Melting points of refractory materials by zxg15325

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             HAFNIUM
                       Atomic number                              Electrical resistivity (0°C)             Electronegativity, Pauling




                                                                                                                                                GOLD
                           72                                         29.6µΩ • cm                              1.3




             Hf
                       Atomic weight                              Enthalpy of melting                      Specific heat (25°C)
                           178.49                                     25.9kJ/mol                               0.035 cal/g K
                       CAS number                                 Enthalpy of vaporization                 Thermal conductivity (25°C)
                           7440-58-6                                  571kJ/mol                                23.0w/m K
                       Boiling point                              Ionization potential
                           4602°C                                     (spectral)       7.0eV (I)
Melting                Melting point                                                  14.9eV (II)
points of                  2227°C                                     (aqueous)         1.70V (+4)
                       Specific gravity (20°C)                    Oxidation states
refractory                 13.31                                      0, 4
materials
                                                   name                                         MW          bp/mm (mp)           D420    nD20

                                                   COMPOUNDS
                                 CH3               OMHF016
                     H3C                   CH3     BIS(PENTAMETHYLCYCLOPENTADIENYL)- 519.86                (>300°)mp
                                                   HAFNIUM DICHLORIDE
                        H3C
                              Cl Hf Cl
                                         CH3       C20H30Cl2Hf




                                                                                                                                                HAFNIUM
                        H3C              CH3
                                                        HYDROLYTIC SENSITIVITY: 4 no reaction with water under neutral conditions
                      H3C                  CH3
                                                   [85959-83-7] HMIS: 3-1-1-X               2.5g/\36,900                     10g/\120,000
                                 CH3              OMHF066
                                                  HAFNIUM BIS(HEXAMETHYLDISILAZIDE)- 570.17
                                                  DICHLORIDE
                                                  C H Cl N Si Hf
                (CH3)3Si       Cl        Si(CH3)3 12 36 2 2 4
                                                      employed in ALD of hafnium silicate1.
                            N Hf       N              1. W. Nam et al, Electrochem. and Solid-State Lett., 7, C55, 2004
                (CH3)3Si       Cl        Si(CH3)3     HYDROLYTIC SENSITIVITY: 8 reacts rapidly with moisture, water, protic solvents
                                                  [70969-29-8] HMIS: 3-2-1-X                                    10g/\54,000
                                    AKH325
                                    HAFNIUM n-BUTOXIDE, 95%                     470.95      280-5°/0.01      1.32
                                    C16H36O4Hf                                  contains <1% Zr analog
                   nC4H9O    OnC4H9     chemisorption by sol-gel spin-on method yields high k films1.
                                        1. Y. Aoki et al, Chem. Mater. 17, 450, 2005
                          Hf            HYDROLYTIC SENSITIVITY: 7 reacts slowly with water/moisture
                   nC4H9O    OnC4H9 [22411-22-9] HMIS: 2-2-1-X                  25g/\21,600        100g/\70,200
                                    AKH325.1
                                    HAFNIUM n-BUTOXIDE, 45% in hexane               470.95                           0.87
                                    C16H36O4Hf                                      flashpoint: -18°C(0°F)
                                        contains 1-2% Zr analog
                   nC4H9O    OnC4H9     sintering aid for Si3N4 used in gas turbines1.
                          Hf            efficient catalyst for direct esterification of carboxylic acids with alcohols2.
                   nC4H9O    OnC4H9     1. T. Hirata, Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo, Koho, JP 07133158, 1993; CA 123:235931
                                        2. K. Ishihara et al, Science, 290, 1140, 2000
                                        HYDROLYTIC SENSITIVITY: 7 reacts slowly with moisture/water
                                    [22411-22-9] HMIS: 3-4-1-X                      25g/\6,300                       100g/\20,700
                                                   AKH326
                    tC4H9O             OtC4H9 HAFNIUM t-BUTOXIDE                                470.65         90°/5             1.166 1.4240
                                                   C16H36O4Hf                                   ΔHvap: 16.3 kcal/mole
                                Hf                                                                vapor pressure, 67°: 1.5mm
                    tC4H9O             OtC4H9          employed in CVD of HfO2 gates1.
                                                       1. K. Choi et al, J. Mater. Res., 18, 60, 2003
                                                       HYDROLYTIC SENSITIVITY: 7 reacts slowly with water/moisture
                                                   [2172-02-3] HMIS: 2-2-1-X                      1.0g/\10,800          5.0g/\45,000
                                                   OMHF075
                              N(CH 2CH3)2          HAFNIUM DIETHYLAMIDE                          467.01        130-5°/0.1     1.249
                                                   C16H40N4Hf                                    color: yellow
               (CH3CH2)2N     Hf N(CH 2CH3)2
                                                       employed in ALD of hafnium nitride1.
                              N(CH 2CH3)2              1. J. Becker et al, Chem. Mater., 16, 3497, 2004
                                                       HYDROLYTIC SENSITIVITY: 8 reacts rapidly with moisture, water, protic solvents
                                                   [19824-55-6] HMIS: 3-2-1-X                                  5.0g/\54,000


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                                                               name                                          MW          bp/mm (mp)            D420       nD20
                                                               AKH328
            CH3                                                HAFNIUM DI-n-BUTOXIDE (BIS-2,4-           522.58                               1.07 1.485025
                     C O                     OnC4H9            PENTANEDIONATE), 50% in toluene/n-butanol       miscible: isopropanol
              HC                    Hf                         C18H32O6Hf
                     C O 2                  OnC4H9                 contains 2.5-3.0% hafnium tri n-butoxidepentanedionate analog
            CH3                                                    HYDROLYTIC SENSITIVITY: 7 reacts slowly with moisture/water
                                                                   HMIS: 2-3-1-X                                        100g/\23,400

                                                               OMHF080
           (CH3 ) 2N                N(CH 3 ) 2                 HAFNIUM DIMETHYLAMIDE                        354.80 60-2°/0.1         1.40
                               Hf                              C8H24N4Hf                                           (20°)mp
           (CH3 ) 2N                N(CH 3 ) 2                                                       pale yellow solid
                                                                   HYDROLYTIC SENSITIVITY: 8 reacts rapidly with moisture, water, protic solvents
                                                               [19962-11-9] HMIS: 3-3-1-X                          5.0g/\65,700

                                                               AKH330
                                                               HAFNIUM ETHOXIDE                               358.73       180-200°/13
            CH3CH2O                      OCH 2CH3              C8H20O4Hf                                                   (178-80°)mp
                                Hf                                 employed in preparation of refractory hafnia coatings1.
            CH3CH2O                     OCH 2CH3                   1. S. Sim et al in “Ultrastructure Processing of Advanced Ceramics, McKenzie, Wiley,
                                                                      1988, p995.
                                                                   HYDROLYTIC SENSITIVITY: 7 reacts slowly with water/moisture
                                                               [13428-80-3] HMIS: 2-2-1-X                     5.0g/\19,800         25g/\79,200

            C2H5                             C2H5              AKH332
        C4H9CHCH 2O                     OCH 2CHC4H9            HAFNIUM 2-ETHYLHEXOXIDE                       678.40
                               Hf                              TETRAOCTYLHAFNATE
        C4H9CHCH 2O                 OCH 2CHC4H9                C32H68O4Hf
              C2H5                              C2H5               HYDROLYTIC SENSITIVITY: 7 reacts slowly with moisture/water
                                                                   HMIS: 2-2-1-X                                    25g/\22,500
                          CH 3
                          O
                          CH 2
                     H 3C    CH 3
                                                               AKH333
                          C                                    HAFNIUM 2-METHOXYMETHYL-2-PROPOXIDE 591.05                    120°/1           1.303 1.4570
                H 3C      O                     CH 3
                                                               HAFNIUM MMP (MMP=METHOXY-t-BUTOXIDE)                          (-5°)mp
      H 3C O H 2C   C     O    Hf       O   C    CH 2 O CH 3
                                                CH 3
                                                               C20H44O8Hf                                    flashpoint: 67°C (153°F)
                H 3C           O
                               C
                                                                   employed in CVD of HfO21.
                        H 3C
                               CH 2
                                   CH 3                            1. P. Williams et al, J. Mater. Chem., 12, 165, 2002
                               O                                   HYDROLYTIC SENSITIVITY: 7 reacts slowly with moisture/water
                               CH 3                            [309915-48-8] HMIS: 2-3-1-X                              5.0g/\46,800

                         CH3                                   AKH335
                                    C O                        HAFNIUM 2,4-PENTANEDIONATE            574.91         (82°/.001)sub
                           HC            Hf                    C20H28O8Hf                                           (193°)mp
                                    C O 4                          HYDROLYTIC SENSITIVITY: 4 no reaction with water under neutral conditions
                        CH3
                                                               [17475-67-1] HMIS: 2-1-0-X            10g/\20,700          50g/\82,800
                                    I
                                                               INHF070
                          I        Hf I                        HAFNIUM TETRAIODIDE                           686.11         (400°)-sub
                                                               I4Hf
                                    I                          [13777-23-6] HMIS: 3-2-1-X                                   10g/\65,300

                         H3C                C2H5               OMHF083
                                    N                          HAFNIUM TETRAKIS(ETHYLMETHYLAMIDE) 410.90               78°/0.01           1.324
                C2H5                              CH3
                                                               C12H32N4Hf                              flashpoint: 10°C(50°F)
                               N Hf N
                    H3C                                            HYDROLYTIC SENSITIVITY: 8 reacts rapidly with moisture, water, protic solvents
                                                  C2H5
                                    N                          [352535-01-4] HMIS: 3-2-1-X             5.0g/\41,400                       25g/\166,000
                        C2H5                CH3




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                                   name                                       MW          bp/mm (mp)          D420      nD20




                                                                                                                               HAFNIUM
                                   AKH345
                                   HAFNIUM TETRAMETHYLHEPTANE-           911.57         180°/0.1-sub
  (CH3 ) 3 C                       DIONATE                                              (315°)mp
                C O
                             Hf
                                   C44H76O8Hf                            soluble: toluene, hexane
         HC
                C O
                                       HYDROLYTIC SENSITIVITY: 4 no reaction with water under neutral conditions
                             4
  (CH3 ) 3 C                           HMIS: 2-1-0-X                                    5.0g/\49,500

                                   AKH350
       CF3                         HAFNIUM TRIFLUOROPENTANEDIONATE 790.82             (115°/0.05)sub
               C O                 C20H16O8F12Hf                                      (128-9°)mp
        HC                   Hf        soluble: acetone, cyclohexane
               C O       4             HYDROLYTIC SENSITIVITY: 4 no reaction with water under neutral conditions
       CH3
                                   [17475-68-2] HMIS: 3-1-0-X                           2.5g/\17,100

                                   OMHF085
                                   HAFNOCENE DICHLORIDE                   379.59        (230-3°)mp
               Hf                  C10H10Cl2Hf
        Cl              Cl
                                       HYDROLYTIC SENSITIVITY: 7 reacts slowly with moisture/water
                                   [12116-66-4] TSCA HMIS: 2-2-1-X                      5.0g/\27,000

               CH3                 OMHF050
                                   PENTAMETHYLCYCLOPENTADIENYL-          420.08
H3 C                         CH3   HAFNIUM TRICHLORIDE
                                   C10H15Cl3Hf
  H3 C
      Cl       Hf
                      CH3
                     Cl
                                       HYDROLYTIC SENSITIVITY: 8 reacts rapidly with moisture, water, protic solvents
                                   [75181-08-7] HMIS: 3-2-1-X            1.0g/\24,000           5.0g/\96,000
               Cl

                                   OMHF077
               CH2
                                   TETRABENZYLHAFNIUM                      543.02
         CH2   Hf CH2              C28H28Hf                                color: yellow
               CH2                     HYDROLYTIC SENSITIVITY: 8 reacts rapidly with moisture, water, protic solvents
                                   [31406-67-4] HMIS: 3-1-1-X   store<5°                   1.0g/\38,700



             HOLMIUM - see RARE EARTHS




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             INDIUM
                                           Atomic number                         Crystal form                            Oxidation states
                                               49                                    Tetragonal                              0, 1, 2, 3




              In
                                           Atomic weight                         Electrical resistivity (20°C)           Electronegativity, Pauling
                                               114.818                               8.37µΩ • cm                             1.7
                                           CAS number                            Enthalpy of melting                     Specific heat (25°C)
                                               7440-74-6                             3.26kJ/mol                              0.056 cal/g K
                                           Boiling point                         Enthalpy of vaporization                Thermal conductivity (25°C)
                                               2080°C                                231.84kJ/mol                            81.8w/m K
                                           Melting point                         Ionization potential
                                               156.61°C                              (spectral)       5.786eV (I)
                                           Specific gravity (20°C)                                  18.869eV (II)
                                               7.31                                  (aqueous)        0.338V (+3)

                                                    name                                        MW         bp/mm (mp)            D420   nD20
                                                    SUBSTRATES
                                                    W-INP-51-0.3
                                                    INDIUM PHOSPHIDE WAFER                     145.79        (1070°)mp       4.787
                                                    PIn                                        50.6mm (2 inch) x 0.35mm (0.015 inch) wafer
                                                        single side polished                   undoped
                                                        orientation: <100>
                                                    [22398-80-7] TSCA HMIS: 0-0-0-X                           each/\188,000

                                                    W-ITO-75-1.1
                                                    INDIUM TIN OXIDE COATED GLASS SLIDES                  (666°)-strain point
                                                    ~90% In2O3~10%SnO2 on aluminosilicate 25mm x 75mm x 1.1mm
                                                        resistance: 4-12 ohm              transmittance: >80%
                                                        HMIS: 0-0-0-X                                     5 slides/\25,200

                                                    COMPOUNDS
                                                    OMIN020
                                                    DIMETHYLINDIUM CHLORIDE                      180.34         (218-9°)mp
                                                    C2H6ClIn dimeric
                  H3 C                                  reacts w/cyclopentadienyllithium to form cyclopentadienyldimethylindium1.
                             In Cl                      1. O. Beachley Jr., et al, Organometallics, 18, 2561, 1999
                                                        HYDROLYTIC SENSITIVITY: 9 reacts extremely rapidly with moisture and oxygen
                  H3 C                                  may be pyrophoric- glove box or sealed system required
                                                    [16070-92-1] HMIS: 3-4-2-X

                                                    OMIN079
                                                    TRIMETHYLINDIUM                           159.92        (88°)mp       1.568
                                                    C3H9In                                    vapor pressure, 25°: 5mm
                 H3 C                                   employed in CVD of Indium Phosphide
                            In CH3                      undergoes rapid thermal decomposition >100°
                                                        HYDROLYTIC SENSITIVITY: 10 reacts extremely rapidly with moisture and oxygen
                 H3 C                                   pyrophoric - glove box or sealed system required
                                                    [3385-78-2] TSCA HMIS: 3-4-2-X

                           - -
                                                    AKI362.2
            CH3CH2S              SCH 2CH3           INDIUM COPPER BIS(ETHYLTHIOLATE)- 947.43                     (122°)mp
                           In +2                    TRIPHENYLPHOSPHINE COMPLEX                   color: off-white
        H3CCH2
                   -
                    S              S
                                       -
                                           CH2CH3
                                                    C44H50P2S4CuIn
                                                         employed in spray CVD or spray-pyrolysis of I-III-VI semiconductors1.
                           Cu +2                         1. K. Banger et al, Inorg. Chem, 42, 7713, 2003
             (C6H5)3P          P(C6H5)3                  HYDROLYTIC SENSITIVITY: 7 reacts slowly with moisture/water
                                                    [146688-53-1] HMIS: 2-2-1-X                                  10g/\63,000
                           - -                      AKI362.4
                 C6H5Se        SeC 6H5
                           In +2                    INDIUM COPPER BIS(PHENYLSELENATE)- 1327.21            (53°)mp
                  -               -                 TRIPHENYLPHOSPHINE COMPLEX
           C6H5       Se         Se C6H5
                                                    C60H50P2Se4CuIn
                           Cu +2                         HYDROLYTIC SENSITIVITY: 7 reacts slowly with moisture/water
             (C6H5)3P          P(C6H5)3             [439666-32-7] HMIS: 2-2-1-X                           5.0g/\99,000


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                                                            name                                       MW            bp/mm (mp)               D420       nD20
                       iC3H7          iC3H7




                                                                                                                                                                INDIUM
                                 N                          AKI363
                                 C                          INDIUM DIISOPROPYLDITHIOCARBAMATE 643.76               (>270°)mp
                             S        S                     C21H42N3S6In                            color: white
                        S        In       S
                                                                HYDROLYTIC SENSITIVITY: 4 no reaction with water under neutral conditions
            iC3H7     C S             S   C         iC3H7
                    N                          N            [87052-01-5] HMIS: 2-1-0-X                             10g/\49,500
            iC3H7                                   iC3H7

                        CF3                                 AKI364
                                 C O                        INDIUM HEXAFLUOROPENTANEDIONATE, 95% 735.97
        -                                                   C15H3F18O6In
    TRO                 HC                     In
ELECAMIC                         C O           3
                                                            [34110-72-0] HMIS: 3-1-0-X       1.0g/\21,600                        5.0g/\88,200
CER
                       CF3
                                                            AKI365
                                                            INDIUM METHOXYETHOXIDE, 15-18%        340.08                                     1.02
        CH3 OCH2CH2O             OCH2CH2OCH3                in methoxyethanol
                            In
                                                            C9H21O6In
                                                                precursor for conductive coatings
                            OCH2CH2OCH3                         HYDROLYTIC SENSITIVITY: 7 reacts slowly with moisture/water
                                                                HMIS: 3-3-1-X                     5.0g/\9,500                                25g/\37,800

                                                            AKI370
                                                            INDIUM 2,4-PENTANEDIONATE                  412.15           (260-80°)s   1.41
                     CH3                                    INDIUM ACETYLACETONATE                                      (186°)mp
                                 C O                        C15H21O6In                                  TOXICITY - ivn mus, LD50: 79mg/kg
                                                                ΔHform: -335.8 kcal/mole                ΔHcomb: -1903 kcal/mole
                       HC             In                        soluble: warm toluene, acetone          crystallizes in two forms
                                 C O 3                          forms clear electrically conductive films1.
                     CH3                                        1. M. Adachi, CA 113, 214050s; Jpn Kokai JP 02,192,616, 1990
                                                            [14405-45-9] TSCA HMIS: 2-1-0-X             2.5g/\9,500                  10g/\37,800

                    (CH3 ) 3 CO                             AKI373
                                      C O                   INDIUM METHYL(TRIMETHYL)ACETYL- 586.37
                             HC                       In    ACETATE
                                                            C24H39O9In      soluble: ethyl acetate, acetone, methanol, warm toluene
                                      C O                       intermediate for clear conductive coatings
                            CH3                      3
                                                                HMIS: 2-1-0-X                            1.0g/\13,500                       5.0g/\54,000
                      CF3
                             C O                            AKI375
                                               In           INDIUM TRIFLUOROPENTANEDIONATE             574.06        (118-9°)mp
                       HC                                   C15H12F9O6In                               soluble: hot methoxyethanol, xylene
                             C O              3             [15453-87-9] HMIS: 3-1-0-X                               1.0g/\31,500
                     CH3


                                                            DOUBLE METAL AND POLYMERIC ALKOXIDES
                                                            name                 empirical formula      metal content         metal ratio          density
                                                            DINSN20
                                                            INDIUM TIN           InSn3(OR)x             1.9-2.0% In           1:3 In:Sn     0.87-0.90
                                                                                                        5.5-5.9% Sn
                                                                 HMIS: 3-3-1-X                          25g/\31,500             100g/\103,000




                                                                                                      Transparent thin-film transistors (TTFTs)
                                                                                                      employ ITO indium-tin oxide as transparent
                                                                                                      conductive layers and hafnium oxide as
                                                                                                      transparent gates. H.Ohta et al, Materials
                                                                                                      Today, 42, July 2004.




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            IRIDIUM
                                   Atomic number                                   Crystal form                             Oxidation states
                                       77                                              Face-centered cubic                      0, 3, 4




              Ir
                                   Atomic weight                                   Electrical resistivity (20°C)            Electronegativity, Pauling
                                       192.217                                         4.71µΩ • cm                              2.2
                                   CAS number                                      Enthalpy of melting                      Specific heat (25°C)
                                       7439-88-5                                       3.26kJ/mol                               0.032 cal/g K
                                   Boiling point                                   Enthalpy of vaporization                 Thermal conductivity (25°C)
                                       4130°C                                          563.6kJ/mol                              147w/m K
                                   Melting point                                   Ionization potential
                                       2450°C                                          (spectral)      9.1eV (I)
                                   Specific gravity (20°C)                             (aqueous)      -1.156V (+3)
                                       22.42

                                                            name                                            MW         bp/mm (mp)            D420   nD20
                                                            COMPOUNDS
                                                            OMIR017
                                                            IRIDIUM I CYCLOOCTADIENE CHLORIDE 617.71                 (190°)mp-d.
                                                            IRIDIUM COD CHLORIDE                      color: orange-red
             SIS                        Cl
                                                            C16H24Cl2Ir2                              soluble: methylene chloride, THF, toluene
        TALY
                                   Ir        Ir
      CA                                Cl                       couples dienes w/activated hydrocarbons1.
                                                                 1. Pure. Appl. Chem., 66, 1509, 1994
                                                                 HYDROLYTIC SENSITIVITY: 7 reacts slowly with moisture/water
                                                            [12112-67-3] HMIS: 2-1-1-X                               2.5g/\66,000

                                                         AKI378
                                                         IRIDIUM I DICARBONYL PENTANEDIONATE 347.35                   100°/0.05-sub
                             CH3                         C7H7O4Ir                                      color: copper-brown
                                    C O
              SIS
                                                      CO      forms iridium films by CVD in combination w/O21.
          ALY                HC                    Ir         catalyst w/AlI3 for isomerization of saturated carboxylic acids2.
       CAT               CH3
                                    C O               CO      1. Y. Sun et al, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp., 541, 101, 1999
                                                              2. P. Burke et al, Eur. Pat. 639,555 1995; CA 123:113055
                                                         [14023-80-4] HMIS: 3-1-1-X                                   1.0g/\54,000

                                           AKI380
                                           IRIDIUM III 2,4-PENTANEDIONATE               489.53         (260°/1)s
                                           C15H21O6Ir                                                  (269°)mp
                                                color: yellow-orange                    soluble: methanol, ethyl acetate
                               CH3              decomposes >290° in H2 to iridium metal
                TION               C O          precursor for CVD of bulk iridium liners for rocket engines
        TAL LIZA                HC      Ir      catalyst for hydrogenation of sulfur containing aromatics1.
      ME                           C O 3        reacts w/ phenylpyridine to give strong photoreducing agent 2.
                               CH3              1. CA 83, P96680j; Germ. Off. 2,438,366, 1975
                                                2. K. Dedejan et al, Inorg. Chem., 30, 1685, 1991
                                                HYDROLYTIC SENSITIVITY: 4 reacts slowly with moisture/water
                                           [15635-87-7] HMIS: 2-1-1-X                   0.5g/\26,100          2.5g/\104,000




                                                                Iridium lined rhenium satellite and thruster rocket engines with long-life
                                                                operating temperatures of 2200°C are manufactured by CVD
                                                                courtesy Aerojet Propulsion Division/NASA

                       CH3                                  AKI383
                              C O                           IRIDIUM I PENTANEDIONATE- CYCLO-                399.49         (145-9°)-d.
                        HC                   IrI            OCTADIENE COMPLEX                               color: yellow
                              C O                           C13H19O2Ir                                      soluble: acetone, THF, toluene
                       CH3                                  [12154-84-6] HMIS: 3-1-1-X                                     1.0g/\54,000


148
  Fe



                                                                                                                                        I R O N
In magnetic materials, the magnetization as
a function of applied field strength exhibits
hysteresis (path-dependence). Starting with
no applied field, the magnetization increases
with field strength to a maximum value, MS,
the saturation magnetization. When the field
is removed, the magnetization does not go
back to zero, but stays at some value, MR,
the remanent magnetization. HC is the coer-
cive field (the applied field necessary to coun-
teract MR and bring the magnetization back
to zero).



                                                                                      Magnetic Lexicon
                                                                                     Magnetic Materials: All materials that exhibit
                                                                                     a response to a magnetic field
                                                                                     Ferromagnetism: The parallel ordering of the
                                                                                     magnetic moments, the moments them-
                                                                                     selves a direct consequence of unpaired elec-
                                                                                     trons, in a solid that results in a net magnetic
                                                                                     moment.
                                                                                     Anti-ferromagnetism: The anti-parallel or
                                                                                     alternating order of magnetic moments in a
                                                                                     solid that results in a net magnetic moment
                                                                                     of zero.
                                                                                     Ferrimagnetism: An overall, but non-parallel
                                                                                     ordering of magnetic moments in a solid in
               Magnetofluids respond to applied magnetic fields                      which a net alignment to an applied magnetic
                                                                                     field results.
Paramagnetism: A weak to moderate response of a material that normally has randomly aligned unpaired electrons in which a net
alignment parallel to an applied magnetic field results.
Diamagnetism: A weak response of a material to an applied magnetic field in which oscillations in electron density of the material
oppose the applied field.
Magnetic Domains: Local regions of ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic solids in which all the magnetic moments are aligned.
The orientation of these moments, however, changes from one domain to the next such that in the demagnetized condition the net
magnetization is zero.
Volatile Memory: A thin film material that maintains a net magnetic moment only under the influence of an applied magnetic field.
Non-volatile Memory: A thin film material that maintains a net magnetic moment after the influence of an applied magnetic field
has been removed.


photo courtesy Dorling-Kindersley Ltd.
      Gelest, Inc.




                                                                IRON
                                (properties of the element and common binary compounds)
                          iron (elemental)                             ferrous-ferric oxide   ferric oxide
                                                                            magnetite          hematite
      atomic number:                             26                        Fe3O4               Fe2O3
      atomic/ molecular weight:                  55.847                    231.54
      cas #:                                     7439-89-6                 1309-38-2           1309-37-1

      Thermal Properties
              melting point:                     1537°C                   1600°                1565°
              enthalpy of melting:               13.8 kJ/mole
              boiling point:                     2750°C
              enthalpy of vaporization:          347 kJ/mole
              thermal conductivity, 25°:         80.4 W/m°K
              heat capacity, 100°:               2092 J/kg°

      Electrical Properties
                resistivity, 22°:                9.71 μΩ-cm               ~10-4Ω-cm            4x10-2Ω-cm
                electrode potential
                   (st’d hydrogen scale):        0.44V(+2)
                dielectric constant:                                      20                   25
      Optical Properties:
                reflectivity:                    65%
                refractive index: α
                                  β                                                            3.01
                                  γ
      Magnetism                                  +                        +                    –

      Acoustical Properties
              velocity of sound:                 4910 m/s

      Bulk Properties
              specific gravity, 20°:             7.874                    5.18                 5.24
              molar volume:                      7.09 cm3
              Young’s modulus:                   211,000 MPa
              tensile strength:                  240-280 MPa
              hardness, Mohs:                    4.0                      6                    6.5
              hardness, Vickers                  608 MN/m2
              crystal form:                      body-centered cubic      cubic
              space group:                       Im-3m
              cell parameters a                  286.65pm
                                  b:             286.65pm
                                  c:             286.65pm

      Chemical Properties
              oxidation states: 0, 2, 3, 4, 6
              electronegativity, Pauling: 1.8
              ionization potential, spectral:    7.87 eV
                                                 16.1. eV




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150
                                                                                                     Gelest, Inc.
                               name                                        MW         bp/mm (mp)          D420      nD20
                               COMPOUNDS
                               INBA036
                               BARIUM FERRITE, powder                      1111.49          5.28




                                                                                                                           IRON
                               BaFe12O19                                   particle size: <325mesh
      BaFe 12O 19                  saturation magnetization, Js, mT: 478   Curie temp: 723°K
                                   sintering temp.: 1235°
                               [11138-11-7] TSCA HMIS: 1-0-0-X             100g/\8,600          500g/\34,200

H(CH 3)2Si                     SIB1088.0
                               1,1’-BIS(DIMETHYLSILYL)FERROCENE       302.35          294-5°              1.007 1.5640
                    Fe         C14H22FeSi2                            flashpoint 50°C (122°F)
                                    HYDROLYTIC SENSITIVITY: 3 reacts with dilute aqueous base
H(CH 3)2Si
                               [1295-15-4] HMIS: 3-1-1-X                              1.0g/\40,500

                               OMFE022
                    P(C6H5)2   1,1’-BIS(DIPHENYLPHOSPHINO)-              554.56         (180-4°)mp
                               FERROCENE, dppf                           yellow-orange crystals
         Fe                    C34H28FeP2
                                    in combination w/PdCl2 cross-couples Grignards with aryl halides
                    P(C6H5)2
                                    HYDROLYTIC SENSITIVITY: 8 reacts rapidly with moisture, water, protic solvents
                               [12150-46-8] HMIS: 2-2-1-X                               10g/\28,800

                               SIF4910.0
                               FERROSILICON                                112.02        (1360°)mp        4.75
         FeSi2                 IRON SILICIDE
                               FeSi2 contains 48.5% silicon
                               [8049-17-0] TSCA HMIS: 1-0-0-X              500g/\9,600      5kg/\33,600

       O           CXFE010
          -     +2 IRON II ACETATE                                         173.94
   H3C C O 2 Fe    C H O Fe     4 6 4
                                   HYDROLYTIC SENSITIVITY: 7 reacts slowly with water/moisture
                               [3094-87-9] HMIS: 2-1-1-X                            10g/\18,900

                               CXFE015
       O                       IRON III ACRYLATE, 95%                269.01         (190-200°)d
          -    +3
H2C CH C O 3Fe                 C9H9O6Fe                              soluble: warm ethanol
                                   HYDROLYTIC SENSITIVITY: 7 reacts slowly with water/moisture
                               [55488-18-1] HMIS: 3-2-0-X                           25g/\36,900

                               AKI396
                               IRON III BENZOYLACETONATE              539.39          (216°)mp
                  C O          FERRIC PHENYLBUTANEDIONATE             vapor pressure, 100°: 0.25mm
             HC          Fe    C30H27O6Fe                             soluble: xylene
                  C O    3
        CH3                         HYDROLYTIC SENSITIVITY: 4 reacts slowly with moisture/water
                               [14323-17-2] TSCA HMIS: 2-2-0-X        5.0g/\16,200           25g/              \64,800

                               INFE030
                               IRON CARBONYL tech-95                       195.90          103°          1.490 1.5196
                               PENTACARBONYLIRON                                           (-20°)mp
                               C5O5Fe 99.9+% Fe basis                      TOXICITY- oral rat, LD50: 31mg/kg
                                   hazy orange liquid                      flashpoint: -15°C (5°F)
                                   soluble: ether, toluene, ethyl acetate  ΔHvap: 40 kJ/mole
              CO                   ΔHcomb.: -1619 kJ/mole                  ΔHform: -964 kJ/mol
    OC                             critical temp: 285-8°                   critical pressure: 29.6 atm
              Fe CO                vapor pressure, 30.3°: 40mm
    OC                             UV (sunlight) converts to iron nonacarbonyl
              CO                   catalyst for Fisher-Tropsch hydroformylation
                                   forms high density memory material w/ PtAcAc by CVD1.
                                   photochemistry elaborated2.
                                   1. S. Sun et al, Science, 287, 1989, 2000
                                   2. P. Portus et al, J Am. Chem. Soc., 126, 10713, 2004
                               HYDROLYTIC SENSITIVITY: 3 reacts with dilute aqueous base
                               [13463-40-6] TSCA HMIS: 3-2-1-X




 (215) 547-1015                FAX: (215) 547-2484           www.gelest.com
                                                                                                                   151
      Gelest, Inc.

                                                  name                                            MW          bp/mm (mp)             D420      nD20
                   CH3          CH3               AKI397
                           N
                                                  IRON III DIMETHYLDITHIOCARBAMATE 416.51                   (180°)mp-d.
                           C                      IRON Me2DTC                                 TOXICITY- oral rat, LD50: 4,000mg/kg
                       S        S
                   S       Fe       S
                                                  C9H18N3S6Fe
         CH3       C S          S   C                 cure accelerator for polysulfide resins
               N                        N CH3
                                                      HYDROLYTIC SENSITIVITY: 4 no reaction with water under neutral conditions
           CH3                          CH3              [14484-64-1] TSCA HMIS: 3-1-0-X                            25g/\20,700

                                                  AKI398
                                                  IRON III DIPHENYLPROPANEDIONATE                725.61         (260-5°)mp
                                                  TRIS(DIBENZOYLMETHANATO)IRON                   soluble: acetone, THF
                                C O               C45H33O6Fe
                         HC              Fe           catalyst for coupling of alkenyl halides with Grignards1.
                                C O      3            1. J. Org. Chem., 40, 599, 1975
                                                      HYDROLYTIC SENSITIVITY: 4 no reaction with water under neutral conditions
                                                  [14405-49-3] HMIS: 2-1-0-X                   1.0g/\15,300            5.0g/\61,200

                                                  AKI400
                                                  IRON III ETHOXIDE                                  191.03          155°/0.1
          CH3 CH2O                  OCH2CH3       C6H15O3Fe                                                          (120°)mp
                           Fe                          soluble: benzene, ethanol, hexane             molecular complexity: 2.9
                                                       intermediate for sol-gel derived ferrites with magnetic properties1.
                           OCH2CH3                     1. R. Maccrone et al in “Ultastructure Processing of Adv’d Ceramics,” D. Mackenzie Wiley, 1988
                                                       HYDROLYTIC SENSITIVITY: 7 reacts slowly with water/moisture
                                                  [5058-42-4] HMIS: 2-1-1-X                          5.0g/\17,600                    25g/\70,200

                                                  AKI401
          CH3 CH2O                  OCH2CH3       IRON III ETHOXIDE, 20-22% in ethanol  191.03                                      0.87
                           Fe                     C6H15O3Fe
                                                      HYDROLYTIC SENSITIVITY: 7 reacts slowly with water/moisture
                            OCH2CH3
                                                  [5058-42-4] HMIS: 2-4-1-X                            100g/\37,800

                   CF3                            AKI405
                                C O               IRON III HEXAFLUOROPENTANEDIONATE 677.00              (52°)mp
                    HC                       Fe   C15H3F18O6Fe
                                C O                    HYDROLYTIC SENSITIVITY: 4 no reaction with water under neutral conditions
                                             3    [17786-67-3] HMIS: 3-1-0-X                            1.0g/\31,500
                   CF3

                                                  CXFE050
                         O                        IRON III METHACRYLATE, 95%             311.10          (215-220°)d
                            -    +3
                   H2C C C O 3Fe                  C12H15O6Fe                             soluble: methyl methacrylate, methacrylic acid
                                CH3                   HYDROLYTIC SENSITIVITY: 6 forms irreversible hydrate
                                                  [94275-77-1] HMIS: 3-2-0-X                             50g/\38,700

                                                  INFE043
                                                  IRON (II,III) OXIDE MAGNETOFLUID-1.8% 231.54                                   0.89
                                                  dispersed in light mineral oil                 viscosity: 2-4 cSt.
                                                  Fe3O4                                          saturation magnetization: 100 gauss
                                                       stable colloidal suspension of single domain particles ~10nm in diameter
                                                       employed in magnetic pattern recognition - used directly or diluted with hydrocarbon
                                                       solvent; particles are attracted to regions of maximum magnetic field
                                                  [1309-38-2] TSCA HMIS: 1-2-0-X                 10g/\27,000          50g/\108,000

                                                  INFE044
                                                  IRON (II,III) OXIDE MAGNETOFLUID-3.6% 231.54                                  1.19
                                                  dispersed in water                            viscosity: 2-4 cSt.
                                                  Fe3O4                                         saturation magnetization: 200 gauss
                                                       stable colloidal suspension of single domain particles ~10nm in diameter
                                                       employed in magnetic pattern recognition - used directly or diluted with water;
                                                       particles are attracted to regions of maximum magnetic field
                                                  [1309-38-2] TSCA HMIS: 1-0-0-X                5.0g/\25,800                   25g/\103,000




152
                                                                                                                  Gelest, Inc.

                                             name                                       MW          bp/mm (mp)         D420      nD20
                                             AKI410
                                             IRON III 2,4-PENTANEDIONATE                   353.18         (176-9°)mp-d. 1.36
                                             FERRIC ACETYLACETONATE                        TOXICITY- ivn mus, LD50: 100mg/kg




                                                                                                                                        IRON
                                             C15H21O6Fe           15.5-15.8% Fe            color: red-brown
                                                 solubility, water: 1.5g/l                 vapor pressure, 110°: 2mm
                                                 solubility, toluene: 204g/l               ΔHsub: 4.67 kcal/mole
                                                 solubility, ethanol: 32g/l                ΔHform: -355.2 kcal/mole
    CH3                                          imparts amber coloration to glass upon thermolysis
                 C O                             catalyst for selective epoxidation of cholesterol with H2O21.
       HC             Fe                         intermediate for ferrites by sol-gel2.
                 C O 3                           in combination with polyamic acids forms magnetic films3.
    CH3
                                                 forms magnetite nanocrystals on reflux in pyrollidone4.
                                                 1. M. Tohma et al, Tet. Lett., 4359, 1973
                                                 2. K. Higuchi et al, Adv. Ceram. Mat., 1, 104, 1986
                                                 3. J. Bergmeister, Chem. Mater., 2, 640, 1990
                                                 4. Z. Li et al, J. Mater. Res. 16, 1391, 2004
                                                 HYDROLYTIC SENSITIVITY: 4 no reaction with water under neutral conditions
                                             [14024-18-1] TSCA HMIS: 2-1-0-X               100g/\8,100                  1kg/\56,700

                                             AKI411
                                             IRON II TRIS(1,10-PHENANTHROLINE) HEXA- 886.41
                                             FLUOROPHOSPHATE            red granules       λ max: 510nm
       N          N
                 +2
                                             C36H24N6Fe.F12P2                              hygroscopic
   N        Fe        N               -1
                                  (PF 6 )2       slightly soluble: methylene chloride, acetone
                                                 undergoes electron transfer reactions at polymer interfaces1.
        N    N
                                                 1. C. Leidner et al, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 106, 1606, 1984
                                                 HYDROLYTIC SENSITIVITY: 4 no reaction with water under neutral conditions
                                             [17112-07-1] HMIS: 3-1-0-X                                 5.0g/\36,900

                                             AKI412
   (CH3)3C                                   IRON III TETRAMETHYLHEPTANEDIONATE 605.67              (179-185°)mp
                      C O                    C33H57O6Fe IRON TMHD
            HC                 Fe                forms oriented barium ferrite films on alumina1.
                      C O      3                 1. S. Pignard et al, J. Phys. IV, 7(C1), 483, 1997
   (CH3)3C
                                                 HYDROLYTIC SENSITIVITY: 4 no reaction with water under neutral conditions
                                             [14876-47-2] HMIS: 2-1-0-X                             10g/\54,000

       CF3                                   AKI415
                 C O                         IRON III TRIFLUOROPENTANEDIONATE      515.09         (110-112°)mp
       HC                    Fe              C15H12F9O6Fe                          ΔHsub: 20.8 kcal/mole
                 C O        3                    HYDROLYTIC SENSITIVITY: 4 no reaction with water under neutral conditions
    CH3                                      [14526-22-8] HMIS: 3-1-0-X            5.0g/\18,900          25g/\75,600

                                             INSR036
                                             STRONTIUM FERRITE, powder                  1061.77                        5.10
                                             SrFe12O19                                  particle size: 1.5-3.5µ
                                                  sintering temp: 1260°
                                                  orienting field: 9000 Oersted
                                             [12023-91-5] TSCA HMIS: 1-0-0-X            100g/\7,200                    500g/\28,800

                          CH   CH2           OMFE090
                                             VINYLFERROCENE                         212.08         80-5°/0.2
                                             C12H12Fe                                              (50-2°)mp
       Fe                                         color: orange                     flashpoint: 62°C(144°F)
                                                  HYDROLYTIC SENSITIVITY: 4 no reaction with water under neutral conditions
                                             [1271-51-8] HMIS: 2-3-0-X              1.0g/\18,000                   5.0g/\72,000



LANTHANUM - see RARE EARTHS




   (215) 547-1015                            FAX: (215) 547-2484           www.gelest.com
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