Chapter 1 What is Behavior Modification

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Chapter 1 What is Behavior Modification Powered By Docstoc
					   Chapter 1

What is Behavior
 Modification?
                  Behavior
•   simple action
•   can be overt (observable)
•   can be covert (not directly observable)
•   covert behavior must be inferred from overt
    responses
      What is Not Behavior?
• interpretive descriptions of a personality trait
• diagnostic labels
• outcome of behavior
        Origins of Behavior
• learning: some behavior develops as result
  of experience
• hereditary factors: some behavioral
  responses are based on inherited
  characteristics
                Learning
• learning is a permanent change in behavior
  that results from experience
• learning processes include:
   – respondent conditioning
   – operant conditioning
   – modeling
   – cognitive processes
Respondent Conditioning
       Operant Conditioning
• antecedent, behavior, and consequence
  define behavioral situations
   – antecedents set the occasion for the
     behavior
   – behavior is what organisms do
   – consequence influence the future
     occurrence of the behavior
Operant Conditioning (continued)
• the three-term contingency is the
  relationship among antecedent, behavior, and
  consequence
• operant and respondent conditioning often
  have concurrent influence on a single
  behavior
 Concurrent Influence of
Operant and Respondent
     Conditioning
                 Modeling
• modeling is learning through observation of
  others
• also called social, observational, vicarious,
  and imitative learning
• Bandura showed modeling influenced
  aggression
• modeling influenced by observation of
  consequences
         Modeling (continued)
• modeling can:
  – initiate behavior
  – teach new task
  – influence response rate
  – teach emotional responses
        Cognitive Processes
• cognition is thought
• thought can be considered a covert
  antecedent
• self-efficacy appears to be positively
  correlated with the likelihood of success
      Behavior Modification
• focuses on behavior
• emphasizes influences of learning and the
  environment
• takes a scientific approach
• uses pragmatic and active methods to
  change behavior
         Focus on Behavior
• avoid interpretive labels and diagnostic
  systems
• focus on behavioral deficits or behavioral
  excess
Learning and the Environment
• behavior changes as a result of learning
• changing antecedents and consequences
  can lead to behavior change
• learning approach may be limited by
  physiological and cultural influences
       Scientific Orientation
• use empirically validated therapy techniques
• therapy outcomes evaluated objectively
Pragmatic and Active Methods
    to Change Behavior
• therapy techniques selected based on
  effectiveness
• some methods based on operant
  conditioning, respondent conditioning, and
  modeling research and theory
• cognitive methods are based on our
  understanding of how our thoughts lead to
  actions
Pragmatic and Active Methods
 to Change Behavior (continued)
• participants take a more active role in therapy
    Early Theory and Research
•   John Locke (tabula rasa)
•   Pavlov (respondent conditioning)
•   Thorndike
•   John Watson (father of behaviorism)
•   Watson and Rayner (Little Albert)
•   Mary Cover Jones (Peter)
   Emergence and Growth of
    Behavior Modification
• 1950s: behavior modification gains
  acceptance
• 1960s: the establishment of the Journal of
  Applied Behavior Analysis
• 1970s: behavior modification expands to
  include cognition
     Effective Applications of
      Behavior Modification
• parenting and parent/child relationships
   – oppositional behavior
   – bed-wetting
• education
   – programmed instruction
   – PSI
   – peer tutoring
   – classroom conduct
  Effective Applications of
Behavior Modification (continued)
• health and sports
   – health risks
   – compliance with treatments
   – enhanced athletic performance
• employment settings
   – increase productivity
   – reduce losses
   – improve safety
  Effective Applications of
Behavior Modification (continued)

• self-management
   – learn behavioral techniques to control own
     behavior