Advertisement International Hotels Environment Initiative (IHEI) Converting Energy Into Savings May 13, 1996 Reiner Boehme, Inter -Continental Hotels’ Vice President, Engineering, offers an action plan to help transform an energy guzzling power-mad hotel into one with a serene green environmental conscience HOTELS ARE LARGE ENERGY USERS In conservation terms this simply means that the potential for savings is that much greater. Typically 65% of the total annual utility costs are for electricity and 20% for other energy sources such as fuel, gas or heating. The average 300-room hotel spends about US $500,000 per year. In many countries strict air emission regulations have resulted in large investments by energy producers, increasing costs above inflation. SUCCESSFUL PROGRAMMES Inter-Continental Hotels’ commitment to environmental concerns and the potential financial savings, produced a programme of action which reduced consumption and costs worldwide by 21% or almost US $15 million during the last seven years ; despite higher standards. Some hotels achieved reductions by up to 40%. Inter-Continental found that good energy management involved: -Everyone’s participation ; it was important to utilise the ability and t knowledge of staff. Don’ be afraid to charge internally for such expertise -A thorough energy audit ; find out what you use -Establishing benchmarks* ; measure your policy against fixed goals -Reviewing tariffs ; implement peak demand control and negotiate for lower charges -Adjusting your controls ; ensure your mechanical, electrical systems reflect the many constant changes in occupancy, weather, time of day, day of week, activity level etc. -Having a master plan ; each department should list and identify conservation opportunities -Reviewing expenditure ; how well planned purchasing can also help you to conserve -Constant monitoring ; goals ; feedback ; awards. -Careful energy management ; there should be no savings at the cost of guests’ comfort or that of employees. Ensure that operational requirements or safety codes are not violated. Benchmarks ; an excellent tool to evaluate consumption and determine waste. Convert fuel, gas & district heating into kW h and calculate net calorific values. For fuel/gas burnt in boilers deduct approximate 20% loss. Determine net available hotel area (minus wall thickness and shafts) in square metres. See table below for suggested benchmarks. Large hotel with laundry Electricity kW h/sqm Good: <165 Fair: 165-200 Poor: 200-250 Very Poor: >250 pool, kitchens, air conditioning Energy kW h/sqm Good: <200 Fair: 200-240 Poor: 240-300 Very Poor: >300 Medium hotel w/o laundry Electricity kW h/sqm Good: <70 Fair: 70-90 Poor: 90-120 Very Poor: >120 Medium hotel 50 to 150 rooms, limited AC Electricity kW h/sqm Good: <170 Fair: 170-210 Poor: 210-250 Very Poor: >250 Small hotel, 4 to 50 rooms Energy kW h/sqm Good: <60 Fair: 60-80 Poor: 80-100 Very Poor: >100 Electricity kW h/sqm Good: <150 Fair: 150-180 Poor: 180-210 Very Poor: >210 Take advantage of the opportunities for saving energy Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) consumes about 25 TO 45% of total energy costs of a hotel (depending on climate) -Operate equipment in accordance with actual loads. Shut off equipment not required -Schedule operating time of ventilation systems to time of day and week. Convert fixed air volume systems to variable air by installing frequency converters -Operate secondary chilled, heating water systems and cooling tower fans on variable speeds -Disconnect small loads from large chillers or boilers ; convert to self-contained independent operating systems -Repair all inoperative or malfunctioning automatic controls -Install thermostatic valves on radiators -Create a zero energy band ; no heating and cooling between 21 TO 23C -Insulate piping systems -Install building automation systems to control Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning systems -Check design efficiency of chiller water circuits. Check condenser and evaporator approaches (temperature difference with cooling and chilled water outlets to be less than 4¼ C). Poor water treatment and air inside chillers can reduce efficiency -Operate chillers, pumps, tower cells only at levels needed to satisfy the load. Close valves of equipment not in use -Check combustion efficiency of boiler systems. Should be 80 TO 84% (American/English) or 88 TO 92% (European) -Install dual pressure control on steam boilers, where in-house laundry exists. After closure lower pressure for hotel water, heating, or kitchen steam -New hotels or major renovations should provide heat recovery for all air systems with large volumes of outside air and long operating hours. This will also help in improving indoor air quality by using larger amounts of fresh air. ENERGY: FUEL, GAS, DISTRICT HEATING -Saving hotel water results in lower energy use ; see Green Hotelier Issue One -Heat can be recovered from air, water, lost steam to pre -heat air or water in a hotel. CO-GENERATION -Combined heat and power systems achieve 80% total efficiency with a payback of approximately between four and ten years (depending on appliance). Lighting (15 TO 25% of total electricity consumption) -Replace incandescent with fluorescent lamps which use four times less power -Install timers and reduce lighting levels by splitting circuits. Walk through the hotel, especially at night, to find opportunities -Install motion detectors for corridors, public toilets, locker rooms, cold rooms, baggage room, loading bay, health club, workshops, offices, function rooms -Install photocells for exterior lighting and combined with timers to shut off when not required -Use dimmers to control lighting levels -Install reflectors and reduce wattage. Use translucent lamp shades -Remove or reduce unnecessary lighting -Key-card operated master switch shuts off all lights when guest is out. KITCHENS & LAUNDRIES (10 TO 20% of total energy consumption) -Do you have the cheapest energy source? Gas is usually one third the cost of electricity -Centralise operations ; fewer kitchens and less equipment -Operate only fully loaded equipment ; energy consumption is the same with partial loads -Implement benchmarking to check efficiencies -Turn off equipment not being used -Close steam, hot water supplies after working hours -Save water ; it is expensive to deliver, heat and treat -Purchase energy efficient and environment friendly equipment only. UTILITY RATES -Review tariffs -Implement peak demand control for electricity and district heating, where applicable. Demand charges can be a major cost factor so negotiate for lower-peak charges -Install capacitors to improve power factor, where charged. RENOVATIONS, EQUIPMENT REPLACEMENT An excellent opportunity to improve inherently poor energy efficiencies or resolve technical problems. Make environmental friendliness a central criterion.