30th September 2008
Re: Russia Trip December 2008: Medical advice.
I will attach to the bottom of this note information about the Medical advice for Russia from a medical
website that I use.
Please read this information as it will help you stay healthy on your trip.
In essence the advice regarding injections is that you need the following:
Diphtheria, Polio and Tetanus (you should be covered for these as they are needed for the UK)
Other Vaccinations: You could consider having other vaccinations (see below) but I feel that the risk is very
low and these are not needed.
If you are a boarder, the san will contact you if you need any off the essential vaccinations (Diphtheria,
Polio, Tetanus or Hepatitis A)
If you would like to consider any other of the vaccinations please make an appointment to see the Doctor.
If you are in Laxton please contact your own surgery regarding any vaccinations you may need.
Have a good and safe trip
Dr David Clayton
Dr David Clayton, The Sanatorium, Pavilion Drive, Oundle School, Oundle, Peterborough, PE8 4JJ
Tel 01832 277200 Fax 01832 277161 firstname.lastname@example.org www.oundleschool.org.uk
Registered Charity No. 309921
Russian Federation (Europe)
Advice for All Destinations
The risks to health whilst travelling will vary between individuals and many issues need to be taken into
account, e.g. activities abroad, length of stay and general health of the traveller. It is recommended that you
consult with your General Practitioner or Practice Nurse who will assess your particular health risks before
recommending vaccines and /or antimalarial tablets. This is also a good opportunity to discuss important
travel health issues including safe food and water, accidents, sun exposure and insect bites. Many of the
problems experienced by travellers cannot be prevented by vaccinations and other preventive measures
need to be taken.
Ensure you are fully insured for medical emergencies including repatriation. The 'T7' leaflet (from Post
Offices) gives details of health care agreements between countries and is accompanied by an application
form for the European Health Insurance Card (EHIC). The completed form must submitted about 6 weeks
before you plan to leave to allow the card to reach you on time. The EHIC entitles travellers to reduced-cost,
sometimes free, medical treatment in most European countries.
For Travel Safety Advice you should visit the UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office website.
Confirm primary courses and boosters are up to date as recommended for life in Britain - including vaccines
given to special groups because of risk exposure or complications (e.g. hepatitis B for health care workers,
influenza and pneumococcal vaccines for the elderly).
Courses or boosters usually advised: hepatitis A; diphtheria; tetanus.
Vaccines sometimes advised: typhoid; tuberculosis; hepatitis B; rabies; tick-borne encephalitis; Japanese B
encephalitis; meningococcal meningitis.
For Asian and Far Eastern regions only, cholera may sometimes be advised.
No vaccine certificate required.
Notes on the diseases mentioned above
Tetanus is contracted through dirty cuts and scratches and causes a serious infection of the nervous system.
Typhoid and hepatitis A are spread through contaminated food and water. Typhoid causes septicaemia and
hepatitis A causes liver inflammation and jaundice. In risk areas you should be immunised if good hygiene is
Cholera is spread through contaminated water and food. More common during floods and rainy seasons.
Those unable to take effective precautions, for example, during wars and when working in refugee camps or
slums may consider vaccination.
Tuberculosis is most commonly transmitted via droplet infection. BCG vaccination is recommended for
travellers under 16 years of age who will be living or working with local people for a prolonged period of time
(three months or more). Following individual risk assessment, vaccination may also be considered for
travellers under the age of 35 years who may be at high risk through their occupation abroad eg healthcare
Diphtheria is also spread by droplet infection through close personal contact. Vaccination is advised if close
contact with locals in risk areas is likely.
Meningococcal infection - when outbreaks are reported, vaccination should be considered for travellers to
Moscow (not normally for other part of Russia) who will teach in schools, attend university or other courses,
frequent crowded bars and clubs, or work in a medical setting.
Hepatitis B is spread through infected blood, contaminated needles and sexual intercourse, It affects the
liver, causes jaundice and occasionally liver failure. Vaccination is recommended for those at occupational
risk (e.g. health care workers), for long stays or frequent travel to medium and high risk areas, for those more
likely to be exposed such as children (from cuts and scratches) and those who may need surgical procedures.
Tickborne encephalitis is spread by tick bites. It is a serious infection of the brain and vaccination is advised
for those in risk areas unable to avoid tick bites such as campers, forestry workers and ramblers.
Rabies is spread through bites or licks on broken skin from an infected animal. It is always fatal. Vaccination is
advised for those going to risk areas that will be remote from a reliable source of vaccine. Even when pre-
exposure vaccines have been received urgent medical advice should be sought after any animal bite.
Japanese B encephalitis is spread by mosquitoes. Risk is only in the very far east of Siberia close to the
Chinese border. Advised if likely to be repeatedly exposed to mosquito bites, such as during prolonged stays
(e.g. more than 4 weeks), or repeated visits to the infected area.