Lecture 8: The School as a social system •The participatory management model •Theory X, Y and Z •TQM •The school as a social system. The participatory management model • Places greater emphasis on teacher morale and job satisfaction • Stresses the importance of motivating teachers and building organization to fulfill it. • The organization is structured to satisfy teachers’ needs, thus facilitating high teacher productivity. Theory X • Theory X works on the assumption that the average person dislikes work and therefore needs to be coerced, controlled, directed and threatened. Theory Y • On the other hand, Theory Y is based on the assumptions that (a) work is natural, (b) commitment is based on the rewards for achievement and (C) under proper environment, people accept and seek responsibility. Theory Z • Theory Z is like Theory Y, however, stresses on TQM with emphasis on teamwork, training and extensive collection and analysis of data. TQM (Deming, 1988) (Key Principles) • Create constancy of purpose – improve quality of education for all students. • Adopt the new philosophy – rethink school mission, priorities, teaching learning strategies (together) where success for every student is the main goal. TQM (principles continued) • Cease dependency on heads to achieve quality (prevention is better than cure) – head start and follow through pre-school to tertiary education. • End the business of awarding business on the basis of prize alone – schools must establish long-term relationships of loyalty and trust. • Improve quality and productivity – teaching learning approaches based on the latest research, consistent with learning styles, multiple intelligences, providing for a wide range of students (handicapped, learning disabled, at-risk and special education needs. TQM (principles continued) • Institute training/professional development on the job (new teaching learning strategies, new assessment strategies and new management system-IT). • Institute leadership – systems thinking. • Drive out fear – focus on processes and outcomes and try not to blame individuals for failures. • Breakdown barriers among staff – focus on interdisciplinary instruction, team teaching, writing across the curriculum and transfer of learning (vocationalizing). TQM (continued) • Institute a vigorous program of education and training – new methods of school management (group dynamics, consensus building, collaborative styles of decision- making). • Put everyone to work to accomplish the transformation – clear plan of action to workout the mission, internalize the quality mission. In brief TQM • focuses on students and the community • is dedicated to continual improvement – personally and collectively • sees the school as a true learning organization • views the school as a social system. • is the responsibility of top school management. School as a Social System • A social system refers to activities and interactions of groups of members brought together for a common purpose. • A useful framework to understand this is the Getzels-Guba model. • They see a social system as involving two dimensions: institutions (with certain roles and expectations) and individuals (with certain personalities and need-dispositions. Institution Role Role Expectations Social Observed System Behavior Individual Personality Need-Dispositions Cultural dimensions • The classroom is a unique social system – mediated by cultural factors (ethos, mores and values) as well as psychological aspects. • This models also has three conflicts – role conflicts, personality conflicts and role- personality conflicts. Getzels’ latest model:communities dimension (6 communities) • Local communities • Administrative community • Social community • Instructional community • Ethnic community • Ideological community Task We can view the school as a social system. Discuss this statement providing illustrations from your school.
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