Sharing netLibrary e-Books Among the Academic Libraries in Taiwan

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					     Sharing netLibrary e-Books
    Among the Academic Libraries
             in Taiwan

                    Ellen F. Liu

                       Professor,
Graduate Institute of Library and Information Science,
         National Chung-Hsing University

                                                         1
           Outline

• Introduction
• Related Literature
• Consortium Purchasing of e-Books
  in Taiwan
• Discussion


                                     2
Introduction I – Higher Education System
               SY2005-2006


General       Universities       60
              Colleges           10
Technology    Universities       29
              Colleges           46
              Junior             17
                Colleges
Total                            162
                                           3
  Introduction II – Number of Students
                   SY 2005-2006

Univ. & Colleges                  938,648
Master Programs                   149,493
Ph.D. Programs                     27,531
Junior Colleges                   180,886
Total                             1,296,558
                                              4
Introduction III – Number of Faculty & Staff
                            SY 2005-2006
 Faculty                   Full-time                47,317
                           Part-time                41,601
 Assistants                                          2,284
 Staff                                              18,669
 Total                                             109,871
(Source: Summary of Universities, Colleges, and Junior Colleges, SY2005-2006)


SY2005-2006 Total Students & Staff in HE 1,406,429
Question: How many of these would use e-books?
          Probably less than 16%.
                                                                           5
Introduction III – Number of Faculty & Staff
                     SY 2005-2006 (cont’d)

  If an estimate of 260,000 “Others”—non-
degree students, alumni, retirees… is added,
the academic libraries would serve an
estimated total of 1,690,000 users.
 (Source: 2005 Library Yearbook)


 With this estimate, the percentage of
potential e-book users would be even lower.

                                               6
    E-Book & Collection Development 
   Deliberations at the Turn of the New Millennium

• Publishing trends in e resources: databases, e-journals,
  e-books…
• Expenditures (from a survey of 159 libraries of HE in
  2004)
   Printed Books                       37%

   Printed Journals                    35%

   AV                                   5%

   E Resources                         22%
                                                        7
  E-Book & Collection Development 
  Deliberations at the Turn of the New Millennium
                                      (cont’d)
• Collections of E Resources
   Types                 No. of Lib       Average Size   Max. Size
   E Journals            131              7,968          63,632
   Databases             136              81             943
   E Books               127              5,851          311,965
   Other E Resources     97               484            29,783

• Manpower
    135 libraries       1,696 staff
    Average            12.6 per lib
• Reading & Circulation
    Collections to Support Educational Programs, Research…
    Scholarly Communication vs. Leisure Reading
    English Books vs. Chinese Books
                                                                     8
          Related Literature-Taiwan

Early Experience of Tamkang University Library
  Purchased netLibrary 1,200 volumes in July 2000
  Usage Statistics Reported: July 2000-Oct.11, 2001
    Total Accesses                   577
    Subjects Accessed Most
       Business & Economics          92
       Library Science               92
       Literature                    57
One observation: the netLibrary model, befitting consortium
                   purchase, could augment shared resources.
                 (Hwang & Li, 2001)

                                                               9
             Related Literature-UK

2001 Londsdale & Armstrong:
  a slow acceptance of nearly all digital textual
  Resources other than journals

2003 Garrrod:
  netLibrary was the main supplier of ebooks to UK
  academic libraries.
  One factor affecting the take-up of ebooks in the UK
  was content and services have been developed by US
  companies for the US market.

                                                    10
       Related Literature -Australia

2001Nelson—experience of Victoria Univ. in
    a pilot consortium subscription of CAVAL
  VU: 12 campuses, 50,000 students. 3,000
      faculty & staff.
      Decided to select high-use items, 20
      reserve titles with a match on netLibrary.
  CAVAL: a consortium of VU libraries and the
            State Lib of Victoria.
                                             11
         Related Literature -Australia (cont’d)

              Number      Titles not   Total use-    Titles most
              of titles     used        to-date         used
                                                    (economics)
    VC           20         43%           406          23%
 consortium     303          9%          3611          28%


Author noted : “ people prefer access to selection ” and
  VU’s selection would not represent a critical mass of
  content, a meaningful collection to choose from or
  deliver statistical use reports from.

                                                                   12
           Related Literature-US: Case 1

2001 Dillon, pt.1—Experience of Univ. of
                  Texas at Austin
  E-Book Collections from netLibrary
  Amigos             11,000 titles
  TexShare           5,000 titles      9,000 vols
  UT System          5,300 titles

 Amigos: a large network of 750 libraries mainly from
           five southern states
 TexShare: all Texas public and academic libraries
 UT System: 15 libraries ( 9 academic, 6 medical)
                                                        13
      Related Literature-US: Case 1 (cont’d)
                  Univ. of Texas at Austin
E-book titles that have received at least one use
Collection and user group                                              %
Titles in the global netLibrary collection which have been used        77
by any library
Titles in the Amigo netLibrary collection used by any AMIGOS           71
library
Titles in the statewide Texas State Library collection used by         54
any library
Titles in the UT System netLibrary collection used by any UT           32
System library
Titles in the Amigos netLibrary collection used by UT-Austin           24
Titles in the UT system netLibrary collection used by UT-Austin 15
                                                                  14
                   (Dillon pt.1, 2001)
          Related Literature-US: Case 2
2001 Ramirez & Gyeszly—Experience of
                       Texas A&M Univ
                      e-Book Collections
   Amigos                               10,000
   TSLAC                                9,000
   (Texas State Library &
   Archives Commission)
   TAMU                                 193*
                                        ( since Jan. 2001)
  *a committee selected 15 subject areas historically tended to have
                                                                       15
   high circulation
    Related Literature-US: Case 2                 (cont’d)
                        Texas A&M Univ

                         Accesses
   Aug. 2000-Jan.2001        Feb.—May 2001
   (180 days)                (90 days)
   1,356                     3,128
                             (incl. 61 of TAMU
                             collection)
   Total accesses            4,484

Authors noted : “ Surprisingly, the almost 200 specially selected
  e-books were not very heavily accessed by users. ” Also 9 of 15
  subjects, 60% of selected categories, were never used during
  Feb.-May, 2001.
                                                              16
        Related Literature-US: Case 3
2003 Langston—Experience of Calf. State Univ.
              e-book Pilot Project
  Use by Collections (netLibrary)
  Mar.-Dec.2001         Titles            Accesses
  Purchased             821               8,244 (47%)
  Lease/Multi User      701               9,229 (53%)
  Total                 1,522             17,473
 Size of the User Group:
 CSU in the fall of 2001-- 23 campuses, 388,700 students, 22,000
                           faculty                            17
  Consortium Purchasing of E-Books
             in Taiwan

• TEBNET ( Taiwan E-Book Network)—
 initial organizational meetings began in Apr.
 2001, started to share e-books in May 2002,
 gained formal approval as a cooperatoive on
 Sept.15, 2004.



                                            18
  Consortium Purchasing of E-Books
           in Taiwan (cont’d)
Members by Type of HE Institutes
         Year   Dec. 2002   Dec. 2003   Sept. 2004
 Type
 Univ.             15          22          29

 College           6           7            9

 Jr. College       0           1            1
 Total             21          30          39

                                                     19
     Usage of the First Shared Collection

Accesses by All Members:
                   No. of Lib   E-Book Titles   E-Book Vols.   Accesses


 May-Dec.2002 21   21           6,156           7,128          15,272

 Jan.-May 2003     21           6,156           7,128          (9,283)
                                                                          27,703
 June-Dec. 2003    30           10,590          11,481         (18,420)

 Jan.-Sept. 2004   30           10,590          11,481         43,365

 Total                                                         86,340



*Additional 3,007 free titles could be accessed.                            20
Usage of the First Shared Collection (cont’d)
 Accesses by Individual Libraries: May 2002—Sept. 2004
               Rank                 Accesses   Cum. %
                 1                   14638     16.95%
                 2                   8826      27.18%
                 3                   8179      36.65%
                 4                   7992      45.91%
                 5                   7954      55.12%
                ----
                 14                  1538      89.35%
                ----
                 26                   307      98.75%
                 27                   238      99.02%
                 28                   187      99.24%
                 29                   179      99.45%
                 30                   121      99.59%
               31
                                      358      100.00%
   (TEBNET Consortium Collection)
               Total                 86340
                                                         21
Usage of the First Shared Collection (cont’d)
Accesses by Subjects:                    May 2002—Sept. 2004
                              Accesses     %       No.of E-Books     %       Ratio of Use
Business, Economics and        12253     14.19%        1981        18.71%      75.87%
Management
Computers                      10538     12.21%         708        6.69%       182.56%
Technology, Engineering and    10227     11.85%         625        5.90%       200.70%
Manufacturing
Language and Linguistics       5702       6.60%         453        4.28%       154.39%
Chemistry                      5072       5.87%         200        1.89%       311.05%
----
History: World and General      243       0.28%         64         0.60%       46.57%
Travel and Geography            235       0.27%         77         0.73%       37.43%
Sports and Recreation           191       0.22%         61         0.58%       38.40%
Sociology and Anthropology      182       0.21%         50         0.47%       44.65%
History: United States          50        0.06%         35         0.33%       17.52%
Other                           211       0.24%         34         0.32%       76.12%
Total                          86340     100.00%       10590       100.00%     100.00%

                                                                                      22
  Usage of the First Shared Collection (cont’d)
Accesses by Ratio of Use*: May 2002—Sept. 2004
                                    Ratio of Use         Accesses           %         No.of E-Books        %

 Chemistry                             311.05%              5072           5.87%            200          1.89%
 Technology, Engineering and           200.70%              10227         11.85%            625          5.90%
 Manufacturing

 Library Science and Publishing        191.10%              2711           3.14%            174          1.64%

 Biology and Life Sciences             188.22%              4312           4.99%            281          2.65%
 Computers                             182.56%              10538         12.21%            708          6.69%
 ----
 Travel and Geography                  37.43%                235           0.27%            77           0.73%
 Political Science                     37.20%                279           0.32%            92           0.87%
 Home Economics                        37.09%                505           0.58%            167          1.58%
 Religion                              33.84%                516           0.60%            187          1.77%
 History: United States                17.52%                50            0.06%            35           0.33%
 Other                                 76.12%                211           0.24%            34           0.32%
 Total                                 100.00%              86340         100.00%          10590        100.00%


*A “ratio of use” is calculated using the percentage of total access and the percentage of titles in a subject
 area. (Langston 2003)                                                                                     23
                 Discussion
1. Shared Collections of e-Books
  − Consortium Purchase Through TEBNET
  − Usage of e-Books
  − University and Junior College Libraries


2. E-Books Supplied by netLibrary
  − Collection Policy and Selection Process
  − US Market Oriented
  − Barriers
                                              24
             Discussion (cont’d)
3. Statistics and Usage
  − Reliability
  − Usage of Print and e –Books
  − Subject Categories

4. A Critical Mass of E Content
  − Collection Size and Variations
  − A Critical Mass of Users
  − Quantities of Available e-books

5. Publishing e-Book
                                      25
 The End
Thank You!



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