued, first pollution case called the Yokkaichi
Pollution Lawsuit, against six companies of No. 1 complex. They claimed that their
asthma had been caused by sulfur dioxide emitted from those factories and appealed the
compensation and consolatory money. After four years and ten months, in July 1972, the
plaintiff won the suit. The verdict proved that the companies had not recognized well

Seminar Report/6 Feb, 2004/ICETT Yokkaichi

enough the pollution and control by the government had not been sufficient. Thanks
companies’ management for understanding rightly the exact problem and not moving
further to appeal in the upper court.
        This verdict was a trigger to make the government and enterprises strengthen the
pollution control and an important guideline to implement both development and
environmental conservation by the national government and local governments.
        Whenever a problem regarding environmental pollution had identified, the
government and other concerned agencies took necessary steps without delay and
successfully eliminated the problem.
        Award of Global 500
The pollution control by establishing Pollution related Patients’ Relief System and Total
Emission Control and the effort for international environmental cooperation as a leader of
establishment of ICEET were highly evaluated globally and in June 1995 Yokkaichi City
was awarded with ‘Global 500’ by UNEP (United Nations Environment program).

        The first air pollution problem in Yokaichi city such as respiratory disease due to
sulfur dioxide came shortly after the first petrochemical complex was fired up in 1960.
The pollution spread across the northern part of bay. At that time, about 350 thousand tons
of effluent where pumped from the factories of petrochemical complex into port per day.
The environmental problem was indicated by smelled petroleum in first from the northern
port of Ise Bay.
        The local fisheries and residents interpreting that something strange was going on.
The Forestry and Fishery Department of the prefecture immediately launched an
investigation which in their report showing that 100% of the fish in area extending to a 4
km from coast were contaminated by petroleum industrial waste. In the March of the same
year, Prof. Katsumi Yoshida, professor of public hygiene and sanitation at Mie University
conducted investigation research into this situation. In his report, Prof. Yoshida reported
that accumulation and migration of industrial effluent from petrochemical complex caused
smelled in fish.
III.1   The Smoke and Soot Regulation Law
        The air pollution problem was become serious in each area inline with rapid
growth industrial sector and this situation needed urgently legislative action. The Ministry

Seminar Report/6 Feb, 2004/ICETT Yokkaichi

of Health and Welfare also took in legislation commencing to start seriously investigation
and create prevention of air pollution. In March 1962 a draft of proposed law for
regulation on smoke discharge (The Smoke and Soot Regulation Law) was received and
put in priority. In May of the same year, the law was partiality amended and then approved
as the first law on the air pollution control in Japan than effect on December 1 of that year.
Further after the establishment of the Smoke and Soot Regulation Law, research and
development was started to measuring suspended particulate, sulfur oxide, nitrogen oxide,
carbon monoxide, and photochemical oxidant was intensively conducted in term to newly
this regulation.
        In order to carryout the investigation, the Yokkaichi Regional Air Pollutant Special
Investigate Committee (Kurokawa Investigation Team) was formed. Based on
investigation results this committee, strict value sulfur dioxide emission standard of
smokestack in Yokaichi city was settled, which sulfur dioxide concentration for the former
and future smokestacks of petrochemical factory are 0.22% and 0.18%, respectively.
These standard more strict than the smoke and soot regulation law.
III.2   The Higher Smokestack Regulation
        On first May 1966 or two year after postponement period had passed the
submission of the Kurokawa investigation team report, the smoke and soot regulation law
was enforced to the Yokaichi region. However, it could not be effect to improve air
pollution problem in Yokaichi city. Even smokestack was within the regulated value, the
concentration of pollutant at ground level remain increase when they pollutant source were
concentrated close to each other. The Figure 1 present typical sulfur dioxide spread in

Seminar Report/6 Feb, 2004/ICETT Yokkaichi

ground level Yokkaichi city by district due to geographical topology.
Figure 3.1 Distributions of Sulfur Oxides in Yokkaichi by District

         Based on this fact, Mr. Ito, who was a specialist on meteorology and member of
investigation team stated that the distance between the Isozu area and first petrochemical
complex was penetrating the smoke and downdraft into ground level. In order to avoid this
downdraft pollution, the policy to increase high of the smokestack gas was promoted. The
promotion to increase high of the smokestack than becomes new policy in Yokaichi city.
The smokestack not only become more higher, but tests including narrowing the top of the
smokestack to diffuse the exhaust gas and neutralizing the sulfuric acid mist by injecting
ammonia were also carried out.
         Based on this experience were the effectiveness of high smokestack could be
preventing human healthy who was resident at close to factories was enacted in the Air
Pollution Control Law. The allowable discharge amounts of sulfur dioxide were
determined by effective smokestack high, and than known well as “K-Value Regulation”.
The discharge amount of sulfur oxides obtained by this regulation were calculated by
formula as show below:
         Q = K x 10-3 x He2
         Q : amount of sulfur dioxide (Nm3/hour)
         K : constant stipulated in the Air Pollution Control Law
         He : effective smokestack height (m)

         The K-value in above formula was constants determined in each region. The
smaller K-value become strictly concentration of sulfur dioxide allowed to discharge to
atmosphere in that region. After 1967, almost all factories in petrochemical complex in the
Yokaichi city had smokestack with high about 100 to 200 meters. Figure 3.2 present sulfur
dioxide concentrations at the ground level before and after applied high smokestack in
Yokaichi city during 1964 until 1970 period

Seminar Report/6 Feb, 2004/ICETT Yokkaichi

          Figure 3.2 The sulfur dioxide concentration changed before and after
          applied the higher smokestack regulation

III.3   Establishment of The Basic Law for Environmental Pollution Control
        As well as mention in previous section, that by present industrial sector not only
effect on air pollution but also water pollution, solid waste, noise, vibration and offensive
odors. In order to improve environmental condition was damaged by increasing industrial
sector, the Environmental Pollution Control Service Corporation Law was established in
June 1965. Together with carrying out important inspection of pollution measures this law
was financed the funds necessary for pollution controls at low interest rates.
        In July 1963 the Mie Prefecture Pollution Control Ordinance was approved at a
regular prefecture diet meeting and was implemented in the January of the following year.
This was a solid pollution control system carried out by Mie prefecture. In this ordinance,
regulations were established for air and water pollutions, which were stipulated in the
Water Quality Conservation Law and Smoke and Soot Regulation.
III.4   Environmental Agreements, Organization and Community
        The first time that Yokkaichi’s problem became known nation-wide was in 1967,
when people living in the same district as the First Complex filed a case against the six
companies of the complex. Further the decisions “communal illegal acts due to
negligence” was passed against the companies forming the 1972 Complex, and were made
to pay equal compensation regardless of emission contribution. This was also a decision
that demanded improvements of environmental administration from the national,
prefecture and city government agencies.

Seminar Report/6 Feb, 2004/ICETT Yokkaichi

        After these decisions, the government of Mie Prefecture and Yokkaichi City
heralded the national government in implementing free treatment for the people affected
by the pollution and reinforcement of emission laws, such as the Law on the Total
Emission Volume of Sulfur Oxides. The companies accepted the decision of the Court to
adopt the “attaining harmony with the community and prioritizing the expeditious relief of
patients, as a basic policy in the management of the Complex”.
    Thereafter, the government and the industry came together and responded to the
problems. As a result, the environment of Yokkaichi after 1973 has greatly improved.
    Industry Effort
    The emergency measures implemented at that time, an over-all review of the
“Pollution Prevention Program” formulated based on the “Fundamental Law on Pollution
Measures” was conducted. Between 1972 to 1976 the companies’ investments totaling
over 100 billion yen were made, introducing pollution facilities of the latest technologies
for gas and wastewater treatment. At that time “Five Emergency Measures” were
    1. A reduction of 10 to 20% of sulfur oxide emissions of each plant in emission
        volume is promoted.
    2. As a reinforcing policy for the increase in environmental concentration of sulfur
        oxides, a 20% reduction of sulfur oxides (either by reducing operation of
        production facilities by 20%, by switching to low-sulfur fuels, or by increasing the
        removal rates of desulfurization equipment, etc) is promoted.
    3. Formulation and submission of a revised plan of the Pollution Prevention Program
        (for 5 years)
    4. Installation of telemeter system for the monitoring of sulfur oxides emission
    5. Cooperation in the establishment of the “Yokkaichi Pollution Measures
        Cooperative Foundation” for the relief of pollution victims.
    The Industry and the Community
    The anti-pollution movements from citizens groups, government’s organizations, labor
union, etc. became active, meetings and reviews of environmental problems between the
industry and the government became frequent, and in 1964, the “Yokkaichi District
Environmental Measures Convention” was established. Companies in complexes worked
together to harmonize the level of their pollution preventive measures.

Seminar Report/6 Feb, 2004/ICETT Yokkaichi

    It plays important role of being the contact point between industry and society through
the previously mentioned emergency measures and middle and long-term pollution
preventive measures. Member Companies : 27 (2002).
    The agreements between the industries and the community are very important, even in
these day when pollution related law and ordinances are in places, these agreements are
being continued as it provides pollution prevention of each community. It means alliance
between industry and community in the facilitation of establishment and company
activities. After 1968 through the demand of Yokkaichi City, the industry signed the
“Pollution Prevention Memorandum of Agreement”.
    In 1969, when the Yokkaichi pollution became a major social problem, Yokkaichi and
the Third Complex, entered into an agreement on the before mentioned public disaster
prevention. Based on the agreement, construction and its operations began with the
condition that a deliberative council on measures related to public disaster prevention be
established between the Complex and the local community.
    Organization of Conference.
            •   Local community representative (9 persons)
            •   Academy (1 person)
            •   Yokkaichi City (3 persons)
            •   Industry Representative (9 persons)

Conference Topics
            •   Matters related to new and additional installations
            •   Regular Repair Program and Reporting of Results
            •   Matters related to causes of accidents, disasters, pollution and their
                recurrence preventive measures
            •   Matters related to the address of complaints from the community.
        This kind of “Organization” and with similar purpose, the First Complex and the
second Complex have similar dialogues with their respective community till nowadays.
        Yokkaichi City started the pollution-related patient’s relief system and Mie
prefecture introduced total emission control at the history of overcoming the pollution. To
utilize the experience, the “Intenational Center for Environmental Technology
Transfer” was established in March 1990 under Mie governor by investment of Mie
prefecture and Yokkaichi City. In March 1991 ICETT was established under the Ministry

Seminar Report/6 Feb, 2004/ICETT Yokkaichi

of International Trade and Industry and implements services as a leading organization for
promoting the international environment cooperation.
        ICETT is carrying out works like Training Service, Environmental Research
Service, Research and Development, Publication & Education, under the international
environmental cooperation policy by Ministry of International Trade and Industry.
        Today ICETT is expected to contribute internationally to the improvement of the
environment in developing countries and global environment conservation by utilizing
much knowledge and experience in Yokkaichi City.

IV.   OUTCOMES           OF     POLLUTION         CONTROL        AND     ENVIRONMENT
        Repeated efforts by Yokkaichi people and organizations in controlling
environmental problems resulted in the issuance of laws and rules in related issues.
        The first achievement was the Water Quality Preservation Law and the Effluent
Control Law. However the two laws were always behind the actual situation because they
referred only to the places where the water was already contaminated. It was only 8 years
after that, in 1966 both Yokkaichi and Suzuka were considered subject to the Water
Quality Preservation Law.
        A more concrete measure was introduced in 1967 when the Mie Prefecture
Pollution Control Ordinance was approved. The ordinance covered all environment issues
generated in the region, including water, air, noise, vibration and offensive odors.
        Also in 1967, the Basic Law for Environmental Pollution Control was stated as a
national policy. One year later, in 1968, the Air Pollution Control Law was enacted,
exceeding the Soot and Smoke Regulation Law and completed the overall regulations for
air pollution control.
        Another progress in the late 1960s was the awaken awareness of the people about
the industrial pollution. People believed that the time for nurturing the industries should
finish and stringent environmental regulation should be applied to the factories. In 1970,
the Diet passed 14 bills enforcing pollution control and environment preservation.
        In December 1970, the first Regional Environmental Pollution Control Program
was adopted. Yokkaichi was included in this program together with Kusucho, Asahicho
and Kawagoecho. A variety of environmental projects were implemented under with 150
billion Yen in four years from 1970 to 1974.

Seminar Report/6 Feb, 2004/ICETT Yokkaichi

        On the other hand, the relation between respiratory diseases and the air pollutants
was clearly close, since many patients with as asthma and throat problems, were found in
the area near to the petrochemical complex. The troubles and damage continues and the
complaints and petitions by the citizens increased. Thus the Law concerning Special
Measures for the Relief of the Pollution-related Patients was implemented. Four years later,
in 1974 the comprehensive “Pollution Health Damage Compensation Law” replaced the
old Pollution Victims Relief Law.
        The Second Regional Environmental Pollution Control Program was started from
1978 to 1982 as a sequel to the first program. The second one dealt with photochemical
oxidants and water pollution as well as formulate necessary anti-pollution measures.
        From 1983 to 1987, the third and from 1988 to 1990, the fourth Regional
Environmental Pollution Control Program were implemented.
        Thanks to the efforts, the increase in number of complaints and victims were
stopped and controlled in late 1970s. Since early 1980s, the city has become clean again
because both the people and the industrial companies strictly follow the requirements of
the stringent environmental laws. The change in the air pollutants emissions and health
damage show a clear relation on Table 1, the health damage patients decrease as well the
SOx emissions were controlled.
        Table 1. Incidence of Chronic Occlusive Respiratory Organs Illness

Seminar Report/6 Feb, 2004/ICETT Yokkaichi

   1. Vietnam
    Vietnam is facing various environmental problems which are becoming more serious
and need emergent actions.
    One serious problem lies with the air pollution by the emission by motorbikes. In
Vietnam, majority of the population travel in city by motorbike and every household
possess 1-3 motorbikes. Therefore, the amount of motorbikes are really large and emission
from motorbikes badly damages the air. To solve the problems, the government are trying
to develop public transportation and do not allow registrations of new motorbikes in some
    Another problem is the wastes from chemical factories. Although the regulations have
been established, the factories do not strictly follow. It is because the pressure from public
opinions on them are not strong enough and the community are not quite aware of the
significance of environment. From Yokkaichi lesson, we think that environmental
education for both adults and children should be enhanced so that people understand and
increase the awareness of environmental preservation.
          In addition, forest destruction is becoming a large threat to the environment.
Actually, the country has already suffered some serious consequence from deforestation
such as serious floods and drought in recent years. However, the consequence last not only
some years but even some decades. To solve this problem, more jobs should be created for
the labour force so that they can earn living not by cutting woods. Also, wood trafficking
should be prevented and given strictly penalties.
          2. Indonesia
          Based on Japanese experience to solve environmental problem, I think Indonesia
government should be study much how Japan and Japanese society do that. For example
the most environmental problem in Indonesia especially in big city such as Jakarta,
Surabaya, Medan etc right now is domestic waste. For example in Jakarta city right now
were generated about 80 tons per day domestic waste. Until right now the local
government of Jakarta city does not have any program how to solve domestic waste
problem. This problem becomes more complicated because the domestic waste from
household not spread by type or categorize. In another side adopting clean production
system in order to reduce environmental impact by increasing recycling of reusable
material also become impossible to be applied.

Seminar Report/6 Feb, 2004/ICETT Yokkaichi

          3. Bangladesh
          From this seminar the most important thing I learnt is that the national government,
local governments, the business community and the citizens as a whole undertook the
corrective measures to eliminate the environmental pollution problems on long time basis
just at the moment it was detected.
          Bangladesh is a small country having quiet a big population; perhaps the most
densely populated country in the world, suffering from environmental pollution problems
for many years. Governments, civil society and the citizens could realize this problem and
started taking corrective measures against pollution problem. Recent steps regarding ban
of polyethylene production and its use contributed a lot to keep environment good has
been appreciated by the world community. It encouraged us to take further corrective
measures in other areas of pollution protection. We still don’t have very systematic and
scientific arrangement for household waste management. It actually needs people
awareness, government and private initiatives, and strong coordination among the
organizations concerned. From this seminar I have learnt how effectively the local
government of Yokkaichi city could involve the citizens in pollution protection activities. I
believe in Bangladesh we could also start household waste management systematically
and scientifically at least in one city as a pilot project. Then we could extend this activity
throughout the country and as such the whole county could be made pollution free in near
          4. Perú
          Throughout the lectures and field observation, I have learned many aspects about
the environment protection and human health and life protection in Yokkaichi. These
lessons moreover, could be useful for my country in its fights against pollutions problems
and improve the Peruvians lives and protect the environment at the same time.
          One of the most important problems in my country is the insufficient and
inadequately domestic wastewater treatment and is discharged directly to water sources.
The private wastewater treatment in areas or residences far from any sewage system
implemented in Japan could be useful in zone residential areas in Peru where the system
sewage is not near. However this solution is not suitable when the economic condition of
the population is not enough to afford it.
          Another important lesson is the implementation of Environmental Education by
Yokkaichi City. The education, especially for children, is an important tool that my

Seminar Report/6 Feb, 2004/ICETT Yokkaichi

country and its authorities can use to form an environmental culture and in this way
preserve the environment for future.
        5. Mexico
        Environmental pollution problems involve direct and indirect health and economic
cost on the society as well as other complex urban and environmental issues such as
industries, traffic, land used, global warming, etc.
        The planning and strategies developed to archive environmental pollution have had
observed the balance between economic, social and political rolls in order to recover the
environment. Thus, countries like Mexico have chance to learn from environmental
experiences from Japan, for example the Yokkaichi City Case, where was fundamental the
effort of the citizens, companies and government to develop and build approaches to
improve its environmental quality.
        In Mexico there is a clear need to archive the environmental problem
understanding and involving all the factors related with the environmental issues. These
include the relation ship between pollution sources and control strategies, the economical
and health impacts and the social implications of different approaches to the
environmental pollution.

Seminar Report/6 Feb, 2004/ICETT Yokkaichi

          Yokkaichi City, has successfully overcome its environmental pollution
since the industrial zone was established and having the petrochemical industry as the
main industrial activity. Yokkaichi City is well known for its air pollution episode called
Yokkaichi Asthma.
        This seminar has emphasized the recuperation of environmental conditions and the
recuperation of this city as a good place where anybody can live after the diseases and
contamination suffered in Yokkaichi. However, not only thee air pollution was exposed,
besides that, the lectures included water and solid waste pollution and their treatment and
final disposition.
        An important lesson we learnt from Yokkaichi city is that both the community and
the authority should share the same strong determination in controlling pollution and
preserving the environment. With the responsible involvement of all factors in the society,
environment protection has become permanent idea that every individual always bear in
        We highly appreciate the well-prepared lectures and the very useful and
informative materials provided in the seminar. The lecturers in the class and the guide
persons at sites are very knowledgeable, responsive and helpful. The staff of ICETT and
the interpreter have done a really good job in helping us conduct a successful seminar.


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