$20.00 (US) EXOTIC ANIMAL CARE CLINICIAN’S QUICK REFERENCE GUIDE TO SELECTED CAPTIVE Exotic Species Reviewers As a zoo veterinarian, I am expected to provide brief introductory notes about Kay Backues, DVM know about many different animal 21 of those species for which basic Brendan Carmel, BVSc, MVS, species, some of which are unique and natural history and husbandry informa- , GDipCompMCP MRCVS for which there are very few published tion may be needed by the exotic Rob Coke, DVM references. This is also the case for the animal veterinarian in private practice. Morgan Dawkins, DVM Christine Eckermann-Ross, DVM private practitioner known as an “exotic We must emphasize that inclusion of Ariana Finkelstein, DVM animal veterinarian.” Although he or these species does not indicate their Dan Johnson, DVM she may prefer to use their experience recommendation as pets, and many of David Jones and expertise with more “domesti- the species listed should not be consid- Neus Morera, DVM cated” exotic animals, such as rabbits, ered as pets by the majority of the Kevin Wright, DVM ferrets, rats and parrots, we all know population. Unfortunately, that does not that at some time they may be called on stop them from occasionally appearing to treat other less commonly seen within the pet trade. species. One of the greatest frustrations Although every effort has been made with seeing these species as patients is to verify the accuracy of the informa- gathering basic information about them tion within this article, it is the responsi- prior to entering the exam room. bility of the clinician to evaluate the use In response to an online survey of of this material and to update it as new Exotic DVM readers, a list of interesting data becomes available. animals occasionally seen as exotic pets was developed. This article is a result of Jack Kottwitz, DVM that initial list. The following pages Guest Medical Editor www.exoticdvm.com EXOTIC DVM VOLUME 8 IS SUE 6 21 Kinkajou (honey bear) (Potos flavus) By Dan Johnson, DVM ANESTHESIA • Anesthetic combinations for IM injection: • ketamine 10-30 mg/kg • ketamine 10 mg/kg + diazepam 0.5 mg/kg • ketamine 10 mg/kg + midazolam 0.25-0.5 mg/kg • ketamine 2.5 mg/kg-5.0 mg/kg + medetomidine 25-50 mcg/kg • teletamine/zolazepam 3-10 mg/kg DIET • Over 90% of a free-ranging kinkajou’s diet is composed of fruit with less than 10% made up of insects, leaves and flowers. • In captivity, fruit (e.g., bananas, grapes, mangoes, apples, berries, figs and melons) makes a suitable staple for kinkajous. This diet should be supple- mented by high-grade monkey chow or dog food kibble (may be soaked in fruit juice), eggs, insects, baked chicken and fresh vegetables. • Honey may be given as a treat. • Avoid strawberries, avocados and dairy products. • Papaya may help prevent periodontal disease, which is common due to their soft diet. SUITABILITY • Kinkajous do not have any noticeable odor. AS PETS • Lifespan is 20-25 years. BEHAVIOR • Nocturnal Dan Johnson • Docile and gentle • Inquisitive and social PHYSICAL • Kinkajous have 2 hairless areas on the face, which CHARACTERISTICS are often mistaken for a Sarcoptes infection. • Kinkajous have prehensile tails, which are used for ORIGIN • Central and South America climbing. FREE-RANGING • Arboreal; rainforest • The kinkajou dental formula is I 3/3, C 1/1, P 3/3, HABITAT M 2/2 = 38. ADULT SIZE • 3-10 lbs (1.4-4.6 kg) MOST COMMON • Obesity • Body up to 18 inches (45 cm) DISORDERS • Ectoparasites + tail up to 18 inches (45 cm) • Intestinal parasites • Bite wounds CAPTIVE • Cage should be at least 6 x 6 x 6 feet HOUSING • Foreign body impactions (2 x 2 x 2 m). • Fractures • Large open wire crate allowing good • Periodontal disease ventilation is adequate for indoor cages. • Neoplasia • Kinkajous will dig or climb to escape; • Cardiomyopathy enclosure must have escape-proof wire • Diarrhea mesh walls and a closed secured roof. • A concrete floor will prevent escape by VACCINES • Canine distemper: vaccinate at 6-8 weeks and digging and may be covered by sand, every 3-4 weeks until 14 weeks of age; booster soil and vegetation. annually. Recombinant canary pox-vectored CDV is • Enclosure should be cleaned daily. recommended. • Access to clean water in a secured • Traditional MLV vaccines should not be used water dish to avoid tipping is necessary. because they can cause post-vaccinal CDV encephalitis. ENVIRONMENTAL • Enclosure should contain tree branches • Rabies: vaccinate at 16 weeks; booster annually. ENRICHMENT for climbing and large hollow logs. • Feline parvoviruses (panleukopenia) and leptospiro- • Hammocks, hide boxes or ledges should sis may be indicated depending on location, be provided away from direct sunlight to possible exposure or outbreak. allow kinkajous to sleep during the day. - Feline parvoviruses: vaccinate at 6-8 weeks, then • Toys, such as ropes, balls and stuffed repeat every 3-4 weeks until 14 weeks of age; animals, help keep kinkajous entertained. booster annually. ENVIRONMENTAL • Above 65°F (18°C) - Leptospirosis: vaccinate at 10-12 weeks; repeat TEMPERATURE once in 3-4 weeks and then annually. RESTRAINT • Kinkajous may be difficult to manually SPECIAL • States, counties or cities may restrict keeping restrain and will bite if threatened; CONSIDERATIONS kinkajous as pets. attempt restraint only for injection of AND CAUTIONS • Heartworm and flea preventives are recommended. medications and anesthesia. • Kinkajous are capable of delivering painful, severe • Heavy leather gloves, towels, blankets bites if frightened or threatened. and catch nets may be necessary. • They may transmit a number of zoonotic diseases. www.exoticdvm.com EXOTIC DVM VOLUME 8 IS SUE 6 25 www.AVI-x.com • www.HEAL-x.com 800-946-4782 • 561-641-6745 Contact us for veterinary pricing.