Concrete Storage Development for Parabolic Trough Power Plants

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Concrete Storage Development for Parabolic Trough Power Plants Powered By Docstoc
					Concrete Storage Developement
for Parabolic Trough Power Plants

Doerte Laing, German Aerospace Center (DLR)


Parabolic Trough Technology Workshop, March 08, 2007, Golden CO, USA



                                                                                    Folie 1
                                                                    Trough Workshop 08.03.07




Concrete Storage
Motivation

                            liquid              Molten salt storage

                         dual medium
   Indirect TES         storage system


                             solid               Concrete storage


   Economic and reliable TES
   Cost target < 20 € / kWh TES capacity
   Modular and scalable design
   Flexible to large no. of sites and construction materials


                                                                    Doerte Laing, Folie 2
                                                                    Trough Workshop 08.03.07




                                                                                               1
                   Solid Media Sensible Heat Storage
                   Road Map
                   Phase 1:          11/2001 – 12/2003
                   SCIENTIFIC PROJECT
                   Ö feasibility demonstration, on-sun tests at PSA
                   Ö contractor DLR, sub-contractor SIEMPELKAMP
                   Ö project funded by BMU
                   Phase 2:         03/2004 – 12/2006
                   JOINT INDUSTRIAL/SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH PROJECT
                   Ö pre-commercial design
                   Ö contractors DLR, ZUEBLIN, FLAGSOL
                   Ö project funded by BMU




                                                                                             Doerte Laing, Folie 3
                                                                                             Trough Workshop 08.03.07




                   Thermal Energy Storage
                   Motivation

                   1600
                                                                               221bar
                             Concrete
                   1400
                             Water (liquid)
                   1200      Thermal Oil VP1
Enthalpy [kJ/kg]




                   1000      KNO3-NaNO3 (PCM)
                                                                   100 bar
                             NaNO3 (PCM)
                    800
                                                                                          11 bar
                    600

                    400                              1 bar
                                   10 bar
                    200

                      0
                       130   160      190   220    250       280      310    340    370      400
                                                  Temperature [°C]


                                                                                             Doerte Laing, Folie 4
                                                                                             Trough Workshop 08.03.07




                                                                                                                        2

              Solid Media Concrete Storage
              Characteristic behavior of dual media solid TES

              T_Oil_in, Charge
Temperature




                                        T_Oil_in, Discharge



                             Storage length

                                                                            Doerte Laing, Folie 5
                                                                            Trough Workshop 08.03.07




              Solid Media Concrete Storage
              Characteristic behavior of dual media solid TES

              T_Oil_in, Charge




               min. steam outlet
Temperature




                                                              Max. collector inlet




                                        T_Oil_in, Discharge



                             Storage length

                                                                            Doerte Laing, Folie 6
                                                                            Trough Workshop 08.03.07




                                                                                                       3

              Solid Media Concrete Storage
              Characteristic behavior of dual media solid TES

              T_Oil_in, Charge



                                                                                                           Important issues:
Temperature




                                                                                                           • internal heat transfer
                                                                                                           • heat conductivity
                                                                                                             of solid media




                                                                      T_Oil_in, Discharge



                                                      Storage length

                                                                                                                       Doerte Laing, Folie 7
                                                                                                                       Trough Workshop 08.03.07




              Characteristic behavior of dual media solid TES
              Consequences
                                                       Design point: pSH,in = 100 bar, tSH,in = 380 °C

                                           39

                                           38
                    Gross efficiency [%]




                                           37

                                           36

                                           35

                                           34

                                           33
                                                310    320    330     340     350     360      370       380   390
                                                              Superheater Outlet Temperature [°C]


                No technical constraints against temperature decrease at the hot end
                Decrease is limited by economic aspects
                Storage integration is a specific issue of indirect TES systems

                                                                                                                       Doerte Laing, Folie 8
                                                                                                                       Trough Workshop 08.03.07




                                                                                                                                                  4

  Concrete Storage Material Development
  Requirements on concrete storage material

      High heat capacity

      High heat conductivity

      Thermal endurance and long term stability

      Thermal expansion similar to tube register

      Good handling

      Low costs

      Availability of components





                                                                  Doerte Laing, Folie 9
                                                                  Trough Workshop 08.03.07




  Development of concrete storage material

classical „ternary system“               modern „five material system“


                              Cement                  Fine
        Water
                                                    Aggregates



                             Concrete


          Aggregates                        Concrete Additives


         Adaptation to specific requirements is possible!
                                                                 Doerte Laing, Folie 10
                                                                  Trough Workshop 08.03.07




                                                                                             5
  Development of concrete storage material
  Testing of concrete modifications




     Investigated major aggregates:
     N2      -    Sand / Gravel
     NZ 2    -    Sand / Gravel + Scale
     B1, B2 -     Basalt
     BZ 1    -    Basalt + Scale
                                             Doerte Laing, Folie 11
                                              Trough Workshop 08.03.07




  Development of concrete storage material
  Investigation of material strength




Tensile and compressive strength are in
expected range of common concrete
30-40% decrease of tensile strength after
long term cycling
No decrease of compressive strength after
                                             Doerte Laing, Folie 12
long term cycling                             Trough Workshop 08.03.07




                                                                         6

       Solid Media Concrete Storage
       Thermal Engineering and Simulation Tools
                           Simulation
                            tools for
                             storage
                             design




Introduction
   of heat
  transfer
 structures




                                                         Doerte Laing, Folie 13
                                                          Trough Workshop 08.03.07




       Storage Design for Andasol-Konfiguration
       Basic Storage Module


                  134 mm




                            4m                    18 m




                                        2,6 m            Doerte Laing, Folie 14
                                                          Trough Workshop 08.03.07




                                                                                     7

Storage Design for Andasol-Configuration
Construction of storage module

                                  2,60 m

 1. Foundation slab


 2. Insulation


 3. Gliding plane


4. Framework            4m




                                           Doerte Laing, Folie 15
                                            Trough Workshop 08.03.07




Storage Design for Andasol-Configuration
Construction of storage module

                                  2,60 m
5. Tube register
   (1. Element)

6. Working platform


7. Formwork tie

8. Pouring and
                       4m




   compaction

9. Remove working
   platform

                                           Doerte Laing, Folie 16
                                            Trough Workshop 08.03.07




                                                                       8

Storage Design for Andasol-Configuration
Construction of storage module

                                  2,60 m
10. Tube register
    (2. Element)

11. Working platform


12. Formwork tie

13. Pouring and        4m
    compaction

14. Remove working
    platform

                                           Doerte Laing, Folie 17
                                            Trough Workshop 08.03.07




Storage Design for Andasol-Konfiguration
Storage Package
                                                 m
                                              25




                       50 m




                                           Doerte Laing, Folie 18
                                            Trough Workshop 08.03.07




                                                                       9

Storage Design for Andasol-Konfiguration
Storage Package




                                                 m
                                              25
                       50 m




                                           Doerte Laing, Folie 19
                                            Trough Workshop 08.03.07




Storage Design for Andasol-Konfiguration
Storage Package




                     Storage Package
                                                 m
                                              25




                       50 m




                                           Doerte Laing, Folie 20
                                            Trough Workshop 08.03.07




                                                                       10

Storage Design for Andasol-Konfiguration
Storage Design - Piping




                                                    Doerte Laing, Folie 21
                                                     Trough Workshop 08.03.07




Storage Design for Andasol-Konfiguration
Integration into Power Plant




             50.000 m³ Concrete Storage Material
            Î 6 h – Storage for 50 MW-Power Plant

                                                    Doerte Laing, Folie 22
                                                     Trough Workshop 08.03.07




                                                                                11

Storage Design for Andasol-Konfiguration
Integration into Power Plant




                  50.000 m³ Concrete Storage Material
                Î 6 h – Storage for 50 MW-Power Plant

                                                              Doerte Laing, Folie 23
                                                               Trough Workshop 08.03.07




Concrete Storage Testmodul
100 kW Testloop near DLR Stuttgart

  Storage volume 20 m³ (1,7 m x 1,24 m x 9 m)
  Storage capacity 400 kWh (for dT = 40 K)
  100 kW Testloop with Syltherm 800 for heating and cooling




                                                              Doerte Laing, Folie 24
                                                               Trough Workshop 08.03.07




                                                                                          12

Concrete Storage Test Module
Construction tube register




                               Doerte Laing, Folie 25
                                Trough Workshop 08.03.07




Concrete Storage Test Module
Mounting of thermocouples




                               Doerte Laing, Folie 26
                                Trough Workshop 08.03.07




                                                           13

Concrete Storage Test Module
Formwork and pouring of concrete




                                   Doerte Laing, Folie 27
                                    Trough Workshop 08.03.07




Concrete Storage Test Module
Housing of test loop




                                   Doerte Laing, Folie 28
                                    Trough Workshop 08.03.07




                                                               14

                            Concrete Storage Test Module
                            Start-up
                  160                                                                                                      8,0


                  140                                                                                                      7,0


                  120                                                                                                      6,0


                  100                                                                                                      5,0
Temperatur [°C]




                   80                                                                                                      4,0


                                                                         Temperatur [MQ1]
                   60                                                                                                      3,0
                                                                         Temperatur [MQ4]
                                                                         Mittelwert MQ2
                   40
                                                                         Flow
                                                                                                               240         2,0                                                                                                          90,0
                                                                                                               220                                                                                                                      80,0
                   20                                                                                                      1,0
                                                                                                               200                                                                                                                      70,0




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Flow [m³/h] / Power [kW]
                   0                                                                                                       0,0
                                                                                                               180                                                                                                                      60,0
                        0   2000       4000   6000                8000          10000       12000                      14000
                                                                                            Temperature [°C]



                                                     Zeit [min]                                                160                                                                                                                      50,0
                                                                                                               140                                                                                                                      40,0
                                                                                                               120                                                                                                                      30,0
                                                                                                               100                                                                                                                      20,0
                                                                                                                80                                                                                                                      10,0
                                                                                                                60                                                                                                                      0,0
                                                                                                                40                                                                                                                      -10,0
                                                                                                                20                                                                                                                      -20,0
                                                                                                                  0                                                                                                                     -30,0
                                                                                                               06.12.2006 06:00 07.12.2006 06:00 08.12.2006 06:00 09.12.2006 06:00 10.12.2006 06:00 11.12.2006 06:00 12.12.2006 06:00
                                                                                                                                                                          Time


                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Doerte Laing, Folie 29
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Trough Workshop 08.03.07




                            Storage Design for Andasol-Konfiguration
                            Basic Storage Module – Cross section




                                   WESPE                           WANDA                                                                 ANDASOL




                                   0,5 x 0,5 x                1,7 x 1,24                                                                      4,0 x 2,60
                                      23 m                      x9m                                                                            x 18 m


                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Doerte Laing, Folie 30
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Trough Workshop 08.03.07




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               15
           Solid Media Sensible Heat Storage
           Road Map
               Phase 1:          11/2001 – 12/2003
               SCIENTIFIC PROJECT
               Ö feasibility demonstration, on-sun tests at PSA
               Ö contractor DLR, sub-contractor SIEMPELKAMP
               Ö project funded by BMU
               Phase 2:         03/2004 – 12/2006
               JOINT INDUSTRIAL/SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH PROJECT
               Ö pre-commercial design
               Ö contractors DLR, ZUEBLIN, FLAGSOL
               Ö project funded by BMU

               Phase 3:        2007 – 2008
               Re-design and verification of improved design, up-scaling

               Phase 4:          > 2009
               Pilot storage – commercial supplier

                                                                                   Doerte Laing, Folie 31
                                                                                    Trough Workshop 08.03.07




           Outlook
           Concrete Storage for Direct Steam Generation
                                              evaporation/                         from solar
                                              condensation                         field

to solar
                  preheating                                               superheating
field
                                          C


                                                                                                          D


           A                         B

from           concrete storage                                         concrete storage
power              module                      PCM storage                  module
block                                            module
                                                                                   to power
                                                                                   block

           A feed water inlet / outlet               C saturated steam
           B liquid water                            D live steam inlet / outlet

                                                                                   Doerte Laing, Folie 32
                                                                                    Trough Workshop 08.03.07




                                                                                                               16

Conclusions


  Energy storage is a key issue 

        for efficient energy utilization

        to reduce fossil fuels consumption and CO2 emissions

        for increased heat and power generation with RES

        to balance unequal supply und demand profiles
  Concrete storage technology seems to be a cost effective option for
  solar power plants
  Continuous research and development effort is needed to bring this
  technology to commercial stage




                                                                Doerte Laing, Folie 33
                                                                 Trough Workshop 08.03.07




                      Thank You
                  for your attention




                                                                Doerte Laing, Folie 34
                                                                 Trough Workshop 08.03.07




                                                                                            17