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Factors Affecting Motor Development - VIOLENCE

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					Factors Affecting Motor Development


        Factors within the Individual
General Motor Development
Developmental
  direction (Gesell,
  1954)
1. Cephalocaudal
2. Proximodistal
3. Differentiation
4. Integration
*Reverses with age
Phylogeny and Ontogeny
                Phylogeny
Phylogeny   - (Motor Development)
  Maturation
  Sequence


Phylogenetic   skills

Environment?
         Ontogeny
Ontogeny   - (Motor Learning)

Ontogenetic   skills

Environment?
Factors within the Environment
Effects of Early Stimulation and Deprivation


           Movement Implications
What are some reasons for the rush to stimulate?

   Age   of Parents

   Work


   Competition


   Knowledges
             Stimulation
Good or Bad?
Head Start Programs


Infant   Walkers

Bolsters   and other supports

New   Research: “Windows of Opportunity”
            Stimulation
New ideas on early brain development:
Neuronal  Development and “wiring”
 (synapses)
Main circuitry “pre-wired” prenatally
 (heredity)
Complete architecture of the brain
 (experience)
Experience strengthens synapses
Stimulation from environment = connections
Weak or unmade connections - “pruned” away
 Stimulation: Best Practices

Good   or Bad?

AAP   Suggestions

Professor
 Suggestions
    Stimulation: Suggestions
Early   in life (windows of opportunity)

Cooperative   efforts

Basic   gross motor activities (before 2)

Sensory-motor     experiences
  Effects of Early Deprivation
 Type, length, time, and
  severity

           Examples
 Hopi Indian “cradleboard”
 “The Orphanage”
 “Anna (Nell)”
 “Young Savage of Abeyron”
Deprivation / Vicarious Living
Deprivation: Issues
Cognitive, Social and Motor


Vicarious Living: Issues
Pressure from parents
Extinguishing behaviors
  Concepts Related to Early
  Stimulation / Deprivation

1.   Critical Periods

2.   Readiness

3.   Catch-up
Four Elements of Critical Periods
1.   Readiness

2.   Time Limits

3.   Enduring Behaviors

4.   Domains of Development
             Readiness
Minimum   Characteristics

Appropriate   Stimuli

How  do we know when a child is “ready” to
 learn a new skill?
               Catch-up
Return

Recovery   dependent:
 severity, length, and time of
 deprivation

Examples:   Anna / Harlow’s
 Monkeys
 Characteristics of a good
Motor-Development Program
Positive and fun
Opportunity to learn
Current level of performance
Child-oriented
Varied environment
“Pressure” free
Follow Professorial Guidelines*

				
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