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North Carolina Beach Monitoring Project Quality Assurance Project Plan by zxg15325

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									                           Division of Environmental Health

  North Carolina Shellfish Sanitation & Recreational Water Quality Section


            North Carolina Beach Monitoring Project
                Quality Assurance Project Plan
                                     June 16, 2003
                                Revised January 4, 2005




                                       Mission
“To protect the public health by monitoring the quality of North Carolina’s coastal
recreational waters and notifying the public when bacteriological standards for
safe bodily contact are exceeded”.


Prepared by:    J. D. Potts, R.S.                  ----------------------------------
Project Manager, Recreational Water Quality Program

Approving Signatures:

Terry Pierce, Director, Division of Environmental Health --------------------------
 Wayne Mobley, Section Chief                               ------------------------------
Gary Bennett, QA Reviewer, EPA                            -------------------------------
Joel Hansel, Project Manager, EPA                          -------------------------------




                                                                                        1
                              Table of Contents
Section                                                                 Page
A     Project Management
      3     Distribution List
      4     Project/Task Organization
      5     Problem Definition/Background
      6     Project/Task Description and Schedule
      7     Quality Objectives and Criteria for Measurement Data
      8     Special Training Requirements/Certification
      9     Documentation and Records

B     Measurement/Data Acquisition
      1     Sampling Process Design (Experimental Design)
      2     Sampling Methods Requirements
      3     Sample Handling and Custody Requirements
      4     Analytical Methods Requirements
      5     Quality Control Requirements
      6     Instrument/Equipment Testing, Inspection, and Maintenance
      7     Instrument Calibration and Frequency
      8     Inspection/Acceptance Requirements for Supplies
      9     Data Acquisition Requirements
      10    Data Management

C     Assessment/Oversight
      1     Assessment/Oversight
      2     Reports to Management

D     Data Validation and Usability
      1     Data Review, Validation, and Verification
      2     Validation and Verification Methods
      3     Reconciliation with Data Quality Objectives




                                                                               2
A3
                               Distribution List

Joel Hansel, EPA
Terry Pierce, Director, DEH
Laura Leonard, PIO, DEH
NC Shellfish Sanitation & Recreational Water Quality (Wrightsville Beach)
NC Shellfish Sanitation & Recreational Water Quality (Nags Head)
Jay Sauber NC Division of Water Quality
Rachel T. Noble, Ph. D. Institute of Marine Sciences, UNC
Newt McCormick, Ph. D., M.D., Division of Epidemiology
Molly Fullwood, Dare County Health Department
Coastal County Health Directors




                                                                            3
A4 - Project / Task Organization

Wayne Mobley, Section Chief, Shellfish Sanitation and Recreational Water
Quality Section Morehead City Office

J. D. Potts, Project Manager, Public Notification, QA
Laura Leonard, Public Information Officer, DEH (Raleigh) Media Notification

The following staff members have responsibilities in both Shellfish and
Recreational Programs:

Morehead City Office
Patricia Fowler, Laboratory, QA
Diane Mason, Laboratory
Andy Haines, Laboratory
Christine Miller, Gov’t, Health Dept., and Public Notification, Outreach, Data
Entry/Management
Erin Bryan, Sample Collection, Outreach, Data Entry/Management
Paul Moore, Sample Collection, GPS
Timmy Moore, Sample Collection, Data Entry
Mike Millard, Sample Collection
Shannon Jenkins, Shoreline Survey, GPS
Phil Piner, Sample Collection, Data Entry

Wrightsville Beach Office

Amy Javorsky, Laboratory
Jeremy Humphrey, Sample Collection, Data Entry
Stan Sherman, Sample Collection, GPS
Ed Jackson, Shoreline Survey
Matthew Stokely, Sample Collection, Data Entry

Nags Head Office

Misty Gower, Laboratory
Kenny Midget, Sample Collection
Jeff Rheubottom, Shoreline Survey, GPS
Bradley Fitzgerald, Sample Collection, Data Entry




                                                                                 4
A5 - Problem Definition / Background

       Coastal North Carolina is blessed with surface water resources: 320 miles

of Atlantic Ocean shoreline, 4,000 miles of estuarine shoreline and 2 million

acres of shellfish growing waters. The beaches, coastal rivers and sounds play a

large part in North Carolina’s prosperous tourism industry, attracting more than

15 million vacationers each year. The resident population is growing rapidly, as

more people find the North Carolina coast a desirable place to live and retire. As

the population continues to grow, water quality is expected to decline as a result

of increased run-off from land-disturbing activities.

       In the mid 1990s, pfiesteria emerged in the national media as a possible

public health threat, and North Carolina’s Neuse River was in the spotlight for

harboring the dinoflagellate organism. At that time, pfiesteria was found only in

the brackish waters of the Neuse River, but the negative publicity carried the

underlying possibility that all of North Carolina’s coastal waters were unsafe for

the consumption of seafood or for swimming. Water quality issues were rekindled

in 1996 when a report from the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC)

labeled North Carolina as a “Beach Bum” state for its lack of beach monitoring

and public notification programs. When the legislature assembled the next year,

it took very little lobbying to convince lawmakers to fund a recreational water

quality program for coastal waters. In June1997 the North Carolina Shellfish




                                                                                     5
Sanitation Section was charged with monitoring coastal waters for two years as a

pilot project. Approximately 300 stations were monitored weekly during the

swimming season using fecal coliform as the indicator organism. As a result of

the two years of monitoring, the reputation of North Carolina’s coastal waters

started improving, and public confidence in the health and safety of the coastal

resources was being restored. In 1999 the program was funded permanently.

       This document will report new program requirements and standards

necessary for compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA)

guidance and will be a guide or protocol for operating the program. One aspect of

the program that will not change is the protocol for posting swimming advisories

and methods for notifying the public. Advisories will still be based on the

exceedance of the bacteriological standard; however, the standard will be

enterococci instead of fecal coliform. The posting of advisories for single-sample

maximum exceedances is another significant change to the program this year.

A6 - Project/Task Description and Schedule

       The coastal counties are divided into three regions, Northern, Central and

Southern (see figures 1, 2, 3). The three regions combined have approximately

240 sites that are monitored either weekly or twice monthly during the swimming

season. Monitoring stations that are adjacent to resort areas, public accesses

and summer camps are considered high usage (Tier I beaches) and are sampled

weekly. Medium usage sites, (Tier II beaches) sampled twice monthly, constitute

areas such as those in the ICWW, tidal creeks and exposed shoals. People

frequent Tier II sites mostly on weekends and they are usually accessed by




                                                                                   6
watercraft. Tier III designations are areas that are used infrequently, where

people have minimal full body contact. Tier III sites are also sampled twice

monthly.

        The Shellfish Sanitation and Recreational Water Quality Section

(SSRWQ) has a State and Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-accredited

laboratory in each region. Sample collection, laboratory analysis, and beach

monitoring activities are conducted entirely by the SSRWQ staff; however, Dare

County Health Department in the northern region has an agreement with the

SSRWQ to issue the public notification locally for the Dare County swimming

advisories. The state Division of Environmental Health then follows up with

public notification to the Associated Press.

        The State will continue to fund the Tier II and Tier III monitoring sites,

approximately 50% of all the swimming areas, while the EPA grant will be used

to fund the monitoring of the Tier I beaches. Appendices 1, 2 and 3 list the

monitoring sites that are supported by the state of North Carolina and the EPA

grant. Appendix 4 contains the coordinates for each monitoring site or swimming

area.

        The EPA grant is also used to fund public education and outreach.

Appendix 8 contains educational materials used at the public meetings; they are

required by the EPA to be grant-eligible.




                                                                                     7
Figure 1




           8
Figure 2




           9
Figure 3




           10
A7: Quality Objectives and Criteria

Primary Objective:

“To protect the public health by monitoring the quality of North Carolina’s coastal

recreational waters and notifying the public when bacteriological standards for

safe bodily contact are exceeded”.

Quality Objectives:

       To identify swimming areas/beaches and classify them based on human

       recreational usage.

       To identify monitoring stations that exceed the enterococci geometric

       mean and single-sample maximum criteria using the Enterolert MPN

       method for enumeration.

       To evaluate the public health significance of approximately twenty (20)

       ocean storm drains.

       To document trends in coastal bacteriological water quality.

Measurement Performance Criteria:

Swimming advisory signs are posted and press releases issued for Tier I

swimming areas/beaches when a minimum of five (5) samples are collected,

equally spaced over 30 days, exceed a geometric mean of 35 enterococci per

100 ml or, when a single sample exceeds 500 enterococci per 100 ml. The

public is notified only by press release, without an advisory sign when a single

sample exceeds 104 enterococci per 100 ml and is less than 500 enterococci

per 100 ml. for a Tier I site. This is called an alert. A second sample will be

collected immediately. If the second sample exceeds 104 enterococci per 100




                                                                                   11
ml, the alert is converted into an advisory and the public will be notified by press

release, and a sign will be posted.

A swimming advisory will also be issued when at least two out of three samples

collected at a monitoring site exceeds 104 enterococci per 100 ml. The project

manger will determine which Tier I stations, if any, will have triplicate sampling.

Rescinding Tier I Advisories

       Once the geometric mean exceeds the standard, the swimming advisory

is not lifted until two consecutive weekly samples meet the EPA standard of 35

enterococci per 100 ml. For a geometric mean advisory to be rescinded, the

station must have two consecutive good samples, with ‘good’ being defined as

35 enterococci per 100 ml or fewer. However, if a situation occurs where two

consecutive good samples are recorded, but the geometric mean is still

exceeded, the advisory will remain in place until the geometric mean falls below

35 enterococci per 100 ml.

       In a case where a station under advisory is subject to triplicate sampling,

two of the three triplicate samples must be under the single-sample maximum of

104 enterococci per 100 ml. In a situation where two of the three samples are

above the single-sample maximum of 104 enterococci per 100 ml, an advisory

will be put into place. The advisory will be rescinded when two of the three re-

samples are under the single-sample level, as long as the running geometric

mean has not been exceeded.

        Beaches that violate the single-sample maximum criteria are re-sampled

at the time of the public notification and/or sign posting, depending on the level of




                                                                                      12
the exceedance. If the re-sample is satisfactory, the advisory may be lifted as

soon as 24 hours from the time of the initial advisory notification or posting. If the

re-sample is unsatisfactory but the geometric mean is not exceeded, the sign

remains posted. If the re-sampling causes the exceedance of the geometric

mean, then the geometric mean criteria apply.

       The timeframe for posting swimming advisory signs at Tier I beaches,

based on the enterococci geometric mean, runs from the beginning of May

through the end of September. Weekly sampling of Tier I beaches begins in April

of each year so that a “running geometric mean” is established by May. April and

October are considered the “shoulder seasons”. During the shoulder season,

advisories at all Tier 1 monitoring sites are based on the single-sample maximum

for Tier II beaches/swimming areas, 276 enterococci per 100 ml. Seasonal low

water temperatures during April and October may prevent people from

swimming. The project manager determines whether advisory signs and public

notification are initiated during the shoulder seasons.

       Tier II and Tier III beaches/swimming areas are sampled twice monthly

from April to October, with the advisories based entirely on the single sample

maximum criteria.

       For Tier II sites, public notification and a swimming advisory sign are

posted when a single sample exceeds 500 enterococci per 100 ml. An alert,

that is public notification without the advisory sign, takes place when a single

sample exceeds 276 enterococci per 100 ml but falls under 500 enterococci

per 100 ml. If a second sample exceeds 276 enterococci per 100 ml, the alert




                                                                                    13
is converted to an advisory and the public is notified and an advisory sign is

posted. A third sample is then collected the following week. Weekly sampling of

the site continues until the enterococci counts are 276 enterococci per 100 ml

or fewer.

       Tier III beaches/swimming areas, because of infrequent use, do not

receive public notification or advisory signs until the second sample exceeds 500

enterococci per 100 ml. If the second sample exceeds 500 enterococci per

100 ml, an advisory sign and public notification are issued. A third sample is then

collected the following week. Weekly sampling of the site will continue until the

enterococci counts are 500 enterococci per 100 ml or fewer.

       Other swimming advisories will be posted as precautionary measures

when the following activities occur:

       -    Pumping of floodwaters between the primary dune and the ocean

            beaches.

       -    Storm drains with discharges into ocean beaches. Storm drains that

            have flow that may be able to reach ocean recreational waters are

            posted with hinged advisory signs. The signs read as follows:

            “ATTENTION SWIMMING IS NOT RECOMMENDED BETWEEN

            SIGNS. WATERS MAY BE CONTAMINATED BY DISCHARGE FROM

            PIPE. Office of the state health director.” When the pipes are not

            discharging, the signs are folded closed so the wording cannot be

            read. When the pipes are discharging, the signs are opened to allow

            the advisory to be visible. The advisory signs remain open until 24




                                                                                    14
          hours after the discharge has ceased. No press release will be issued.

          The pipes are checked daily while the advisories are in place, as well

          as after rainfall events. The regional field offices notify the central

          office when an advisory is placed or lifted in this way. These pipes are

          also regular sampling stations. When the bacteriological sampling

          results for these pipes exceeds the standards and the pipe is flowing,

          the hinged sign will also serve as the bacteriological swimming

          advisory. No press release will be issued. If the pipe is not discharging

          and the hinged sign is closed so the advisory is not visible, the

          bacteriological advisory sign will be posted and a press release will be

          issued.

      -   Disposal of dredge material from closed shellfishing waters on ocean

          beaches.

These swimming advisories are lifted 24 hours after visible discharge into the

ocean ceases.

      Swimming advisories are not posted from November through March;

however, all sampling stations are sampled once per month during the non-

swimming season.

Public notification and risk communication plan:

      The health director or the environmental health supervisor of the local

health department is the first to be informed of a swimming advisory. Discussion

with the health department determines who the next contact should be, such as a

town or county manager. The media are not contacted concerning a swimming




                                                                                    15
advisory before local and state officials are aware of the situation. The North

Carolina Division of Environmental Health (NCDEH) then sends out the press

release to the Associated Press and local community newspapers at the same

time the advisory sign is posted. The press release advisories are aired on TV,

radio stations and web sites (see Appendix 5 for press release templates and

links to web sites).

       Rescinding an advisory follows the same procedures in reverse. The first

communication involves the local health department, then the sign is removed

and another press release is issued, declaring the waters are within the

swimming standard.

       If an advisory sign is needed on the ocean beaches, the sign will be

placed on a post or posts at the interface of the wet and dry sand area of the

beach. For estuarine waters, the sign may be posted by boat just offshore of the

beach or on the shoreline. There may be instances where permission will have to

be obtained to post signs on private property, such as on bulkheads or at

entrances to marinas. Local Environmental Health Specialists or other local

officials may be present when the signs are erected (see Appendix 6 for sign

descriptions).

A8 - Special Training Requirements/Certification

       SSRWQ laboratory personnel have been instructed in specific health and

safety needs as required for employment. The laboratory maintains the required

United States FDA and State certifications.




                                                                                  16
       Field personnel are trained in small boat handling and navigation in

coastal waters. Users of GPS equipment must be trained and certified before

collecting field data for boundaries and monitoring sites. Personnel are trained in

sample collection, transporting samples, recording field data, keying data into the

database and following QA/QC protocols.

A9 - Documentation and Records

       SSRWQ performs all sample collections and carries responsibility for

handling all data collected in the field (see Appendix 7 for an example of the field

sampling sheet). The SSRWQ laboratory is responsible for recording the

bacteriological data on the field sheet (see Appendix 7). After the bacteriological

data is recorded by laboratory staff, the project manager then reviews the

bacteriological results and field data before passing the field sheet to the data

entry person. Currently, the data is entered into an Excel spread sheet and

Access database; however, an Oracle database is being developed to work with

an EPA data exchange node that will be used to meet reporting requirements.

Hard copies of the laboratory data, laboratory quality assurance forms, and field

sampling data sheets are archived indefinitely at the Morehead City office.

Electronic copies of the bacteriological data are backed up and stored on the

server in Morehead City as well as backup copies stored on compact disc.

Sanitary survey reports of recreational waters and any other reports or audits are

kept on file in the same manner. Documentation of public notification, original

press releases, are filed for one year; however, a spread sheet documenting

advisories and rescinds will be filed electronically indefinitely.




                                                                                    17
B1 - Sampling Process Design

       The method for monitoring the 240 sites throughout coastal North Carolina

began by grouping the sites in each region to create “sampling runs” or routes

that the staff would travel for a particular day of sample collection. The northern

region has eight sampling runs consisting of 73 monitoring sites, the central

region has six sampling runs consisting of 92 monitoring sites and the southern

region has 6 sampling runs with 60 monitoring sites. It is common for a sampling

run to have a combination of Tier I, II and III swimming areas. Half of the

sampling runs are accessed by boat and half are reached by car and then

wading into water from the beach. Weather conditions and tides have a strong

influence on choosing a sampling run; therefore, the person collecting the water

samples must plan his/her day accordingly. The sampling runs are close enough

to one of the three regional laboratories to have water samples in the testing

media before 2:00 p.m. each day (see holding time for samples in laboratory

QAP Appendix 9).

       Tier I beaches that require a minimum of five (5) samples in 30 days are

tested using the following schedule:

Northern Region

Sampling Run                                              Day
Roanoke Island                                            Monday
Currituck to Corolla                                      Tuesday
Ocracoke to Pea Island                                    Wednesday
Kitty Hawk to Oregon Inlet                                Thursday

Central Region




                                                                                  18
Sampling Run                                         Day
Bogue Banks                                          Monday
Pamlico River                                        Tuesday
Neuse River Camps                                    Wednesday

Southern Region

Sampling Run                                         Day
Topsail Island                                       Tuesday
Carolina Beach – Wrightsville                        Tuesday
Sunset Beach to Ocean Isle                           Wednesday
Holden Beach to Oak Island                           Wednesday


If the above schedule cannot be met for a particular week, field staff will be

responsible for ensuring that five (5) samples in 30 days are collected. This could

involve going back to the same station twice in one week. Tier II and III

swimming areas are sampled primarily by boat twice per month and do not

require five (5) samples in 30 days, allowing more flexibility in scheduling the

sampling runs.

       There are several parameters of interest that are measured at each

monitoring site that influence the transport and survival of microorganisms. Data

is collected for rainfall, air and water temperature, water depth/sample depth,

wind speed and direction, current direction, tidal stage, time of sample collection

and salinity. Time of sample collection is critical for determining holding times.

The other parameters are for information only and do not affect management

decisions concerning public health. Rainfall data are collected from rain gages

scattered throughout the watersheds. Tidal stage and wind speed is determined

by personal observation and verified by NOAA weather service. The presence of




                                                                                     19
waterfowl and wildlife in proximity of the monitoring site is also recorded on the

field data sheet.

B2 - Sampling Methods

       Water samples are collected in autoclaved borosilicate glass bottles with

the station identification on the lid. Once the water sample is collected, the bottle

is tipped to give one (1) inch of air space in the bottle. The water samples are

stored immediately on ice in a cooler until all the samples are returned to the

laboratory. The six-hour holding time for enterococci samples is not an issue

because of the relative proximity of the sampling runs to one of the three

laboratories. Quanti-trays with positive wells for enterococci are disposed of by

placing them in orange biohazard bags and then autoclaving. The autoclaved

bags are then taken to the landfill.

       Approximately half of the beach monitoring will be accomplished by

wading into the surf to collect the sample. When wading, the sampler will use a

telescopic golf ball retriever, modified to hold the sample bottle, to reach out

approximately 16 feet from the body in knee-deep water to collect the sample.

Many of the camps on the coastal rivers and sounds have long piers that extend

out over the water. The sample should be taken 6 – 12 inches below the surface

of the water at a location along the pier that receives the most use, e.g., ladders,

etc. Sampling by boat takes place in approximately three feet of water with the

sample collected 12 inches below the surface. A stainless steel rod with a

sample holder will be used to collect the sample from the boat. Sampling




                                                                                     20
personnel should avoid disturbing bottom sediment in either approach, to

collecting the sample.

       Dare County has nine ocean storm drains that extend to the water’s edge

at low tide. The mouths of these storm drains are partially or completely

submerged at high tide. Samples are to be collected approximately 10 feet to

either side of the Dare County drains when practical. At times, surf conditions

may not be safe to be within 10 feet of the pipe. The water sample collected at

the Hanby Beach storm drain in New Hanover County will be sampled in the

same manner. The remaining storm drains in New Hanover, Brunswick and

Carteret counties do not extend to the water’s edge. These drains are sampled

where the swash enters the surf. The water depth for sample collection at all

storm drains is the same as the other monitor sites in the surf, just below the

surface in approximately “knee- deep water”.

       The Dare County storm drains that are discharging after rainfall will be

sampled temporarily 100 feet on each side of the pipe to help determine the

extent of the plume. The project manager will determine the timeframe for

conducting the lateral sampling of storm drains.

       It may be necessary at some sites that exceed the geometric mean

protocol to conduct additional sampling to define the extent of the pollution.

Once the advisory sign is posted, sampling may be initiated at a point 200 feet on

either side of the sign. The program manager determines when, if any, additional

sampling will be conducted.




                                                                                  21
       Personal watercraft rental sites in most cases are classified as Tier II

sites. The samples are collected in the area of the sound where the renters are

allowed to ride. This is usually a sectioned-off area marked by buoys. If an

advisory is needed, the sign will be posted near shore where watercraft users

can see the sign before entering the riding area.

B3 – Sample Handling and Custody

       The sample collectors are responsible for ensuring the samples are stored

and handled properly while in the field. The samples are stored immediately on

ice in a cooler to chill the sample and to limit the exposure to UV light. The time is

recorded on the field-sampling sheet for each sample collected. The six-hour

holding limit for enterococci is not a factor because each sampling run can be

completed with samples back to one of the three laboratories within 3 – 4 hours.

Laboratory personnel are responsible for recording the time on data sheets when

samples are planted into the media and the times samples can be analyzed after

incubation (see appendix 9 for laboratory QA). Both laboratory and field

personnel are responsible for signing off on the chain of custody checklist on the

back side of the field sampling sheet (see appendix 7 page 2).

B4 - Analytical Methods

       Using the Idexx enterolert method is a simple procedure involving three

steps that are discussed in the laboratory quality assurance plan. A failure in any

part of the laboratory procedure results in the collection of another sample.

Laboratory staff members are responsible for ensuring that the project manager

receives the bacteriological results immediately upon completion of the analysis,




                                                                                   22
and correcting any laboratory procedures that may occur. The laboratory staff

members are: Misty Gower in Nags Head, Diane Mason and VACANT in

Morehead City, and Amy Javorsky in Wrightsville Beach.

B5 - Quality Control

       A sample is collected in the field and labeled “temperature control” that is

measured upon arrival to the laboratory. The laboratory refuses samples that are

above 10 degrees Celsius and samples that exceed holding time. Split samples

are also taken at different frequencies and shared among the three labs to

compare results. During laboratory analysis, a pure culture of Enterococcus

faecium is used as a positive control and Serratia marcescens is used as the

negative control.

       The acceptance criteria for enterococci are based upon the MPN table

provided by Idexx Laboratories. The smallest number of enterococci that can be

analyzed is 9 organisms per 100 ml. The highest density of enterococci that can

be analyzed is 2005 organisms per 100 ml. Higher densities can be analyzed by

further diluting the sample. The critical values of enterococci, 104, 276, and 500

organisms per 100 ml for single samples exceedances, are well within the

capabilities of the Enterolert method. Idexx reports that Enterolert has a false

negative rate 0.4% and a false positive rate of 5.1 %.

       Other analytical controls are detailed in the laboratory QAP in appendix 9.

Technicians at each regional office review each other’s data entry for mistakes.




                                                                                   23
B6 – Instrument /Equipment Testing, Inspection, and Maintenance

       The two major equipment items needed to do the Enterolert method are

an autoclave and an air incubator. A maintenance contract with the autoclave

manufacturer requires that the autoclave have preventive maintenance once

every two months by authorized technicians. Laboratory personnel check the

autoclave monthly for sterility. Air incubators are checked twice daily for proper

temperatures using a certified thermometer.

B7- Instrumentation Calibration and Frequency

       Laboratory equipment is routinely inspected and calibrated at different

times of the year to meet FDA and State certification requirements. The only field

instruments that need calibrating are refractometers and thermometers. These

two instruments are calibrated against known standards.

B8 - Inspection/acceptance of Supplies and Consumables

       Lab supplies are ordered through major scientific supply companies and

inspected upon receipt by the project manager. All of the Idexx items are

sterilized with ethylene oxide and received in sealed packaging. Each package

has a certificate of sterility by the manufacturer. The supplies will be returned to

Idexx if a seal is broken on any of the packaging. Field personnel inspect field

supplies before leaving the office each day.

B9 – Non-direct Measurements

       Tide tables are the only non-direct measurements that will be used in the

project. Tide tables are often used when planning sampling runs by boat.




                                                                                     24
Storms and wind can cause delays or early arrival in the actual tidal stage but are

not a critical issue to the project.

B10 – Data Management

       The data is currently being entered into an Excel spread sheet and it is

also entered into an Access database that will be used until a more elaborate

Oracle database is completed in April 2005. The Oracle database will be web-

enabled that will have both numerical and Program tracking, beach Advisories,

Water quality standards, and Nutrients (PRAWN) data.

       Data is entered into the Access database at each regional office and is

sent to a FTP site at the main office in Morehead City. All of the data from each

region is entered into the Excel spread sheet from staff at the Morehead City

Office for redundancy. Entries from the spread sheet and database are

compared to one another as a check (see appendix 7). When data entered in the

Northern Region and Southern Region into Access do not match with the Central

Region spread sheet, the data entry staff are required to find and correct the

mistake. Advisories are not posted until both databases can verify the geometric

mean. The project manager reviews the database daily to look at the geometric

mean data and orders the posting of advisory signs and the issue of press

releases accordingly.

       All of the data on the server have timed backups that are stored on tape.

Redundancy in data entry prevents incorrect data from being stored on the tapes.

Current copies of the data are also available on employees’ desktop computers.




                                                                                    25
      The following flow chart shows the process by which the data is generated

and how the data is used.




                                                                             26
                                                                 Data Generation
                                                              Routine Beach Sampling


                                                            Samples are taken on a
                                                           regular weekly schedule,
                                                            from 4/1 through 10/30
                                Collect samples
                                     (run)




                                                                                                                      High & Low-use sampling
                                                                                                                              stations

                                   Analyze and                                                   Single-sample
                                   record data                                                     maximum
                               (station lab sheets)                                               exceeded?



                                                                                                      Yes
                                                          Original sheets are always
                                                          mailed or taken to Shellfish
                                                                   Sanitation
                               Send sample data
                                                                                                Notify Shellfish
                                  to Shellfish
                                                                                               Sanitation (Rec.
                               Sanitation (email,
                                                                                               Beach Sampling)
                               fax, mail, courier)




For Shellfish Sanitation TCA                                                                   Notify public (local
                                                                                                    gov, pio,
                                                                                                 legislators in
  Recreational                                                                                  affected areas
   Sampling                     Lab tech enters
     Data                         data (Excel
                                 spreadsheet)




                                                                                                 Issue advisory
                                                                                                 (press release
                                                                                               from Rec. Beach
                                Data is reviewed                                                   Sampling)
                                 (Rec. Beach
                                  standards)



                                                                                         Yes
                                                   High-use sampling stations


                                  enterococci
                                  GM >= 35?




                                                                  No                                Finished




                                                                                                                                           27
Group C: Assessment and Oversight

C1 Assessments and Response Actions

       As Section Chief, Wayne Mobley has oversight for the shellfish and beach

monitoring programs. Assistant Section Chief, Patti Fowler, is responsible for

laboratory quality assurance for both the shellfish and beach monitoring

programs. JD Potts is the Beach Monitoring Project Manager and is responsible

for regularly reviewing the progress of the project, compiling data and supervising

employees. The project manager is responsible for posting swimming advisory

signs, directing public notification activities, and visiting the field offices regularly

to assure adherence to the quality assurance project plan. Performance reviews

are scheduled every six months for individual employee assessments. The

project manager is responsible for any corrective action needed to ensure that

the staff in the recreational water quality program is adhering to the QAPP and

program objectives. Christine Miller, the Environmental Specialist II, is

responsible for public outreach and education about the program and notification

of health departments, local, state and federal governments as well as interest

groups and the public.

       The SSRWQ staff monitors the documentation of laboratory/field

procedures and data analysis for each other throughout the beach monitoring

project.

C2 – Reports to Management

       Data entry personnel are responsible for submitting data summaries to the

project manager daily. Field and lab staff members are responsible for reporting




                                                                                        28
quality assurance issues as they occur to the project manager. Individual reports

for daily objectives and accomplishments are available for management at

anytime. The project manager reports to the EPA all swimming advisories as

they are issued. An in-depth survey of the beach monitoring is reported to the

EPA in January of each year.

Group D: Data Validation and Usability

D1 – Data Review, Verification, and Validation

       Each region has standardized field and laboratory procedures. Sample

collection, handling of samples and lab analysis are all conducted in the same

manner. Splitting samples and sharing them with each of the three labs to

analyze helps verify that protocols are followed properly. Bacteriological data that

is derived from samples where quality assurance is questionable will be rejected.

All three regional laboratories are state- and FDA- certified.

D2 – Verification and Validation Methods

       Verification and validation are conducted by the staff members who record

and enter the data. At least two people are involved in the laboratory analysis to

ensure that samples are read and recorded correctly on to the field/lab form. The

laboratory staff responsible for resolving laboratory issues are: Misty Gower and

a field technician in Nags Head, Diane Mason and Andy Haines in Morehead

City, Amy Javorsky and a field technician in Wrightsville Beach.

       Controls are setup to verify that samples are being read properly (see

Sect. B-5 Quality Control). The laboratory results are entered into the database

by technicians. Two technicians at each regional office are responsible for




                                                                                   29
ensuring the data is entered into the system free of mistakes. Each technician’s

work is reviewed by the other technician for 100% verification. The project

manager performs random spot checks on 5% of each office’s data handling.

The database is set up so that data summaries are verified by having the

program to automatically calculate geometric means.

D3 – Reconciliation with User Requirements

      The geometric means and single sample maximums are compared to the

standards in the EPA’s Beach Guidance manual for posting swimming

advisories.




                                                                               30
Appendix 1: List of Tier One Monitoring Sites Funded by EPA Grant with

sampling frequency and the single sample maximum.

AREA   STATION    NO   COUNTY       TIER   RUN     LOCATION   FREQUENCY      SSMax
C          112    A    BEAUFORT        1    PR       sound    5 in 30 days     104
C          119    A    BEAUFORT        1    PR       sound    5 in 30 days     104
C          120    A    BEAUFORT        1    PR       sound    5 in 30 days     104
C          121         BEAUFORT        1    PR       sound    5 in 30 days     104
S             1        BRUNSWICK       1   SB/OI     ocean    5 in 30 days     104
S             2        BRUNSWICK       1   SB/OI     ocean    5 in 30 days     104
S             5        BRUNSWICK       1   SB/OI     ocean    5 in 30 days     104
S             6   A    BRUNSWICK       1   SB/OI     ocean    5 in 30 days     104
S             6        BRUNSWICK       1   SB/OI     ocean    5 in 30 days     104
S             9        BRUNSWICK       1   HB/OI     ocean    5 in 30 days     104
S            10        BRUNSWICK       1   HB/OI     ocean    5 in 30 days     104
S            10   A    BRUNSWICK       1   HB/OI     ocean    5 in 30 days     104
S            13        BRUNSWICK       1   HB/OI     ocean    5 in 30 days     104
S            14   A    BRUNSWICK       1   HB/OI     ocean    5 in 30 days     104
S            15        BRUNSWICK       1   HB/OI     ocean    5 in 30 days     104
S            16   A    BRUNSWICK       1   HB/OI     ocean    5 in 30 days     104
S            16   B    BRUNSWICK       1   HB/OI     ocean    5 in 30 days     104
S            16   C    BRUNSWICK       1   HB/OI     ocean    5 in 30 days     104
C             2        CARTERET        1    AO       ocean    5 in 30 days     104
C             3   A    CARTERET        1    AO       ocean    5 in 30 days     104
C             3        CARTERET        1    AO       ocean    5 in 30 days     104
C             4   A    CARTERET        1    AO       ocean    5 in 30 days     104
C             4        CARTERET        1    AO       ocean    5 in 30 days     104
C             5        CARTERET        1    AO       ocean    5 in 30 days     104
C             6        CARTERET        1    AO       ocean    5 in 30 days     104
C             7        CARTERET        1    AO       ocean    5 in 30 days     104
C             8        CARTERET        1    AO       ocean    5 in 30 days     104
C             9        CARTERET        1    AO       ocean    5 in 30 days     104
C           10    A    CARTERET        1    AO       ocean    5 in 30 days     104
C           10    B    CARTERET        1    AO       ocean    5 in 30 days     104
C           55    A    CARTERET        1    AO       sound    5 in 30 days     104
C           57         CARTERET        1    AO       sound    5 in 30 days     104
N             1   A    CURRITUCK       1    CC       ocean    5 in 30 days     104
N             1        CURRITUCK       1    CC       ocean    5 in 30 days     104
N             2        CURRITUCK       1    CC       ocean    5 in 30 days     104
N             3        CURRITUCK       1    CC       ocean    5 in 30 days     104
N             4        CURRITUCK       1    CC       ocean    5 in 30 days     104
N             5   A    DARE            1    CC       ocean    5 in 30 days     104
N             7   A    DARE            1    CC       ocean    5 in 30 days     104
N             7        DARE            1    CC       ocean    5 in 30 days     104
N           12    A    DARE            1    KH       ocean    5 in 30 days     104


                                                                              31
N   12   B   DARE      1   KH     ocean   5 in 30 days   104
N   12       DARE      1   KH     ocean   5 in 30 days   104
N   13       DARE      1    RI    sound   5 in 30 days   104
N   14       DARE      1   KH     ocean   5 in 30 days   104
N   14   A   DARE      1   KH     ocean   5 in 30 days   104
N   15       DARE      1   KH     ocean   5 in 30 days   104
N   16   A   DARE      1   KH     ocean   5 in 30 days   104
N   16       DARE      1   KH     ocean   5 in 30 days   104
N   17   A   DARE      1   KH     ocean   5 in 30 days   104
N   17       DARE      1   KH     ocean   5 in 30 days   104
N   18       DARE      1   KH     ocean   5 in 30 days   104
N   19       DARE      1   KH     ocean   5 in 30 days   104
N   22       DARE      1   KH     ocean   5 in 30 days   104
N   23       DARE      1   KH     ocean   5 in 30 days   104
N   25       DARE      1   O/PI   ocean   5 in 30 days   104
N   26   B   DARE      1   O/PI   ocean   5 in 30 days   104
N   26       DARE      1   O/PI   ocean   5 in 30 days   104
N   27       DARE      1   O/PI   ocean   5 in 30 days   104
N   29   B   DARE      1   O/PI   ocean   5 in 30 days   104
N   29       DARE      1   O/PI   ocean   5 in 30 days   104
N   30       DARE      1   O/PI   ocean   5 in 30 days   104
N   32       DARE      1   O/PI   ocean   5 in 30 days   104
N   34       DARE      1   O/PI   ocean   5 in 30 days   104
N   37       DARE      1   O/PI   ocean   5 in 30 days   104
N   39       DARE      1   O/PI   ocean   5 in 30 days   104
N   40       DARE      1   O/PI   ocean   5 in 30 days   104
N   85   A   DARE      1   KH     ocean   5 in 30 days   104
N   85       DARE      1   KH     ocean   5 in 30 days   104
N   88       DARE      1    RI    sound   5 in 30 days   104
N   89       DARE      1   CC     sound   5 in 30 days   104
N   91       DARE      1    RI    sound   5 in 30 days   104
N   41   A   HYDE      1   O/PI   ocean   5 in 30 days   104
N   41       HYDE      1   O/PI   ocean   5 in 30 days   104
N   42       HYDE      1   O/PI   ocean   5 in 30 days   104
N   43       HYDE      1   O/PI   ocean   5 in 30 days   104
             NEW
S   18       HANOVER   1   WB     ocean   5 in 30 days   104
             NEW
S   19   B   HANOVER   1   WB     ocean   5 in 30 days   104
             NEW
S   19       HANOVER   1   WB     ocean   5 in 30 days   104
             NEW
S   20       HANOVER   1   WB     ocean   5 in 30 days   104
             NEW
S   21   A   HANOVER   1   SCL    ocean   5 in 30 days   104
             NEW
S   22   A   HANOVER   1   WB     ocean   5 in 30 days   104
             NEW
S   23       HANOVER   1   WB     ocean   5 in 30 days   104
             NEW
S   23   A   HANOVER   1   WB     ocean   5 in 30 days   104
C   11       ONSLOW    1   HB     ocean   5 in 30 days   104



                                                         32
C             13       ONSLOW            1   AO       ocean     5 in 30 days     104
S             29   A   ONSLOW            1   JTB      ocean     5 in 30 days     104
S             30   A   ONSLOW            1   JTB      ocean     5 in 30 days     104
S             30   B   ONSLOW            1   JTB      ocean     5 in 30 days     104
C             92       PAMLICO           1   LNR      sound     5 in 30 days     104
C             92   A   PAMLICO           1   LNR      sound     5 in 30 days     104
C             93       PAMLICO           1   UNR      sound     5 in 30 days     104
C             94       PAMLICO           1   UNR      sound     5 in 30 days     104
C             95       PAMLICO           1   UNR      sound     5 in 30 days     104
C            114       PAMLICO           1    PR      sound     5 in 30 days     104
S             25   A   PENDER            1   JTB      sound     5 in 30 days     104
S             28   A   PENDER            1   JTB      ocean     5 in 30 days     104
S             28       PENDER            1   JTB      ocean     5 in 30 days     104
S             29       PENDER            1   JTB      ocean     5 in 30 days     104




Appendix 2: List of Tier II Monitoring Sites Funded by State of North Carolina

with sampling frequency and the single sample maximum.


C      126   A     BEAUFORT        2   PR    sound   2X per month   276
S       32         BRUNSWICK       2   SCL   sound   2X per month   276
S       32   A     BRUNSWICK       2   SCL   sound   2X per month   276
S       34         BRUNSWICK       2   SCL   sound   2X per month   276
S       35         BRUNSWICK       2   SCL   sound   2X per month   276
S       35   A     BRUNSWICK       2   SCL   sound   2X per month   276
S       36         BRUNSWICK       2   SCL   sound   2X per month   276
S       37         BRUNSWICK       2   SCL   sound   2X per month   276
S       38   A     BRUNSWICK       2   SCL   sound   2X per month   276
S       39         BRUNSWICK       2   SCL   sound   2X per month   276
S       40         BRUNSWICK       2   SCL   sound   2X per month   276
S       40   B     BRUNSWICK       2   SCL   sound   2X per month   276
S       40   A     BRUNSWICK       2   SCL   sound   2X per month   276
S       42   A     BRUNSWICK       2   SCL   sound   2X per month   276
S       42   B     BRUNSWICK       2   SCL   sound   2X per month   276
S       43   A     BRUNSWICK       2   SCL   sound   2X per month   276
C        7   B     CARTERET        2   AO    sound   2X per month   276
C       30   A     CARTERET        2   HB    sound   2X per month   276
C       30         CARTERET        2   HB    sound   2X per month   276
C       31         CARTERET        2   HB    sound   2X per month   276
C       33         CARTERET        2   AO    sound   2X per month   276
C       34         CARTERET        2   HB    sound   2X per month   276
C       35         CARTERET        2   HB    sound   2X per month   276
C       36         CARTERET        2   HB    sound   2X per month   276
C       39         CARTERET        2   HB    sound   2X per month   276
C       39   A     CARTERET        2   HB    sound   2X per month   276


                                                                                 33
C    40       CARTERET    2    HB    sound   2X per month   276
C    41   B   CARTERET    2    AO    sound   2X per month   276
C    47   A   CARTERET    2    HB    sound   2X per month   276
C    48   A   CARTERET    2    HB    sound   2X per month   276
C    51       CARTERET    2    HB    sound   2X per month   276
C    51   B   CARTERET    2    HB    sound   2X per month   276
C    53   A   CARTERET    2    CI    sound   2X per month   276
C    56       CARTERET    2    CI    sound   2X per month   276
C    58       CARTERET    2    CI    sound   2X per month   276
C    59   A   CARTERET    2    CI    sound   2X per month   276
C    60   A   CARTERET    2    CI    sound   2X per month   276
C    62       CARTERET    2    CI    sound   2X per month   276
C    64       CARTERET    2    CI    sound   2X per month   276
C    65   A   CARTERET    2    CI    sound   2X per month   276
C    66       CARTERET    2    CI    sound   2X per month   276
C    68       CARTERET    2    CI    sound   2X per month   276
C    69   B   CARTERET    2    CI    sound   2X per month   276
C    69   A   CARTERET    2    CI    sound   2X per month   276
C    75       CARTERET    2    CI    sound   2X per month   276
C    76       CARTERET    2    CI    sound   2X per month   276
C    84       CARTERET    2   LNR    sound   2X per month   276
C    85       CARTERET    2   LNR    sound   2X per month   276
C   102   A   CRAVEN      2   UNR    sound   2X per month   276
C   104       CRAVEN      2   UNR    sound   2X per month   276
C   105   A   CRAVEN      2   UNR    sound   2X per month   276
C   106       CRAVEN      2   UNR    sound   2X per month   276
C   107       CRAVEN      2   UNR    sound   2X per month   276
C   110       CRAVEN      2   LNR    sound   2X per month   276
N    84   A   CURRITUCK   2    CC    sound   2X per month   276
N     5   B   DARE        2    CC    sound   2X per month   276
N     5   C   DARE        2   CC     sound   2X per month   276
N     6   A   DARE        2    CC    sound   2X per month   276
N     9   A   DARE        2    KH    sound   2X per month   276
N    20   A   DARE        2    RI    sound   2X per month   276
N    21   B   DARE        2    KH    sound   2X per month   276
N    26   C   DARE        2   O/PI   sound   2X per month   276
N    28   A   DARE        2   O/PI   sound   2X per month   276
N    28       DARE        2   O/PI   sound   2X per month   276
N    29   A   DARE        2   O/PI   sound   2X per month   276
N    31       DARE        2   O/PI   sound   2X per month   276
N    33       DARE        2   O/PI   sound   2X per month   276
N    33   A   DARE        2   O/PI   sound   2X per month   276
N    69       DARE        2    RI    sound   2X per month   276
N    82   A   DARE        2    CC    sound   2X per month   276
N    86       DARE        2    RI    sound   2X per month   276
N    88   A   DARE        2    RI    sound   2X per month   276
              NEW
S   18    A   HANOVER     2   WB     sound   2X per month   276
              NEW
S    45       HANOVER     2   SCL    sound   2X per month   276
S    46   A   NEW         2   SCL    sound   2X per month   276


                                                                  34
                 HANOVER
                 NEW
S       47   A   HANOVER        2     SCL   sound   2X per month   276
                 NEW
S       48       HANOVER        2     SCL   sound   2X per month   276
                 NEW
S       48   A   HANOVER        2     SCL   sound   2X per month   276
                 NEW
S       49   A   HANOVER        2     MS    sound   2X per month   276
                 NEW
S       50       HANOVER        2     MS    sound   2X per month   276
                 NEW
S       50   A   HANOVER        2     MS    sound   2X per month   276
                 NEW
S       50   B   HANOVER        2     MS    sound   2X per month   276
C       22   A   ONSLOW         2      HB   sound   2X per month   276
C       23   A   ONSLOW         2      HB   sound   2X per month   276
C       27   A   ONSLOW         2      HB   sound   2X per month   276
S       56       ONSLOW         2     MS    sound   2X per month   276
S       57       ONSLOW         2     MS    sound   2X per month   276
S       58       ONSLOW         2     MS    sound   2X per month   276
S       58   A   ONSLOW         2     MS    sound   2X per month   276
S       59       ONSLOW         2     MS    sound   2X per month   276
S       61   A   ONSLOW         2     MS    sound   2X per month   276
S       61   B   ONSLOW         2     MS    sound   2X per month   276
C       86   A   PAMLICO        2     LNR   sound   2X per month   276
C       90   A   PAMLICO        2     LNR   sound   2X per month   276
C       96   A   PAMLICO        2     UNR   sound   2X per month   276
S       51       PENDER         2     MS    sound   2X per month   276
S       52       PENDER         2     MS    sound   2X per month   276
S       53       PENDER         2     MS    sound   2X per month   276
S       54       PENDER         2     MS    sound   2X per month   276
S       54   A   PENDER         2     MS    sound   2X per month   276


    AREA STATION NO.        COUNTY          RUN LOCATION Frequency        SSMAX
     C     22     A         ONSLOW          HB    sound  2x Monthly      276
     C     23               ONSLOW          HB    sound  2x Monthly      276
     C     27              CARTERET         HB    sound  2x Monthly      276
     C     30     A        CARTERET         HB    sound  2x Monthly      276
     C     30              CARTERET         HB    sound  2x Monthly      276
     C     31              CARTERET         HB    sound  2x Monthly      276
     C     34              CARTERET         HB    sound  2x Monthly      276
     C     35              CARTERET         HB    sound  2x Monthly      276
     C     36              CARTERET         HB    sound  2x Monthly      276
     C     39     A        CARTERET         HB    sound  2x Monthly      276
     C     39              CARTERET         HB    sound  2x Monthly      276
     C     40              CARTERET         HB    sound  2x Monthly      276
     C     47     A        CARTERET         HB    sound  2x Monthly      276
     C     48     A        CARTERET         HB    sound  2x Monthly      276
     C     51     A        CARTERET         HB    sound  2x Monthly      276
     C     51              CARTERET         HB    sound  2x Monthly      276
     C     53     A        CARTERET         CI    sound  2x Monthly      276



                                                                             35
AREA STATION NO.      COUNTY      RUN LOCATION Frequency     SSMAX
 C      56           CARTERET     CI    sound  2x Monthly   276
 C      58           CARTERET     CI    sound  2x Monthly   276
 C      59    A      CARTERET     CI    sound  2x Monthly   276
 C      59           CARTERET     CI    sound  2x Monthly   276
 C      60    A      CARTERET     CI    sound  2x Monthly   276
 C      62           CARTERET     CI    sound  2x Monthly   276
 C      64           CARTERET     CI    sound  2x Monthly   276
 C      65    A      CARTERET     CI    sound  2x Monthly   276
 C      66           CARTERET     CI    sound  2x Monthly   276
 C      68           CARTERET     CI    sound  2x Monthly   276
 C      69    A      CARTERET     CI    sound  2x Monthly   276
 C      69    B      CARTERET     CI    sound  2x Monthly   276
 C      69           CARTERET     CI    sound  2x Monthly   276
 C      75           CARTERET     CI    sound  2x Monthly   276
 C      76           CARTERET     CI    sound  2x Monthly   276
 C      84           CARTERET    LNR    sound  2x Monthly   276
 C      85           CARTERET    LNR    sound  2x Monthly   276
 C      86    A       PAMLICO    LNR    sound  2x Monthly   276
 C      90    A       PAMLICO    LNR    sound  2x Monthly   276
 C      96    A       PAMLICO    UNR    sound  2x Monthly   276
 C     102    A       CRAVEN     UNR    sound  2x Monthly   276
 C     104            CRAVEN     UNR    sound  2x Monthly   276
 C     105    A       CRAVEN     UNR    sound  2x Monthly   276
 C     106            CRAVEN     UNR    sound  2x Monthly   276
 C     107            CRAVEN     UNR    sound  2x Monthly   276
 C     110            CRAVEN     LNR    sound  2x Monthly   276
 C     132           CARTERET     CI    sound  2x Monthly   276
 N      86             DARE       RI    sound  2x Monthly   276
 S      18    A    NEW HANOVER   WB     sound  2x Monthly   276
 S      32          BRUNSWICK    SCL    sound  2x Monthly   276
 S      33          BRUNSWICK    SCL    sound  2x Monthly   276
 S      34          BRUNSWICK    SCL    sound  2x Monthly   276
 S      35          BRUNSWICK    SCL    sound  2x Monthly   276
 S      36          BRUNSWICK    SCL    sound  2x Monthly   276
 S      37          BRUNSWICK    SCL    sound  2x Monthly   276
 S      38          BRUNSWICK    SCL    sound  2x Monthly   276
 S      39          BRUNSWICK    SCL    sound  2x Monthly   276
 S      40          BRUNSWICK    SCL    sound  2x Monthly   276
 S      42    A     BRUNSWICK    SCL    sound  2x Monthly   276
 S      43         NEW HANOVER   SCL    sound  2x Monthly   276
 S      44         NEW HANOVER   SCL    sound  2x Monthly   276
 S      45         NEW HANOVER   SCL    sound  2x Monthly   276
 S      46         NEW HANOVER   SCL    sound  2x Monthly   276
 S      47         NEW HANOVER   SCL    sound  2x Monthly   276
 S      48         NEW HANOVER   SCL    sound  2x Monthly   276
 S      49         NEW HANOVER   SCL    sound  2x Monthly   276
 S      50         NEW HANOVER   MS     sound  2x Monthly   276
 S      51            PENDER     MS     sound  2x Monthly   276
 S      52            PENDER     MS     sound  2x Monthly   276
 S      53            PENDER     MS     sound  2x Monthly   276
 S      54            PENDER     MS     sound  2x Monthly   276
 S      55            ONSLOW     MS     sound  2x Monthly   276
 S      56            ONSLOW     MS     sound  2x Monthly   276
 S      57            ONSLOW     MS     sound  2x Monthly   276
 S      58            ONSLOW     MS     sound  2x Monthly   276


                                                                36
  AREA STATION NO.           COUNTY         RUN LOCATION Frequency           SSMAX
   S      59                 ONSLOW         MS    sound  2x Monthly         276
   S      60                 ONSLOW         MS    sound  2x Monthly         276
   S      61                 ONSLOW         MS    sound  2x Monthly         276
   S      60                 ONSLOW         MS    sound  2x Monthly         276
   S      61                 ONSLOW         MS    sound  2x Monthly         276




Appendix 3: List of Tier III Monitoring Sites Funded by State of North Carolina

with sampling frequency and single sample maximum.

  AREA STATION      NO.      COUNTY        RUN   LOCATION    Frequency     SSMAX
   C      21                 ONSLOW         HB     sound     2x Monthly   500
   C      46                CARTERET        HB     sound     2x Monthly   500
   C      55         B      CARTERET        CI     sound     2x Monthly   500
   C      56         A      CARTERET        CI     sound     2x Monthly   500
   C      73                CARTERET        CI     sound     2x Monthly   500
   C      82                CARTERET       LNR     sound     2x Monthly   500
   C      83                 CRAVEN        LNR     sound     2x Monthly   500
   C      89                 PAMLICO       LNR     sound     2x Monthly   500
   C      98                 CRAVEN        UNR     sound     2x Monthly   500
   C      99                 CRAVEN        UNR     sound     2x Monthly   500
   C     100         A       CRAVEN        UNR     sound     2x Monthly   500
   C     109                 CRAVEN        LNR     sound     2x Monthly   500
   N      24                  DARE          RI     sound     2x Monthly   500



                                                                                  37
  AREA STATION     NO.     COUNTY         RUN LOCATION Frequency            SSMAX
   N     38                  DARE         O/PI  sound  2x Monthly      500
   N     44               CURRITUCK        EC   sound  2x Monthly      500
   N     46               CURRITUCK        EC   sound  2x Monthly      500
   N     47               CURRITUCK        EC   sound  2x Monthly      500
   N     49         A      CAMDEN          EC   sound  2x Monthly      500
   N     49                CAMDEN          EC   sound  2x Monthly      500
   N     51              PASQUOTANK        EC   sound  2x Monthly      500
   N     54              PERQUIMANS        EC   sound  2x Monthly      500
   N     59                 BERTIE       C/MF   sound  2x Monthly      500
   N     61                 BERTIE       C/MF   sound  2x Monthly      500
   N     63              WASHINGTON      PR/AR  sound  2x Monthly      500
   N     65                TYRRELL       PR/AR  sound  2x Monthly      500
   N     67                  DARE          RI   sound  2x Monthly      500
   N     68                  DARE          RI   sound  2x Monthly      500
   N     70                  DARE          RI   sound  2x Monthly      500
   N     74                  HYDE         B/SP  sound  2x Monthly      500
   N     83               BEAUFORT        B/SP  sound  2x Monthly      500
   N     87               BEAUFORT        B/SP  sound  2x Monthly      500
   S      63               ONSLOW          MS   sound  2x Monthly      500
   S      66               ONSLOW          MS   sound  2x Monthly      500
   S      67               ONSLOW          MS   sound  2x Monthly      500
   S      66               ONSLOW          MS   sound  2x Monthly      500
   S      67               ONSLOW          MS   sound  2x Monthly      500




APPENDIX 4 : Station Locations

     Station     Longitude      Latitude Station Longitude      Latitude
C1             -76.676192513 34.696927430C34    -77.01367991934.676835503
C10            -77.097821664 34.644946052C35    -77.03386991234.676434141
C100A          -77.034878766 35.102980025C36    -77.00931347634.697298419
C102           -76.972827267 35.022754891C37    -76.97139453934.708357019
C104           -76.947509140 34.985444583C39    -76.94511796534.722179847
C105           -76.906447877 34.944845587C4     -76.73933850734.697034796
C106           -76.852640622 34.919776083C40    -76.89501330634.724020248
C107           -76.818538597 34.941621183C41A -76.88605673734.689933489
C109           -76.762786822 34.905902490C43    -76.83636527334.724394539
C11            -77.269487290 34.569768458C45    -76.83231428134.701673596
C110           -76.710483085 34.952294033C46    -76.78034285034.725643860
C111           -77.051248658 35.535489610C47A -76.74574750334.709637298
C112           -76.975586165 35.483640679C48A -76.73039549134.719052365
C113           -76.953927445 35.484553126C5     -76.82876369934.692741552



                                                                                38
C115             -76.855102497 35.451863601C51      -76.75159580134.721827079
C116             -76.854428239 35.426399074C53A     -76.68738635934.721589412
C117             -76.900114710 35.433796309C55      -76.66926323834.722599869
C118             -76.927363228 35.449261183C55A     -76.66633293634.727078856
C119             -76.964299148 35.437243701C55A     -76.66628001034.727120323
C120             -76.984924540 35.471923467C56      -76.66280368634.714686829
C121             -77.022013868 35.506094114C56A     -76.63219874334.709503984
C126             -76.931791200 35.477473561C57      -76.68052952934.712907879
C132             -76.391081145 34.877387307C58      -76.64462955134.688345961
C133             -77.028055353 35.090181526C59      -76.61901574734.679418610
C2               -76.697739982 34.693943138C6       -76.88112213334.686610139
C21              -77.271557146 34.572985793C60      -76.61479887034.708016190
C22              -77.204969632 34.632508645C61      -76.62389855734.744176362
C23              -77.181631768 34.634679200C62      -76.60816405034.789670161
C26              -77.158395684 34.678575245C64      -76.57954809434.714194684
C27              -77.116748698 34.686453112C65      -76.50700017734.721576289
C3               -76.710739494 34.695234877C66      -76.52611623034.683908729
C30              -77.100093151 34.672750255C67      -76.55899639834.692165236
C31              -77.087364483 34.673968450C68      -76.51897059434.656150763
C33              -77.046111220 34.669563760C69      -76.54988820334.629861110




 Station     Longitude      Latitude      Station     Longitude       Latitude
C69A       -76.524890730   34.623956597N18              -75.607950959 35.931427449
C7         -76.956468619   34.675096843N19              -75.595232190 35.909120354
C70        -76.506212295   34.786962032N2               -75.823630251 36.376580798
C73        -76.450868321   34.818634978N20              -75.609894387 35.901302935
C75        -76.318660481   34.856486596N21A             -75.539971797 35.798597487
C76        -76.331447347   34.883077466N21A             -75.606525134 35.902055099
C7A        -76.909020955   34.685269887N22              -75.563146404 35.846935610
C8         -77.034071621   34.660067573N24              -75.548283277 35.794852945
C82        -76.690283605   34.850565257N25              -75.502511489 35.740506419
C83        -76.648684617   34.905521001N26              -75.480072661 35.680190176
C84        -76.652623135   34.938829009N26A             -75.481257505 35.675173389
C85        -76.596312138   34.981948607N26B             -75.464863331 35.608633993
C87        -76.639079008   35.056332038N27              -75.461071913 35.584637998
C88        -76.662769243   35.039955297N28              -75.468587777 35.573357698
C89        -76.681716351   35.029955807N29              -75.468287803 35.531190830



                                                                                 39
C9         -77.055400553   34.655208221N29A          -75.475647812   35.533764701
C90        -76.700763717   35.023224680N3            -75.809995754   36.328534901
C92        -76.752293218   34.995337782N30           -75.492489048   35.376316031
C93        -76.793613271   34.971373441N31           -75.501185632   35.369796565
C94        -76.798148231   34.967167053N32           -75.507009613   35.320654615
C95        -76.855544470   34.993477027N33           -75.514666188   35.298654708
C96        -76.867348756   35.003182937N34           -75.520804424   35.254094799
C97        -76.937091411   35.040918624N37           -75.604510371   35.232351881
C98        -76.947721239   35.062713512N38           -75.660714343   35.220144348
C99        -76.969988269   35.064260062N39           -75.643300965   35.223805252
N1         -75.828589222   36.395900771N4            -75.792121734   36.278783180
N12        -75.689589406   36.066736659N40           -75.703829781   35.204154799
N12A       -75.674080278   36.043669358N41           -75.778707089   35.180215473
N12B       -75.668471405   36.034940012N42           -75.920680997   35.123597437
N13        -75.686800710   36.035516518N43           -75.959352070   35.102543745
N14        -75.655798666   36.015373474N44           -75.863675538   36.234781792
N15        -75.645905320   35.998360697N46           -75.924313362   36.425332729
N16        -75.640609492   35.989196937N47           -75.965124608   36.422638207
N17        -75.627210864   35.965340514N49           -76.146958333   36.289307232




 Station     Longitude      Latitude       Station    Longitude       Latitude
N5         -75.766710244   36.203707833S19a          -77.897369706   34.018418777
N51        -76.177656992   36.269808547S19b          -77.899879655   34.011794687
N54        -76.382576548   36.081743746S2            -78.506642479   33.866738947
N59        -76.743160248   36.124196652S20           -77.890965128   34.033675865
N6         -75.757121240   36.168579488S21           -77.882522171   34.053686402
N61        -76.818644041   35.916741092S22a          -77.804552442   34.193089698
N63        -76.488616678   35.959662385S23           -77.788756596   34.213892915
N65        -76.285757854   35.965595269S25           -77.744938889   34.267404992
N67        -75.620101383   35.841538824S28           -77.629162578   34.364554042
N68        -75.723533114   35.927016022S29           -77.550263137   34.421631356
N69        -75.702561515   35.915940041S30           -77.421343503   34.491061309
N7         -75.734348072   36.145396324S32           -78.504150910   33.883248768
N70        -75.660644669   35.919045959S33           -78.430797453   33.897080475
N74        -76.340366732   35.403177722S34           -78.372285210   33.913505509
N7A        -75.722016270   36.121661220S35           -78.367659511   33.930822070
N82        -75.757493045   36.175322313S36           -78.308194497   33.916081781
N83        -76.816271027   35.476887168S37           -78.390963983   33.904746725
N84        -75.822640987   36.325637070S38           -78.221634232   33.944395160
N85        -75.653451477   36.011260505S39           -78.222649673   33.924446785
N85A       -75.650269426   36.006195860S40           -78.153927414   33.927216860
N86        -75.668173972   35.908999026S41           -78.068827863   33.921271077
N87        -76.612352544   35.532988370S42           -78.048223994   33.918640020
N88        -75.632348393   35.951793014S43           -77.953442764   33.959697945



                                                                                40
N89    -75.744420039    36.136351469S44    -77.940204932   34.011158926
N9     -75.742850621    36.090753019S45    -77.918313674   34.051717435
N91    -75.726800613    36.018639629S46    -77.882987765   34.081942431
S1     -78.515342160    33.863766768S47    -77.861763118   34.139966581
S10    -78.260460029    33.914140850S48    -77.819894005   34.183062275
S13    -78.146863580    33.913182054S48    -77.823480184   34.196828383
S14    -78.082999024    33.904049531S5     -78.438488200   33.886417382
S15    -78.054430332    33.896655050S50    -77.806652815   34.223920491
S18    -77.921292375    33.964301240S50    -77.770239366   34.262983248
S18a   -77.942101804    33.958935970S51    -77.732264570   34.308634227
S19    -77.905223336    33.998303826S52    -77.674163714   34.359335344
S53     -77.608161883   34.401670684S58   -77.342367726    34.551796486
S54     -77.550306786   34.430485334S59   -77.398450646    34.578564881
S55     -77.482245401   34.479566545S6    -78.412031897    33.893411461
S56     -77.417732074   34.503511808S60   -77.382402994    34.615845594
S57     -77.359901569   34.543997877S61   -77.389102065    34.673640547
S9      -78.296994149   33.910952120S63   -77.434086631    34.752775713
S67     -77.429412738   34.740373277S66   -77.427703079    34.741593299




                                                                      41
APPENDIX: 5 Press release templates

F. Easley, Governor                            William G. Ross Jr., Secretary

    N.C. Department of Environment and Natural Resources
Release: Immediate                                 Contact: Laura Leonard 919-715-3204,
                                                   J.D. Potts 252-726 6827,
                                                   Local Health Dir.
Date:                                              Distribution: AP, Targeted

BEACH WATER QUALITY ADVISORY FOR (name of place), OR
 WATER QUALITY SWIMMING ADVISORY FOR (name of place); (CAUSE)
                          BLAMED

RALEIGH- An advisory against swimming was posted today at a XX County site, where
state environmental health officials found bacteria levels in the water that exceed the
EPA recreational water quality standards. Waterfowl/stormwater runoff/boat discharges
(pick one or say cause unknown) are the probable source of the bacteria.

The advisory affects a portion of the XX (site name and general location), where water
test results showed a level of Y colonies of enterococci bacteria per 100 milliliters of
water, which exceeds the EPA standard of 35 colonies per 100 milliliters.

Enterococcus, the organism used for testing, is found in the intestines of warm-blooded
animals. While it does not cause illness itself, scientific studies indicate that its presence
is closely correlated to the presence of other disease-causing organisms. People
swimming or playing in waters with bacteria levels higher than the standard have an
increased risk of developing gastrointestinal illness.

This advisory is not a beach closing, nor does the advisory affect the entire ____ area.
Swimming advisories affect waters within 200 feet of the sign. The sign posted reads as
follows:

                           ATTENTION
   SWIMMING IN THIS AREA NOT RECOMMENDED. BACTERIA TESTING
                           INDICATES
    LEVELS OF CONTAMINATION THAT MAY BE HAZARDOUS TO YOUR
  HEALTH. THIS ADVISORY AFFECTS WATERS WITHIN 200’ OF THIS SIGN.
                         OFFICE OF THE STATE HEALTH DIRECTOR

State officials will continue testing the site, and they will remove the sign and notify the
public again when the bacteria levels decrease to levels below the standard.
Environmental health officials sample 225 sites throughout the coastal region, most of



                                                                                            42
them on a weekly basis from April to October. Testing continues on a reduced schedule
during the rest of the year, when fewer people are in the water.

“North Carolina’s coastal waters are generally very clean, and we test them frequently to
confirm that they continue to be clean,” said Wayne Mobley, chief of the Shellfish
Sanitation and Recreational Water Quality Section of the N.C. Division of Environmental
Health. “On the occasions when waters do fail to meet the standards set by the EPA, we
need to protect the public health by letting residents and visitors know.”

                                          ###




                                                                                      43
APPENDIX: 5 Press release templates continued

Michael F. Easley, Governor                            William G. Ross Jr., Secretary

    N.C. Department of Environment and Natural Resources
Release: Immediate                                 Contact: Laura Leonard 919-715-3204,
                                                   J.D. Potts 252-726 6827
                                                   Local Health Dir.

Date:                                              Distribution: AP, Targeted

BEACH WATER QUALITY ADVISORY FOR (name of place), OR
 WATER QUALITY SWIMMING ADVISORY FOR (name of place); (CAUSE)
                          BLAMED

RALEIGH- An advisory against swimming was posted today at a XX County site, where
state environmental health officials found bacteria levels in the water that exceed the
EPA recreational water quality standards. Waterfowl/stormwater runoff/boat discharges
(pick one or say cause unknown) are the probable source of the bacteria.

The advisory affects a portion of the XX (site name and general location), where water
test results showed a level of Y colonies of enterococci bacteria per 100 milliliters of
water, which exceeds the EPA single-sample standard of 104/276/500 colonies per 100
milliliters.

Enterococcus, the organism used for testing, is found in the intestines of warm-blooded
animals. While it does not cause illness itself, scientific studies indicate that its presence
is closely correlated to the presence of other disease-causing organisms. People
swimming or playing in waters with bacteria levels higher than the standard have an
increased risk of developing gastrointestinal illness.

This advisory is not a beach closing, nor does the advisory affect the entire ____ area.
Swimming advisories affect waters within 200 feet of the sign. The sign posted reads as
follows:

                           ATTENTION
   SWIMMING IN THIS AREA NOT RECOMMENDED. BACTERIA TESTING
                           INDICATES
    LEVELS OF CONTAMINATION THAT MAY BE HAZARDOUS TO YOUR
  HEALTH. THIS ADVISORY AFFECTS WATERS WITHIN 200’ OF THIS SIGN.
                         OFFICE OF THE STATE HEALTH DIRECTOR

State officials will test the site again tomorrow, and will continue testing the site if
needed. They will remove the sign and notify the public again when the bacteria levels
decrease to levels below the standard. Environmental health officials sample 225 sites
throughout the coastal region, most of them on a weekly basis from April to October.


                                                                                            44
Testing continues on a reduced schedule during the rest of the year, when fewer people
are in the water.
“North Carolina’s coastal waters are generally very clean, and we test them frequently to
confirm that they continue to be clean,” said Wayne Mobley, chief of the Shellfish
Sanitation and Recreational Water Quality Section of the N.C. Division of Environmental
Health. “On the occasions when waters do fail to meet the standards set by the EPA, we
need to protect the public health by letting residents and visitors know.”

                                          ###




                                                                                      45
Appendix: 6 Advisories Signs




                               46
Appendix: 6 Advisories Signs Continued




                                         47
Appendix: 6 Advisories Signs Continued




                                         48
Appendix 7: Example of Field Sampling Sheet with Lab results




                                                               49
Appendix 7 continued. Flip Side of Sampling Sheet and Chain of Custody




                                                                         50
Appendix7 Continued. Example of Access and Excel databases,




                                                              51
Appendix 8: Educational Materials


Recreational Water Quality Program—an overview of the new standard
Malcolm Blalock, consultant to Shellfish Sanitation and Recreational Water Quality


Does anyone check the waters on the coast to see if it’s safe to swim and play in them?
Yes, the Recreational Water Quality Program operated by the Shellfish Sanitation Section
of the Division of Environmental Health monitors coastal waters on a year-round basis.

Since its inception in 1997, the program has fulfilled its purpose: “To protect the public
health by monitoring the quality of North Carolina’s coastal recreational waters and
notifying the public when bacteriological standards for safe bodily contact are exceeded”.

The program has identified 225 specific locations where the public swims and plays in
coastal waters and has sorted the areas into three tiers, determined by use patterns and the
resultant risks of someone becoming ill from contaminated water. Approximately 50
percent of these sites are Tier I sites, those with the most use.

 Examples of these areas include oceanfront beaches, summer camp swimming areas and
jet-ski rental facilities. Approximately 40 percent of the sites are Tier II areas. These
areas have less usage and are generally accessible only via watercraft. Examples of these
sites include public access areas, boat ramps, and other places where smaller numbers of
people use the water. The remaining 10 percent of the sites are classified as Tier III areas;
those have only occasional use and fewer people at risk.

The ocean beaches and other high usage areas are sampled once per week from the
beginning of April to the end of September. All stations are sampled twice per month
during October, and then once per month in the winter and spring, November through
March.

The program uses enterococci as the indicator organism for contamination, based on
current US EPA recommendations. Enterococci are the organisms most consistently
present in the intestinal tracts of animals and are most closely associated with incidents of
human illness. The program uses an EPA-mandated standard of 35 colonies per 100ml of
water, based on a geometric mean (log average) using the most recent five sample results
collected over the previous 30 days. It also uses a single-sample maximum of 104
colonies per 100 ml of water to indicate that the water in question exceeds that standard.
Exceeding either of these standards will result in public notification procedures being
activated.

When the standards are exceeded, local officials are notified, a press release is issued,
and a sign is posted at the affected area, warning the public of the risks associated with
swimming or playing in the water at this site. The program will continue to sample the
area repeatedly. When the area ceases to exceed the standard, the sign is removed, local



                                                                                          52
officials are notified again and another press release is issued. The program has placed as
many as 13 (in 1998) and as few as zero (2002) signs over the duration of the program.

Point-source contamination sources are also the sites of sign postings. Sources such as
sewage treatment plant outfall pipes are permanently posted to warn swimmers not to
swim or play in such areas. More problematic are pipes with stormwater discharges.
These discharges are heavily contaminated but discharge only intermittently, during and
after rainfall events. Currently the program posts these pipes when they begin
discharging during a storm and removes the posting 24 hours after the discharge stops.

In an effort to raise awareness of the program and to solicit input from the public, several
public meetings are being scheduled for the spring. These meetings will be held
primarily in beach communities along the coast and will involve local officials,
travel/tourism representatives, property owners and members of the general public.
Media packages will be developed to publicize the meetings.

J.D. Potts leads the program from the Morehead City office, and five water samplers
stationed in Nags Head (1), Morehead City (2), and Wrightsville Beach (2) perform the
water testing. EPA awarded two grants were awarded in 2002 to fully implement the
program and to fund the activities of two consultants. Malcolm Blalock and Dave
Clawson were hired as consultants to focus on increasing public awareness and support
of the program and developing state rules for the program, respectively.

We hope to keep North Carolinian residents and visitors swimming in the coastal waters
for generations to come!




                                                                                          53
Apendix 8: Educational Materials continued.

THE FACTS: RECREATIONAL WATER QUALITY
MONITORING IN NORTH CAROLINA




                                          ATTENTION
            SWIMMING IN THIS AREA IS NOT RECOMMENDED.
               BACTERIA TESTING INDICATES LEVELS OF
      CONTAMINATION THAT MAY BE HAZARDOUS TO YOUR HEALTH.
      THIS ADVISORY AFFECTS WATERS WITHIN 200 FT. OF THIS SIGN.
                                 OFFICE OF STATE HEALTH DIRECTOR



I saw this sign at the beach- who put it there and what does it mean?

In June of 1997, the North Carolina Shellfish Sanitation and Recreational Water Quality Section
of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources was given the responsibility of
initiating a recreational water quality monitoring program in the coastal waters of the state. The
coastal waters monitored include the ocean beaches, sounds, bays, and estuarine rivers.
The primary purpose of the program is to protect the public health by monitoring the quality of
North Carolina’s coastal recreational waters and notifying the public when bacteriological
standards for safe bodily contact are exceeded.

To be in compliance with the swimming standard, a geometric mean (log average) of five weekly
samples cannot exceed 35 enterococci organisms per 100 ml. The geometric mean is based upon
five samples taken within a 30-day period. In addition, areas may be posted on a temporary basis
if a single sample exceeds the standards for that area, which are set depending on usage. Areas
posted based on single sample results will be retested on a daily basis.

If the swimming standard is exceeded, a press release is sent out to inform the public and warning
signs are posted at the swimming site. Discharges of stormwater and flood water into swimming
areas may also prompt a swimming advisory that will last for 24 hours after the discharge has
ended.
While the waters of North Carolina are generally very clean and safe places to swim, it is
important to monitor them continually, so the public can be informed of any localized problems.


Are North Carolina’s beaches safe for swimming?
Prior to 2003, North Carolina’s ocean beaches have not exceeded the swimming standard, which
means that they are safe and healthy for swimming. Using the previously mandated standard,



                                                                                                  54
which tested for different bacteria, in the summer of 2000 only five sound side stations exceeded
the swimming standard.


Will I get sick if I swim in waters under a swimming advisory?
Not necessarily, but you are at an increased risk.




What kind of illnesses can I contract from swimming in polluted
waters?
The most common are diarrheal diseases that can be caused by bacteria, viruses and parasitic
protozoa. Ear, nose, throat, skin and respiratory infections are also commonly associated with
swimming in contaminated water.

What should I do if I become ill after swimming?
If you develop diarrhea or an infection after swimming in NC coastal waters, seek
medical treatment and then please contact the Shellfish Sanitation and Recreational
Water Quality Section of the Division of Environmental Health at (252) 726-6827. We’d
like to know about any possible waterborne illness outbreaks as soon as possible, to
prevent more people from becoming ill.
Where are the disease-causing organisms coming from and how are

they getting into the water?

Pathogens come from both human and animals. Poorly treated wastewater from treatment plants,
malfunctioning septic systems and boat discharges are sources of fecal contamination.
Stormwater runoff from agricultural and urban areas delivers pathogens from humans, livestock,
wildlife, and pets into recreational waters. Germs rinsed off other swimmers directly into the
bathing area are common sources of contamination.


Can I get sick from swimming in fresh water lakes and rivers?
Yes. Fresh water is affected by runoff and point source discharges just like coastal waters.
Unfortunately the state does not have a monitoring program for inland recreational waters. The
public should avoid fresh water swimming after heavy rain especially near storm drains.


How many stations do you monitor and how often do you monitor
them?
The section samples 225 stations throughout the coastal area at different frequencies, depending
on the time of year and the use patterns of the site. The ocean beaches and other high usage areas



                                                                                                 55
are sampled once per week between the beginning of April and the end of September. All
stations are sampled twice per month during October, and then once per month in the winter and
spring, November through March.


How long does a swimming advisory stay posted?
In the case of areas exceeding the geometric mean, the sign will remain up for at least two weeks.
Two consecutive samples must be collected on a weekly schedule, which must register fewer than
35 enterococci per 100 ml. If the posting is due to the single maximum sample standard, the sign
will remain posted as long as the standard is exceeded.


I have more questions- where can I go for answers?
If you have further questions about the recreational water quality monitoring program or wish to
obtain further information, you can call J.D. Potts at the Shellfish Sanitation and Recreational
Water Quality Monitoring Section of the Division of Environmental Health at (252) 726-6827 or
j.d.potts@ncmail.net. You can also view beach postings online at http://www.earth911.org




                   Printing of this document was funded entirely through a grant from the U.S. EPA.




                                                                                                      56
Appendix 9: Laboratory Quality Assurance




                                           57

								
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