Sustainable Energy Management by cna67568

VIEWS: 6 PAGES: 55

									Sustainable Energy Management
          For Colleges and Universities


                    Lee DeBaillie, PE
           Energy Center of Wisconsin




                                          www.ecw.org/mwbuildings
                        WHY IS ENERGY IMPORTANT?



Colleges & Universities are learning centers – multiplying effect
Colleges & Universities use lots of energy
– 9.3% of all commercial buildings
– 1.6% total U.S. energy consumption
Environmental effects
– 1.8% of U.S. CO2 emissions
Costs colleges and universities
money…
– About $7.0 billion nation-wide
– About $2.00 per square foot
                                                                           CAMPUS ENERGY COSTS



 Electricity is 38% of consumption                                             Natural Gas is 35% of consumption
                 Increased 13% 1995-2005                                         Increased 129% 1995-2005
                           Average Commercial Electricity Price                                     Average Commercial Natural Gas Cost
                                    Ene rgy Informa tion Administra tion                                      Ene rgy Informa tion Administra tion



                                                                                           $14.00
                 9
                                                                                           $12.00
                8.5                                                                        $10.00
  [Cents/kWh]




                                                                               [$/MMBtu]
                 8                                                                          $8.00
                                                                                            $6.00
                7.5
                                                                                            $4.00
                 7
                                                                                            $2.00
                6.5                                                                         $0.00
                      1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005                        1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
                                                       Year                                                                          Year




Nation-wide college and university energy cost increased $5 billion to
                $7 billion 1995-2005, mostly last 5 years
SUSTAINABLE ENERGY MANAGEMENT
SUSTAINABLE ENERGY MANAGEMENT
SUSTAINABLE ENERGY MANAGEMENT
SUSTAINABLE ENERGY MANAGEMENT
                                      EDUCATION



Involve students and faculty in Sustainable Energy Management
Link education and research activities to each energy topic
Apply students to solving program barriers and evaluating technologies
 –   Student activist groups: involve them in solving problems, align your efforts
 –   Undergraduates: Create class projects

          Engineering and science: energy analysis and data collection
          Business and math: energy program financial analysis
          Trades: renewable energy and energy retrofits
          Architecture: efficient new building design
          Behavioral sciences: energy conservation and behavior
          Marketing and Advertising: energy awareness campaigns
          Information technology: websites, energy accounting database, building controls

 –   Graduates: Create research topics, consider energy program assistantships
SUSTAINABLE ENERGY MANAGEMENT
SUSTAINABLE ENERGY MANAGEMENT
                                         RENEWABLE ENERGY


On-Site                 Purchased
 – Need renewable         – Easier
   resource               – No up-front capital
 – Need up-front          – Not tangible,
   capital                  somewhat less
 – Tanglible,               educational
   educational


Often Solar PV/Thermal & Wind
 – Usually not cost-effective
       Many subsidies available
       Educational and symbolic
       Environmental benefits are real
 – Possible exceptions: Biomass, big wind


Topic of future webinar
SUSTAINABLE ENERGY MANAGEMENT
SUSTAINABLE ENERGY MANAGEMENT
                             PAY LESS FOR ENERGY



Negotiate with utility
Purchase energy on
open market
 – Future webinar topic
Cogeneration or
Combined Heat and
Power
 – Future webinar topic
 – Midwest CHP
   Application Center
       www.chpcentermw.org
SUSTAINABLE ENERGY MANAGEMENT
                            METERING AND ENERGY ACCOUNTING


A Cornerstone of Energy Management

  Meters
  – Energy consumption and conversion
           How much, where, when, what kind?
  – Indirect energy savers


  Energy accounting, reporting, archiving system
  – Centralizes energy data - often scattered and inaccessible
  – Performance metrics
           Campus-wide, plants, buildings
           Compare year-to-year, system-to-system, peer-to-peer
           Detect inefficiencies and degradations over time
             – Preventative maintenance tool
  – Creates accountability
             METERING AND ENERGY ACCOUNTING
                    Campus Energy Flows




Single Building
              METERING AND ENERGY ACCOUNTING
                     Campus Energy Flows




Multiple Buildings
METERING AND ENERGY ACCOUNTING
       Campus Energy Flows
METERING AND ENERGY ACCOUNTING
       Campus Energy Flows
METERING AND ENERGY ACCOUNTING
       Campus Energy Flows
METERING AND ENERGY ACCOUNTING
       Campus Energy Flows
METERING AND ENERGY ACCOUNTING
       Campus Energy Flows
METERING AND ENERGY ACCOUNTING
       Campus Energy Flows
METERING AND ENERGY ACCOUNTING
       Campus Energy Flows
                              METERING AND ENERGY ACCOUNTING
                                     Campus Energy Flows




Reduce Environmental Impact      Reduce Cost   Reduce Consumption
SUSTAINABLE ENERGY MANAGEMENT
SUSTAINABLE ENERGY MANAGEMENT
SUSTAINABLE ENERGY MANAGEMENT
SUSTAINABLE ENERGY MANAGEMENT
           FOUR CAMPUS FEEDBACK LOOPS

    O&M                                 Utilities




                            Savings




New Buildings                         Departments


                Money and Effort
SUSTAINABLE ENERGY MANAGEMENT
SUSTAINABLE ENERGY MANAGEMENT
                                CONSERVATION VERSUS ENERGY
                                        EFFICIENCY



Conservation                               Efficiency
  Change behavior                             Do not change behavior
  Do not change technology                    Change technology
  Little need for capital $                   Need capital $
  Energy Awareness Campaigns                  Existing Buildings: Survey and
   –   Penn State                             assess efficiency opportunities
   –   University of Wisconsin-Madison        New Buildings: Design to
                                              efficiency
                               Ideally, do both
SUSTAINABLE ENERGY MANAGEMENT
                            CAMPUS-WIDE ENERGY ISSUES



Transportation - Commuting and Campus motor pool
– Large Campus: 10% of building energy consumption
– Commuter campus: Equal to building energy
  consumption
Campus Landscape and Master Planning
– Space planning, commuting options, landscaping,
  central utilities, building re-use
– Exterior lighting – parking lots, pedestrian walkways,
  outdoor athletic facilities, external building lights, street
  lights, stoplights.
Central Plants and Cogeneration
SUSTAINABLE ENERGY MANAGEMENT
                        COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY BUILDINGS
                                   OVERVIEW

Comparison: College Buildings & Commercial Buildings
   College buildings are generally larger
    – 46,900 square feet versus 13,900 for all commercial
   College buildings generally use more energy per square foot
    – 144,600 Btu/ft2 versus 90,000 Btu/ft2 for all commercial
   While using more, college energy generally costs less
    – $13 versus $16 per million Btu for all commercial
   Much of the college building area is on a campus with a central plant
    – 83% versus 13% for all commercial
    – Small cities – control supply, distribution, consumption
    – Networks campus buildings into system of systems
                                                COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY BUILDINGS
                                                           OVERVIEW

Campus Building Mix
  More than classrooms…40% are classroom + office, lab, dormitory, etc.

                                                Annual Energy by Building Type
                                                                 Big 10 Campus

       La bora torie s- he a vy                                                                     411,030
               G re e nhouse s                                                       268,404
                    Hospita ls                                                       267,230
        La bora torie s - light                                            205,066
                       Clinic s                                            204,146
         Libra rie s/ Muse ums                               118,932
      Athle tic s/ Auditoriums                         102,648
                 Dormitorie s                          100,711
                  Cla ssroom                          97,550
               Admin/ O ffic e                      85,839
                        O the r                     84,411
           Anima l Fa c ilitie s         24,134
                     G a ra ge s       11,283


                                   0              100,000              200,000       300,000   400,000        500,000
                                                                               Btu/ft2
                                                     COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY BUILDINGS
                                                                OVERVIEW

Campus Building Mix
           Energy differences between large & small campuses

                                                       Illinois Public Universities
                                                     F Y 03 An n u al E n erg y In ten sities


           300,000
                                                                                                                                   245,713   249,088
           250,000                                                                                                       227,043


           200,000                                                                                   174,561   177,592
 Btu/ft2




                                                                                 153,802   160,353
                                                   140,276   141,208   147,422
           150,000                       127,210
                               119,503
                     103,230
           100,000

            50,000

                0
                     SIUE       UIC       UIS       NEIU       EIU      GSU       CSU       ISU       WIU       NIU       SIUM      SIUC      UIUC
SUSTAINABLE ENERGY MANAGEMENT
                                  EXISTING BUILDINGS ENERGY
                                          REDUCTION




Less savings available over new design
 – Too late for an integrated energy-efficient
                                                 www.theboc.info (general info)
   design
                                                 www.mwalliance.org (midwest rep)
 – Some improvements are no longer cost-         Illinois, Minnesota, Missouri,
   effective for energy alone: e.g. envelope     Ohio, Wisconsin, and Iowa
                                                 Level I Course Series
                                                 BOC 101 – Building Systems Overview
Operations and Maintenance Personnel             BOC 102 – Energy Conservation Techniques
                                                 BOC 103 – HVAC Systems and Controls
                                                 BOC 104 – Efficient Lighting Fundamentals
 – Most knowledgeable about the buildings        BOC 105 – Environmental Health & Safety
                                                 Regulations
 – Consider incentives – savings to the saver    BOC 106 – Indoor Air Quality
                                                 BOC 107 – Facility Electrical Systems
 – Building Operator Certification
                                                 Level II Course Series
                                                 Core
                                                 BOC 201 – Preventive Maintenance &
                                                 Troubleshooting Principles
                                                 BOC 202 – Advanced Electrical Diagnostics
                                                 BOC 203 – HVAC Troubleshooting & Maintenance
                                                 BOC 204 – HVAC Controls & Optimization
                              EXISTING BUILDINGS ENERGY
                                      REDUCTION


Retro-commissioning
 – Low Cost
 – Make existing systems work

Retrofit – energy efficient equipment replacement
 – Comprehensive energy surveys and analysis
 – Integrated Retrofits
       Avoid single technology upgrades
       Watch for interactions – such as load reduction
 – In-house –vs- Contracted
       Energy Savings Performance Contracting
       Issues to consider: www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/pdfs/espc_quickstudy.pdf
                                     EXISTING BUILDINGS ENERGY
                                             REDUCTION

                    Be strategic in approaching existing building energy reduction efforts


                                     Building Energy Running Total
                                             (about 350 buildings)


                    100%
% of Total Campus




                     90%
                     80%
  Consumption




                     70%
                     60%
                     50%
                     40%
                     30%
                     20%
                     10%
                      0%
                           1         26
                                     25         51
                                                50          76
                                                            75       101
                                                                     100         126
                                                                                 125         150
                                                  Number of Buildings
                                           EXISTING BUILDINGS ENERGY
                                                   REDUCTION


The main campus energy retrofits
– Shut stuff off or turn it down (conservation)
– Make stuff work right (retro-commissioning)
– Retrofits
        Lighting
        Building controls (shut stuff off and turn it down - automated)
        Steam traps
        Central Plant Upgrades
        Laboratory ventilation
           – Labs 21 Initiative: www.labs21century.gov
           – Heat recovery, flow reduction, flow variation


Existing buildings rating systems
– LEED Existing Buildings (EB) www.usgbc.org
– Energy Star Rating System www.energystar.gov
SUSTAINABLE ENERGY MANAGEMENT
                                          NEW BUILDING DESIGN


The most sustainable new building is the one not built

   Remodel existing space

   Utilize existing space more efficiently
    – University of Michigan: Multi-year space utilization study
            Preliminary Results
              – Few classes on Fridays, mornings, and evenings
              – A number of professors have several campus offices – no one knows how many
              – Some new meeting rooms were utilized 14% of the time
            Investigate computerized classroom sharing between departments
            Investigate space utilization as part of long-term facilities needs
            Scheduling directly impacts energy consumption

   Are you sure your campus space is utilized efficiently?
    (Be careful - space issues are politically explosive)
                                         NEW BUILDING DESIGN –
                                       GUIDES, CODES, STANDARDS

Codes and Standards
 – State codes, public building code
 – International Energy Conservation Code
 – ASHRAE 90.1

Design Guides – mostly smaller buildings (10,000-100,000ft2)
 – Advanced Buildings Benchmark
         www.poweryourdesign.com (see Benchmark & Reference book)
 – ASHRAE Green Guide
         www.ashrae.org/bookstore
 – ASHRAE Advanced Energy Design Guide Series
         www.ashrae.org/bookstore
                                               NEW BUILDING DESIGN –
                                             GUIDES, CODES, STANDARDS


Green Building Rating Systems
– LEED NC               (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design - New Construction) www.usgbc.org

        Energy can provide 17 of 69 points
        Application Guide for Multiple Buildings and On-Campus Buildings Projects
        LEED Combined Heat and Power Methodology
        Don’t assume that a LEED certification = energy efficient
        (probably changing soon to require at least 2 energy points)

– GreenGlobes www.thegbi.org/greenglobes/


Campus Facility Design Standards
– Incorporating efficiency into design standards
        Standards & Rating Systems: Referencing versus embedding
        Rating Systems: Certification or not?
        How will you enforce?
                                    NEW BUILDING DESIGN
                                     INTEGRATED DESIGN

Achieving energy efficiency through improving the design process…


                       More Communication

              TRADITIONAL PROCESS           INTEGRATED DESIGN STRATEGY



                    Owner
                                                    Architecture
                   Architect


                   Engineer
                                     HVAC          Owner Needs
                                                                    Lighting
                  Contractors


                    Owner
                                                        Site
                                        NEW BUILDING DESIGN
                                         INTEGRATED DESIGN


                                       More Communication…earlier
Good things happen when design
teams communicate early:


• Goals are clarified
• Perspectives are better understood
• Problems are discovered early
                                           Put                                                                 Too
• Systems are optimized                   Effort                                                               Late
                                          Here                                                                 Here!
• Loads are reduced
• Performance is improved
• Costs are managed
• Unpleasant surprises are minimized

                                               Graphic courtesy Advanced Buildings - www.poweryourdesign.com
                                                                NEW BUILDING DESIGN
                                                            IDEAL ENERGY DESIGN PROCESS
                                                                        Renewable Energy…the future
                                                                        1) Apply after energy efficiency
                                                                        2) Supply all or part
                                                                        3) Future: Net-Zero buildings
The Decision Tool: Energy Modeling




                                                                                     Commissioning (future topic)
                                                                                     1) Set early goals
                                                                                     2) Design Review – monitor goals
                                                                                     3) Construction – equipment selection
                                                                                     4) Performance Assessment – testing


                                      Assess excessive
                                         loads early                                                  Efficient Systems
                                                                                                      1) Energy Distribution systems
                                       Assess efficient                                               2) Heating Ventilating & AC
                                     design options early                                             3) Central Plant – boiler/chiller

                                     Account for building
                                     system interactions
                                                                                                              Reduce Loads
                                      Quantify options                                                        1) Climate Awareness
                                                                                                              2) Envelope/HVAC trade-offs
                                                                                                              3) Reduce internal heat
                                                                                                              4) Avoid excessive ventilation
                                                                                                              and light levels
                                                                                                              5) Daylighting geometries
                                                      NEW BUILDING DESIGN
                                                        TECHNOLOGIES

Emerging energy efficient technologies - Campus Building Design
         (See next presentation: “Next Steps: Tools and Resources” and future webinars for detailed resources)




             Building Envelopes
                –     Advanced windows, HVAC/Envelope optimization

             Lighting
                –     Daylighting: Building orientation & geometry, visual comfort, control systems
                –     Low-energy lighting design, advanced controls - DALI and wireless technologies


             HVAC
                –     Reducing distribution energy
                –     Separating latent and sensible loads
                –     Geothermal heat pump systems
                –     Displacement ventilation
                –     Packaged indirect evaporative cooling
                –     Ventilation - Heat Recovery and Demand-Controlled
                              Classrooms – lots of people, high ventilation rates
                              Laboratories – fume hood requirements, cooling loads, safety


             Central Plants
                –     Combined Heat and Power
                –     Advanced Central Plant Design
                              Chilled water system optimization
                –     Condensing boiler applications
                              SUSTAINABLE ENERGY MANAGEMENT
                                       MAIN BARRIERS

Organizational Financial Disconnects
– Connect savings to the saver, create incentives
Creating Accountability
– Who’s responsible? How is success measured?
Quality energy consumption data
Differing world views between players
– Administrative (budget, schedule, performance) and Academic (education, ideals, societal benefits)
– Bridge pragmatism and idealism

Start-up program funding
–   External – Utility incentives & programs, Public Benefits, State grants
–   Internal – one-time allocation, revolving loan fund
–   Student-initiated student fees
–   Future webinar topic
                             SUSTAINABLE ENERGY MANAGEMENT




Contact Information:
Lee DeBaillie, PE
Energy Center of Wisconsin

ldebaillie@ecw.org
608-238-8276 x111

								
To top