Analog and Low-Power Digital VLSI Design - PowerPoint - PowerPoint by hjg19296

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									    Analog and Low-Power Digital
            VLSI Design


                  Michael L. Bushnell
               CAIP Center and WINLAB
          ECE Dept., Rutgers U., Piscataway, NJ
   http://www.caip.rutgers.edu/~bushnell/rutgers.html

                   Analog and Low-Power Design
May 29, 2010            Lecture 1 (c) 2003              1
            Lecture 1
Introduction to Low-Power Design
         •     Motivation
         •     Historical Drivers of Low-Power Design
         •     Microprocessor Scaling
         •     Power Sources
         •     Low-Power Design Methods
                        Michael L. Bushnell
                     CAIP Center and WINLAB
                ECE Dept., Rutgers U., Piscataway, NJ
                         Analog and Low-Power Design
May 29, 2010                  Lecture 1 (c) 2003        2
Motivation for Low-Power Design
• Scaling of Si CMOS technology
     • Higher functionality with smaller chips
     • Higher performance at lower cost
     • Portability
• New portable compute-intensive applications
     •   Multi-media
     •   Video display and capture
     •   Audio reproduction & capture
     •   Handwriting recognition
     •   Notebook computer
     •   Personal data assistant
     •   Implantable medical electronics
• Need for satisfactory battery life span
                         Analog and Low-Power Design
May 29, 2010                  Lecture 1 (c) 2003       3
      Historical Drivers of Low-Power
                   Design
•   Pocket calculators
•   Hearing aids
•   Implantable pacemakers and cardiac defibrilators
•   Portable military equipment for individual soldiers
•   Wristwatches
•   Wireless computing

                       Analog and Low-Power Design
    May 29, 2010            Lecture 1 (c) 2003            4
  Microprocessor Scaling Problems

• Feature sizes of transistors keep shrinking
   – Magnitude of power/unit area keeps growing
   – Heat removal & cooling is worsening
• Example: VDD 5 V         3.3 V             2.5 V
   – Power dissipation did not reduce – plateaued at 30 W
   – Higher cooling costs for power densities of 50 W/cm2
• Example: speech recognition needs a full PCB and
  20 W of power to handle a 20,000 word vocabulary
   – NiCd batteries only provide 26 W / pound battery weight
                     Analog and Low-Power Design
 May 29, 2010             Lecture 1 (c) 2003                5
         Sources of Power Dissipation

• Charging current
    – Due to logic transitions causing logic gates to charge/discharge
      load capacitance
• Short-circuit current
    – p-tree and n-tree momentarily shorted as logic gate changes
      state
• Leakage current
    – Diode leakages around transistors and n-wells
    – Increasing 20 times for each new fabrication technology
    – Went from insignificant to a dominating factor
                          Analog and Low-Power Design
  May 29, 2010                 Lecture 1 (c) 2003                   6
    Design for Low-Power Techniques
• Reduced supply voltage
      – Charging power varies as VDD2
      – Reduce transistor threshold voltages to maintain noise margins
      – But reduced thresholds increase leakage currents exponentially
• Change your CMOS logic family – use a low-power one
• Transistor resizing to speed-up circuit and reduce power
• Use parallelism and pipelining in system architecture – use
    more, but slower, hardware
•   Standby modes – clock disabling and power-down of selected
    logic blocks
•   Adiabatic computing – avoid gain/loss of heat during computing
•   Software redesign to lower power dissipation
                           Analog and Low-Power Design
    May 29, 2010                Lecture 1 (c) 2003                  7

								
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