Docstoc

UNIVERSITY OF MADRAS

Document Sample
UNIVERSITY OF MADRAS Powered By Docstoc
					                         UNIVERSITY OF MADRAS
               SYLLABUS – BRANCH IV CHEMISTRY (SEMESTER)


PAPER –I – GENERAL CHEMISTRY – I (90 Hrs) (I SEMESTER)

UNIT – I (30 Hrs)

1.1 Atomic Structure
Aufbain principle, Hund’s rule and electronic configurations of elements –
stability of half filled and completely filled orbital – shapes of s,p,d and f orbitals
. S,P,d and f block elements- classification and characteristic properties.

1.2 Periodicity of Properties
Definition and periodicity of the following properties –atomic radii, ionic radii,
ionization potential, electron affinity and electron negativity (no determination)
lanthanide contraction – inert- pair effect and diagonal relationship with
examples.

1.3 Principles of Inorganic Analysis
Principles of acid base equilibria, common ion effect and solubility product and
their application in qualitative analysis. Reactions involved in the separation and
identification of cations and anions in the analysis- spot test reagents – aluminol,
cupferon , DMG,thiourea , magneson, alizarin, and nesslers reagent Semmicro
techniques.

1.4 Types of Solvents
Protic and aprotic solvents, aqueous and non aqueous solvents, liquid ammonia
as as solvent .

UNIT – II (30 Hrs)

2.1 Basic concepts of bonding in organic chemistry Hybridisation and geometry
    of molecules – methane, ethane, ethylene, acetylene, and benzene. Electron
    displacements effects – Inductive, inductomeric , electrometric, mesomeric,
    resonance, hyper conjugation and steric effects . Cleavage of bonds-
    homolytic and heterolytic fission of carbon – carbon bond- reaction
    intermediates- carbo cations carbo anions and free radicals – their stability.

2.2 Nomenclature of organic compounds.IUPAC recommendations for namic
    simple aliphatic , alicyclic and aromatic compounds .
2.3 Alkanes – Mechanism of free radical substitution in alkanes .

2.4 Alkenes – General methods of preparation properties of alkenes –
    electrophilic and free radical addition – addition reactions with hydrogen ,
    halogens , hydrogen halide(markownikoff’s rule) hydrogen bromide(
    peroxide effect) sulphuric acid, water , hydroboration , ozonolysis,
    hydroxylation with KmnO4 , alicyclic substitution by NBS.

UNIT – III (30 Hrs)

3.1 Quantum Chemistry

Planck’s theory – photo electric effect – Compton effect – De. Broglie’s
relationship heisenberg’s uncertainity principle- Schrodinger wave equation (no
derivation) – significance of wave functions- probability distribution of electrons
– radial probability distribution curves.

3.2 Gaseous State

Gas Laws from the kinetic theory of gases . Transport properties – viscosity –
thermal conductivity – diffusion (definitions only)– Maxwell’s distribution of
molecular velocities(no derivation)-mean – RMS , most probable , velocity
equilpartition of energy – virial equation of state – Boyle temperature –
coefficient of compressibility and thermal expansion.

3.3 Liquid State

Surface tension – effect of temperature on surface tension – parachor – definition
and applications only. Viscosity – effect of temperature , effect of pressure.

3.4 Solid State

Elements of symmetry –crystal systems – miller indices- unit cell – space lattice
– Bravais lattices.

3.5 Mesomorphic State

Liquid crystals- classification and molecular arrangements.
   PAPER – II- GENERAL CHEMISTRY – II (90 Hrs)               ( II SEMESTER)

CHEMICAL BONDING

UNIT – I (30 Hrs)

1.1 Ionic Bond

Formation and general properties. Radius ratio rule and its limitations. Hydration
energy and lattice energy and their applications . Born –Haber Cycle – Fajan’s
rules.

1.2 Covalent Bond

Valence bond theory . Formation and general properties, orbital overlap.
Hybridisation sigma and pi bonds. VSEPR theory and geometries of H2O, NH3,
CH4, PCl5, SF6, IF7, BF3 molecules. Partial ionic character of covalent bond
and percentage of ionic character.

1.3 Molecular Orbital Theory

Bonding, anti bonding orbitals and bond order. MO diagrams of
H2,Ne2,O2,O+2,O-2and CO. Comparison of VB and MO theories. Hydrogen
bonding – types, examples and effect on properties .

1.4 Chemistry of S Block Elements

Hydrides- Classification and chemistry.

1.5 Alkali Metals

Li,Na,Ka,Rband CS occurrence comparative study of elements, oxides , halides,
hydroxides and carbonates. Exceptional property of Lithum.

1.6 Alkaline Earth Metals

Be,Mg,Ca,Sr and Ba occurrence, and comparative study of the elements
oxides,hydroxides,halides,sulphates and carbonates. Exceptional property of
Berylium.
UNIT-II(30 Hrs)

2.1 Alkynes-preparation and properties-acidity of alkynes,formation of
    acetylides,addition of water with HgSo4,catalyst,addition of hydrogen halides
    and halogens,oxidation,ozonolysis and hydro boration.

2.2 Dienes – Stability of dienes, conjugated , isolated and cumulative- stability
    and chemical reactivity-1,2 and 1,4-additions-diels,alder reactions.Synthesis
    of diense 1,3 butadiene,isopropene,chloropropene.

2.3 Polymerisation-types of polymerization-free radical cationic and anionic
polymerizations including
    mechanism of preparation of polymers-addition polymers and condensation
polymers with examples.

2.4 Cyclo alkanes- preparation using Wurtz ‘s reaction Dieckmann’s ring closure
and reduction of aromatic hydrocarbons. Substitution and ring opening reactions.
Baeyers strain theory and theory of stainless rings .

UNIT –II(30 Hrs)

Thermodynamics

3.1 Definition and explanation of terms-intensive and extensive properties-types
    of         systems-thermodynamics process-
    cyclic,reversible,irreversible,isothermal and adiabatic.
3.2 Thermodynamics functions – complete differential zeroth law of
    thermodynamics-concept of heat and work.
3.3 First law of thermodynamics-Statement and equation Cp,Cv relationship-
    calculating of W,E and H for the expansion for ideal gases under reversible,
    isothermal and adiabatic conditions.
3.4 Joule’sLaw-Joule-Thomson effect- inversion temperature and its significance.
3.5 Thermochemistry Bond Energy –Bond dissociation energy - calculation
from thermochemical data varition of heat of reaction with temperature
kirchoff’s equation.

REFERENCE:
  1. Text book of Inorganic Chemistry by P.L.SONI.
  2. Text book of Inorganic Chemistry by PURI and SHARMA.
  3. Advanced Inorganic Chemistry by SATYA PRAKASH.
   4. Selected topics in Inorganic Chemistry by MALIK, TULI and MADHAN.
   5. Text book of Physical Chemistry by PURI and SHARMA.


            PAPER III- GENERAL CHEMISTRY III (90 Hrs)

Unit I (30 Hrs)

   1. Principles of Volumetric analysis

   Definitions of molality,molarity,normality and molefraction-definition and
examples for primary and secondary standards. Theories of acid-base, red-ox,
complexometric, iodometric and iodimetric titrations. Calculations of equivalent
weights, theories of acid base, red ox, metal ion and adsorption indicators and
choice of indicators.

   ‘P’ block elements-boron family electron deficiency and electron acceptor
behaviour bonding in borane. Preparation, properties, uses and structure of
borazole. Sodiumborohydride, boronnitride and lithiumaluminiumhydride.

     Carbon family-Comparison of properties of carbon and silicon
valencies,oxides,halides,hydrides and oxyacids
classification,preparation,properties and uses of carbides. Classification of
silicates,chemistry of silicones.

Unit-II (30 Hrs)

   2.1 Aromatic hydrocarbons and aromaticity- resonance in benzene-
      delocalised cloud in benzene- aromaticity- Huckel’s (4n+2) rule and its
      simple applications. Electrophilic substitution reactions in aromatic
      compounds. General mechanisms- nitration, halogenation, sulphonation,
      friedel craft’s acylation and alkylation- directive influence- orientation-
      ortho/para ratio, nuclear and side chain halogenation.

   2.2 Polynuclear hydrocarbons- napthalene, anthracene and phenanthracene-
      isolation, properties, synthesis and uses.

   2.3 Aliphatic nucleophilic substitutions, mechanism of SN1, SN2 and Sni
      reactions- effects of structure, substrate, solvent, nucleophile and leaving
      groups.
Unit-III (30 Hrs)

   3.1 Second law of thermodynamics- need for the second law, statements of the
      second law. Spontaneous process, carnots cycle- efficiency- carnot’s
      theorem (Statement only).

   3.2 Concept of entropy- definition- entropy of an ideal gas- entropy changes in
      cyclic, reversible and irreversible processes and physical transformations.
      Calculation of entropy changes with changes in T,V and P entrops mixing.

   3.3 Gibb’s free energy- Helmholtz free energy- their variation with
      temperature, pressure and volume. Criteria for spontaneity- Gibbs-
      Helmholtz equation- derivation and applications.


          PAPER IV GENERAL CHEMISTRY IV (90 Hrs)

Unit- I (30 Hrs)

   1.1 Nitrogen family (10 Hrs)

      Comparative study of N, P, As, Sb and Bi- elements, oxides, oxyacids,
      halides and anhydrides valency states- preparation, properties, structure
      and uses of hydrazine, hydroxylamine and hydrazoic acids, preparation and
      uses of NaBiO3.

   1.2 Oxygen family (6 Hrs)

      Comparative study of O, S, Se and Te- elements, oxides, hydrides and
      oxyacids of sulphur including peroxy acids and thionic acids.

   1.3Halogens (10 Hrs)

      Comparative study of F, Cl, Br, I and At- elements reactivities, hydracids,
      oxides and oxyacids, interhalogen compounds, pseudo halogens and
      positive iodine. Fluorides of oxygen. Exceptional properties of Fluorine,
      classification of halides.

   1.4Noble gases (4 Hrs)
        Electronic configuration and portion in the periodic table. Applications,
        clatharates and compounds of xenon, hybridization and geometries of
        XeF2, XeF4,, XeF6, XEOF4.

  Unit- II (30 Hrs)

     2.1 Elimination reactions

        H of Mann and Sayetzeff’s rules cis and trans eliminations- mechanisms of
        E1 and E2 reactions. Elimination Vs Substitution. Re-activities of methyl,
        ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, n-butyl, abllyl, vinyl and benzyl and intermediate
        complex mechanism- effect of substituents on reactivity.

     2.2 Alcohol’s and Phenols

        Synthesis by Grignard method and oxy mercuration- chemical reactivity.
        Polyhydric alcohols- cleavage reactions with periodic acid,
        leadtetraacetate, osmium teraoxide. Unsaturated alcohols- preparation and
        reactions of allyl alcohol.

     2.3 Phenols

        Acidic character of phenols- explanation on the basis of resonance
        stabilization. Ring substitution in phenol- orientation of phenolic group
        towards electrophiles. Mechanisms of esterification, nitration,
        sulphonation, halogenation coupling with diazoniun salts. Kolbe’s
        reaction, riemer-tiemann reaction, Gattermann, Lederer, Manasee and
        Houben- Hoesh reactions.Cresols, nitrophenols,aminophenols,di and tri
        hydric phenols alpha and beta napthols- preparation and properties.

Unit III (30 Hrs)

     3.1Third law of thermodynamics

        Nernst heat theorem statement of Third law of thermodynamics.Evaluation
        and absolute entropy from heat capacity measurements.Exception to Third
        law.

     3.2 Partial molar properties
            Chemical potential- Gibbs Duhem equation- effect of temperature and
            pressure on chemical potential- chemical potential in system of ideal gases-
            Duhem- Margules equation.

         3.3 Thermodynamics

            Derivation of the law of chemical equilibrium- reaction isotherm- standard
            free energy change- standard free energy change and equilibrium constant-
            variation of equilibrium constant with temperature- Vant hoff isochore

         3.4 Concept of fugacity and activity- determination of fugacity of gas-
            activity and activity coefficient.


                   PAPER V INORGANIC CHEMISTRY-I(60 Hrs)

                             NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY(20 Hrs)

Unit-I

         1.1Natural radioactivity-radioactive series including Neptunium series-group
            displacement law

         1.2 Fundamental particles of the nucleus- nucleon terminology, nuclides,
             isotopes,isobars, isotones, mirror nuclei. Nuclear radius, nuclear mass and
            nuclear forces operating between the nucleons. N/P ratio, curves, stability
            belts.

         1.3Nuclear binding energy. Mass defect, simple calculations involving
            mass defect and B.E per nucleon. Magic numbers- liquid drop model-
            shell model.

         1.4 Artificial radioactivity-induced radioactivity- uses of radioisotopes.
            Nuclear fission- nuclear energy- nuclear reactors-breeder reactor-nuclear
            fusion- thermonuclear reactions-energy source of the sun and stars.

   Unit-II Chemistry of ‘f’ block elements and metallurgy (25 Hrs)
   2.1 Comparative account of- Lanthanides and Actinides- occurrence,
      elements, oxidation states, magnetic properties,colour and spectra.

   2.2 Metallurgy and metallurgical processes, zone refining, van arkel process,
      electrolytic refining extraction, alloys and uses of Ti, Zr,Pt,Th and U. Steel
      alloys – Heat treatment of steel. Preparation and uses of ammonium
      molybdate, vanadium pentoxide, uranium hexafluoride.

Unit-III Industrial chemistry

   3.1 Fuel gases. Calorific value- composition and sources/ formation of water
      gas, semi water gas, carbonated water gas, producer gas, oil gas, natural
      gas, LPG and bio gas (manufacture not required)

   3.2 Water- cause for hardness of water disadvantages- degree oh hardness-
      removal of hardness using washing soda, ion- exchange resins and boiling.

   3.3 Composition and setting of cement- examples for pigment- constituents of
      paints and their functions. Types of glasses.

       PAPER VI ORGANIC CHEMISTRY-I (60 Hrs)

Unit- I (20 Hrs)

   1.1Carbonyl polarization: reactivity of carbonyl group- acidity of alpha
      hydrogen.

   1.2Mechanisms of aldol, perkin, knoevenagal reactions and benzoin
      condensation- claisen, wittig, cannizaro, reformatsky reactions.

   1.3 Mechanisms of reduction with (sodium boro hydride, LiAlH4, wolff-
      kishner and MPV)- mechanisms of haloform reaction and Michael
      addition.

   1.4 Photochemistry of carbonyl compounds- Norrish type I and II reactions.

   1.5 Ionisation of carboxylic acids- acidity constants- comparison of acid
      strengths of substituted halo acids- acid strengths of substituted benzoic
      acid. Conversion of acids to their derivatives
   1.6 Dicarboxylic acids- preparation and properties of oxalic,malonic,
      succinic, glutaric and adipic acids.

   1.7 Malonic and aceto acetic esters- characteristic reactions of active
      methylene group- synthetic uses of malonic ester, aceto acetic ester
      and cyano acetic ester.

   1.8 Tautomerism- definition- keto-enol tautomerism (identification, acid and
      base catalysed inter conversion mechanism, preparation and
      characteristics)- amidoimidol and nitro-acinitro tautomerisms.

Unit- II (25 Hrs)

   2.1 Stereoisomerism- definition- classification into optical and geometric
      isomerism.

   2.2 Optical isomerism- optical activity- optical and specific rotations-
      conditions for optical activity- asymmetric center- chirality- achiral
      molecules- meaning of (+) and (-) and D and L notations- elements of
      symmetry- racemisation- methods of racemisation (by substitution and
      tautomerism)- resolution- methods of resolution (mechanical, seeding,
      biochemical and conversion to diastereoisomers)- asymmetric synthesis
      (partial and absolute synthesis)- Walden inversion.

   2.3 Projection formulae- fischer, flying wedge, sawhorse and newmann
      projection formulae- notation of optical isomers- cahn-ingold-prelog rules-
      R-S notations for optical isomers with one and two asymmetric carbon
      atoms- erythro and threo representations.
   2.4 Optical activity in compounds not containing asymmetric carbon atoms-
      biphenyls, allenes and spiranes.

   2.5 Geometrical isomerism- cis- trans, syn- anti and E-Z notations-
      geometrical isomerism in maleic and fumaric acids and unsymmetrical
      ketoximes- methods of distinguishing geometrical isomers using melting
      point, dipole moment, dehydration, cyclisation and heat of
      hydrogenisation.

   2.6 Conformational analysis- introduction of terms- conformers,
      configuration, dihedral angle, torsional strain- conformational analysis
      of ethane and n-butane including energy diagram- conformers of
      cyclohexane (chair, boat and skew boat forms)- axial and equatorial.
      Bonds- ring flipping showing axial equatorial interconversions-
      conformers of mono and di substituted cyclohexanes- 1:2 and 1:3
      interactions.

Unit-III (15 Hrs)

   3.1 Aromaticity of heterocyclic compounds

   3.2 Preparation, properties and uses of furan, pyrrole and thiophene.

   3.3 Synthesis and reactions of pyridine and piperidine- comparative study of
      basicity of pyrrole, pyridine and piperidine with amines.

   3.4 Synthesis and reactions of quinoline, isoquinoline and indole with special
      reference to skraup. Bischler and napieralskii and fisher indole synthesis.

   3.5 Nitro compounds, amines and dyes- conversion of nitrobenzene to ortho,
      para and meta dinitrobenzenes, TNT. Aromatic nitro compounds reduction
      in neutral,acidic and alkaline media. Relative basic strength of aliphatic
      and aromatic amines. Ring substitution in aromatic amines. Diazotisation
      and its mechanisms. Synthetic applications of diazonium salts.


            PAPER VII PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY-I (60 Hrs)

Unit-I (30 Hrs)

   1.1Solutions- solutions of gases in liquids- Henry’s law- solution of liquids in
      liquids . raoult’s law. Binary liquid mixtures- ideal solutions- deviation
      from ideal behaviour- vapour pressure- composition and vapour pressure-
      temperature curves- azeotropic distillation.

   1.2Clapeyron- clausius equation- derivation and uses- thermodynamic
      derivation of elevation of boiling point and depression of freezing point-
      calculation of molecular weights.

   1.3 Distribution law- thermodynamic derivation and applications.
   1.4 Phase equilibria- gibb’s phase rule statement and definition of terms –
      application to one component systems- lead-silver system- freezing
      mixtures-two component system-compound formation with congruent
      melting point- Zn-Mg system, Ferric chloride-water system- incongruent
      melting point Na-K system- CST and effect of impurities of CST.

Unit-II (10 Hrs)

   2.1 Adsorption- physisorption and chemisorption- freundlich adsorption
   isomerism - langmuir adsorption isotherm- BET equation (no derivation)-
   applications of adsorption.

   2.2 Catalysis :- definition- homogeneous catalysis- function of a catalst in
   terms of Gibb’s free energy of activation .heterogenous catalysis- kinetics of
   unimolecular surface reactions.

Unit-III (20 Hrs)

   3.1 Chemical kinetics-definition of order and molecularity- methods to
      determine the rate of reactions- derivation of rate constants for I, II, III and
      zero order reactions and examples- derivation for time for halfchange with
      examples- methods to determine the order of reactions- effect of
      temperature on the rate of reactions- arrehenius equation and concept of
      energy of activation

   3.2 Collision theory and derivation of rate constant for bimolecular reactions-
      theory of absolute reaction rates- thermodynamic derivation for the rate
      constant for a bimolecular reaction from it- comparison of collision theory
      and ARRT- significance of entropy and free energy of activation-
      consecutive, parallel and reversible reactions (no derivation, only
      examples).


         PAPER VIII ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY-I (60 Hrs)

Unit-I (20 Hrs)

   1.1Data analysis- theory of errors- idea of significant figures and its
      importance with examples- precision- accuracy-methods of expressing
      accuracy- error analysis-minimizing errors method of expressing precision-
      average deviation- standard deviation and confidence limit.

   1.2Principles of gravimetric analysis- characteristics of precipitating agents-
      choice of precipitants and conditions of precipitation- specific and
      conditions of precipitation- specific and selective precipitants- DMG,
      cupferron, salicylaldehyde, ethylenedediamine- use of sequestering agents-
      coprecipitation- postprecipitation- peptization- differences- reduction of
      error- precipitation from homogeneous solution- calculation in gravimetric
      methods- use of gravimetric factor.

   1.3Thermal analytical methods- principle involved in thermal gravimetric
      analysis and differential gravimetric analysis- discussion of various
      components with block diagram- characteristics of TGA and DTA- factors
      affecting TGA and DTA curves- thermometric titrations

Unit-II (15 hrs)

   2.1 Seperation and purification techniques:- principles involved in the
      seperation of precipitates- solvent extraction and electrophoresis

   2.2 Purification of solid organic compounds- extraction- use of immiscible
      solvents- soxhlet extraction- crystallization- use of miscible solvents-
      fractional crystallization- sublimation. Purification of liquids- experimental
      techniques of distillation- fractional distillation- vacuum distillation- steam
      distillation- tests for purity

   2.3 Chromotography techniques- principles of adsorption, thin layer, partition
      and paper Chromotography-column Chromotography- adsorbants-
      preparation of column- adsorption-elution, recovery of substances and
      applications. TLC- choice of adsorbant and solvent-preparation of
      chromotogram and applications- Rf value- seperation of aminoacid
      mixture. Radial paper Chromotography- ion exchange Chromotography-
      principle- resins- action of resins- experimental techniques- applications-
      seperation of Zn-Mg, Co-Ni, Cd-Zn, chloride- bromide. Gas
      Chromotography and high pressure liquid Chromotography- principles-
      experimental techniques- instrumentation and applications.

Unit-III (25 Hrs)
   3.1 UV-visible spectroscopy- absorption laws- calculations involving beer-
      lambert’s law- instrumentation- photocalorimeter and spectrophotometer-
      block diagram with description of components- theory- types of electronic
      transitions- chromephore and auxochromes- absorption band and intensity-
      factors governing absorption maximun and intensity.

   3.2 Infrared spectroscopy- principle- types of stretching and bending
      vibrations- vibrational frequencies- instrumentation- block diagram-
      source- monochromator- cell sampling techniques- detector and recorders-
      identification of organic molecules from characteristic absorption bands

   3.3 Raman spectroscopy- Raleigh and raman scattering- stoke’s and antistoke
      lines- instrumentation block diagram- differences between IR and raman
      spectroscopy- mutual exclusion principle-applications- structural
      diagnosis.


               PAPER –IX APPLIED CHEMISTRY –I (60HRS)

Preparation,Synthesis and Structure determination are not required for the
compounds mentioned.

UNIT- I (20 HRS)

PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY I

   1. Definition of the following terms
      -drug,pharmachophore,pharmachology,pharmacopeia,bacteria,virus and
      vaccine.
   2. Causes, symptoms and drugs for anaemia, jaundice,cholera, malaria and
      filarial
   3. Indian medicinal plants and uses-
      tulasi,neem,kixhanelli,mango,semparuthi,adadodai and thoothuvalai.
   4. Antibacterials- Sulpha drugs- examples and actions- prontosil,
      sulphathiazole, sulphafurazole-Antibiotics- defintion and action of
      penicillin, streptomycin,chloramphenicol, eythromycein- tetracyclines.
      SAR of chloraphenicol only.
   5. Antiseptics and disinfectants – definition and distinction- phenolic
      compounds, chloro compounds, cationic surfacts.
UNIT –II (20 HRS)

PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY II

  1. Analgesics – Definition and actions – narcotic – morphine and its
     derivates, pethidine and methodone – disadvantages and uses, Antipyretic
     analgesics- salicyclic derivates, paracetamol, ibuprofen.
  2. Drugs affecting CNS- Definition, distinction and examples for –
     tranqualisers, sedatives, hypnotics,psychedelic drugs – LSD,hashish – their
     effects.
  3. Anaesthetics – Definition – local and general – volatilenitrous oxide, ether,
     chloroform, cyclo propane – uses and disadvantages – non volatile –
     intravenous – thiopental sodium, methohexitone,propanidid.
  4. Causes, medicines and their mode of action for the treatment of – cancer,
     antineoplatics – diabetes – hypoglycemic agents. AIDS – AZT, DDC.
  5. Blood – Grouping, compostion,Rh factor, blood pressure, hypertension and
     hypotension.

UNIT – III (20 HRS)

BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY AND DAIRY CHEMISTRY

  1. Elementary treatment of digestion and absorption of carbohydrates,
     proteins and fats.

  2. Elementary treatment of enzymes, coenzymes, cofactors, prosthetic groups
     and the theory of enzyme action.
  3. Physiological functions of adrenaline, thyroxin, oxytocin, insulin and sex
     harmones.
  4. Micronutrients and their biological role in human systems.


  Reference Books:

    1. A Text book of pharmaceutical chemistry – Jayashree Ghosh- S.Chand
    2. Pharmaceutical chemistry – S.Lakshmi Sultan Chand.
    3. Pharmacology and pharmatherapeutics – R.S.Satoskar – Popular
       Prakashan – Vol.I and II.
    4. Medicinal chemistry - Asutosh Kar – New Age.
    5. A Text book of pharmaceutical chemistry – Bentley and Drivers.
             PAPER X- INORGANIC CHEMISTRY II (60 hrs)

    Unit-I   'd'block elements and coordination compounds            (30
hrs)


   1.1 Characteristics of 'd' block elements.Comparative study of
Ti,V,Mn,Cr and Fe,group metals-occurrence, oxidation states,magnetic
properties, catalytic properties and colour.
   1.2 Coordination compounds-Nomenclature,Werner's theory EAN
        rule, coordination number and geometry.Chelation and effect of
chelation.Application of EDTA. Ionisation
        isomerism, hydrate isomerism, linkage isomerism,ligand
isomerism, coordination
        isomerism,polymerization isomerism. Geometrical and optical
isomerism in 4 and 6
        coordinated complexes.

   1.3 Theory of bonding. Valence bond theory - hybridization,geometry
and magnetic
      properties. Failure of VBT.


   Unit-II             Crystal Field Theory


    2.1 Crystal field theory-Spectrochemical series-Splitting of 'd' orbitals
in octahedral,
        tetrahedral and square planar complexes. CFSE calculations in
octahedral and square
        planar complexes-low spin and high spin complexes- Explanation
of magnetic properties
        colour and geometry using CFT.Trans effect and its explanation.


   2.2 Comparison of VBT and CFT.

  2.3 Bioinorganic chemistry-Biological aspects of Fe,Zn,Mg,Co and
Mo.Role of Na,K,Ca and P.
    2.4 Pi acceptor ligands-Bonding,hybridization and structures of
carbonyls of Ni,Cr,Fe,Co,
       Mn,W and V.


   Unit -III      Pollution and its control

   3.1 Sources of air pollution Carbon di oxide,Pb,Co,oxides of nitrogen
and sulphur,freons,
       smog-green house effect-global warming-methods to control.

    3.2 Pollution of soil-fertilizers,insecticides,solid wastes and acid
rain.Methods to
       control.

    3.3 Pollution of water-industrial and domestic
wastes,effluents,sewage wastes,fertilizers
        insecticides oil,toxic metals.COD and BOD.Consequences-methods
to control.Rain
        water harvesting-its need,methods and advantages.

   3.4 Noise pollution and radio active pollution-health hazards.

                 PAPER XI ORGANIC CHEMISTRY -II (60 hrs)
   Unit-I

    1.1 Diazo methane and diazoacetic ester-preparation,structure and
synthetic uses.Preparation
        and properties of- Phenylene diamines,sulphanilic
acid,sulphanilamide,saccharin and chlor
        amine-T

    1.2 Dyes-theory of colour and constitution.Classification-according to
structure and method of
        application.Preparation and uses of 1)Azo dye-methyl orange and
Bismark brown 2)Triphenyl
        methane dye malachite green.3) Phthalein dye-phenolphthalein and
fluroescein 4)Vat dye-
       indigo.5)Anthraquinone dye-alizarin.


   Unit-II (25 hrs)

    2.1 Aminoacids and proteins-classification of aminoacids.Essential
and non essential aminoacids.
        Preparation of alpha aminoacids,properties and reactions.Zwitter
ions,isoelectric points-
        peptide synthesis-structure determination of polypeptides-end
group analysis.

   2.2 Proteins-classification based on physical and chemical properties
and on physiological
        functions.Primary and secondary structure of proteins.Helical and
sheet structures(elementry
        treatment only)Denaturation of proteins.Nucleic acids.Types of
nucleic acids-RNA and DNA,
        polynucleotide chain components-biological functions.

    2.3 Carbohydrates-classification-constitution of glucose and
fructose.Reactions of glucose and
        fructose-osazone formation.Mutarotation and its mechanism.Cyclic
structure.Pyranose and
        furanose forms.Determination of ring size.Haworth projection
formula,configuration of mono
        saccharides epimenrisation,chain lengthening and chain shortening
of aldoses.Inter conversation
        of aldoses and ketoses.

   2.4 Disaccharides-reactions and structure of sucrose.Structure and
properties of starch and cellulose



   Unit-III (20 hrS)

    3.1 Natural products-Terpenses-isoprene rule.Structural elucidations
of-feraniol,menthol and alpha
        terpineol.
    3.2 Alkaloids-general methods of isolation and general methods of
structure determination conine,
        piperine and nicotine.

   3.3 Vitamins-classification-stuctural elucidations of-pyridoxine and
ascorbic acid.

    3.4 Molecular rearrangements-Classification as anionotropic-
cationotropic and intra molecular.
        Pinacol-pinacolone rearrangement(mechanism,evidence for
carbonium ion intermediate formation
        -migratory attitude)Beckmann,Hoffmann,Curtius,Benzilic acid
rearrangements(mechanisms only)
        Claisen rearrangement(sigmatropic)-evidence for intermolecular
nature and allylic carbon attachment
        -paraclaisen,Cope and oxycope rearrangements.Fries
rearrangement(two mechanisms).




       PAPER- xII PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY II (60HRS)

UNIT- I

1.1 Photochemistry laws-Flourescence and phosphorescence- primary and
secondary

   reactions- kinectic of hydrogen- bromine reaction- photosentisation-

   chemiluminescence.

1.2 Group theory- Symmetry operations- products of symmetry
operations-classes

   and subgroups-group mulitiplication table- propertiesof a group- point

   groups- C2v,C3V,C2h,C4h,C6h,C2h,C3h,Td,Oh(any one example)
UNIT- II ELECTROCHEMISTRY - CONDUCTANCE (25 HRS)

2.1 Metallic and electrolytic conductors- specific, equivalent and molar
conductance-

    measurement of conductance- variation of conductance with dilution
for strong and weak

    electrolytes(qualitive explanation)- Transport number and its
determination by Hittorff's

    and moving boundary method- effect of temperature and concentration-
ionic mobility and ionic

   conductance- Kohlausch"s law and its applications- salt hydrolysis and
PH of a solution,

   buffer action and explanation.

2.2 Theory of strong electrolytes- Debye- Huckel- Onsager theory-
verification of Onsager equation-

   Wein effect and Debye- Falkenhangen effect- ionic strength- activity
and activity coefficients

   of strong electrolytes.

2.3 Applications of conductivity measurements- degree of hydrolysis,
solubility product and conductometric

   titrations.

UNIT- III    ELECTROCHEMISTRY

3.1 Galvanic cells- reversible and irreversible electrodes and cells-
standard cell-emf and its measurements-

    types of electrodes- electrode reactions- electrode potentials- reference
electrodes- standard electrode potentials.
3.2 Derviation of Nest equation for electrode potential and cell emf- sign
conventions-

    electrochemical series and its applications- formation of cells-
electrode and cell reactions- cell emf- chemical cells

    and concentration cells with and without transference- examples and
derivation of expressions for their emfs- liquid junction potential.

3.3 Applications of emf measurements- calculation of G.H,S and
equilibrium constants- determination of pH using quinhydrone and glass

   electrodes- potentiometric titrations.

3.4 Applications of concentration cells- determination of valency of ions-
transport number- equilibrium constant- solubility product- activity

   coefficients of electrolytes.

3.5 Polarisation- decompostion potential- overvoltage- stroage cells- lead
acid battery- mechanism of

   discharging and recharging- fuel cells.

            PAPER XIII ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY II (60Hrs)

Unit-I                                          (15 Hrs)


1.1 Polarography - Principle - concentration polarization - dropping
mercury electrode - advantages and disadvantages - convection, mogration
and diffusion currents

   ilkovic equation (derivation not required) and significance -
experimental assembly - electrodes- capillary solution - current voltage
curve - oxygen wave - influence of temperature
   and agitation on diffusion layer - polarography as an analytical tool in
quantitative and qualitative analysis. Amperometry - basic principles and
uses.

1.2 Polarometry - principle - instrumentation - comparison of strengths of
acids - estimation of glucose.

Unit-II                                         (25 Hrs)

2.1 NMR spectroscopy - principle of nuclear magnetic resonance - basic
instrumentation shielding mechanism - chemical shift - number of signals -
spin - spin coupling and coupling constant-

   splitting of signals - NMR spectrum of simple organic compounds.

2.2 Mass spectroscopy - Basic principles of mass spectrum - molecular
peak base peak isotopic peak metastable peak their uses fragmentation -
Nitrogen rule - determination of molecular

   formulae with examples - instrumentation - mass spectrum of simple
organic compounds - identification - alcohols,aldehydes, aromatic
hydrocarbons.

2.3 X-ray methods - Bragg's equation - explanation of terms -
determination of structure of NaCl.

Unit-III                                         (20 Hrs)

3.1 Introduction to computers and its apllication in chemistry:-
introduction to computers - characteristics of a computer - types of
computers - block diagram of a digital computer.

3.2 Introduction to C- structure of a C program key terms - the art of
programming - general features of a programming language - Algorithm
flow chart 0 the character set of C data types-

    identifiers - reserved words - variables - constants - keywords - escape
- sequence type conversion C operations(basic aspects only)
      3.3 Applications of computer in chemistry - (only selected programs)
      determination of molarity, normality and molality of solutions - calculation
      of pH.




     6. PAPER XIV APPLIED CHEMISTRY II (60 HRS)

UNIT –I                                                     (15 HRS)

1.1 Milk Definition , general composition – physico – chemical changes taking
    place in milk due to boiling, pasteurization, sterilization and homogenization
    – explanation.

1.2 Components of milk – lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, ash and
    mineral matters – names and functions.

1.3 Definition and compositions of cream, butter, ghee,icecreams,stabilizer and
    emulsifier.

1.4 Milk powder, definition and need for making – manufacture of whole milk
    powder by spray drying process.




UNIT – II POLYMER CHEMISTRY AND ENVIROMENTAL CHEMISTRY
(25 HRS)

2.1 Classification of polymers – natural and synthetic – rubber, cellulose, starch,
    wool,silk - synthetic rubber, polyalkenes, acrylics, polyamides, polyesters,
    PVC polyurethane – starting materials and uses only. Number average
    molecular weight and weight average, molecular weight. Special properties
    of polymers.

2.2 Structure and compositions of hides,skins and leather.Principles of
    pretanning process.Vegetable,mineral and synthetic tanning.Chemistry of
    chrome tanning.Dyeing of leather.
2.3 Tannery effluents – Pollution and control.

UNIT – III     AGRICULTRAL CHEMISTRY                (20 HRS)

3.1 Soil – Definition , classification and properties of soil – soil water,soil oil,
    soil temperature, soil minerals, soil colloids, soil pH, soil acidity, soil
    alkalinity.
3.2 Soil fertility and its evaluatuion – buffering of soil and its effects. Soil
    formation and its reclamation.
3.3 Importance of fertilizers – examples – secondary nutrients – role on the
    growth and development compositing and manures.
3.4 Classification and examples for insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides –
    fluorine compounds, boron compounds, arsenic compounds, mercury
    compounds, lead compounds – ill effects of use of chemical fertilizers and
    insecticides.

Reference book:

  1. A Text book of Pharmaceutical chemistry - Jayashree Ghosh – S.Chand.
  2. Pharmaceutical chemistry – S.Lakshmi Sultan Chand.
  3. Pharmacology and pharmatherapeutics – R.S.Satokar – Popular Prakashan –
     Vol.I and II.
  4. Medicinal chemistry – Austosh Kar – New Age.
  5. A Text book of pharmaceutical chemistry - Bentley and Drivers.

                  ALLIED CHEMISTRY - THEORY - PAPER - I                  (90 Hrs)

      Unit-I                                          (30 Hrs)

      1.1 Chemical Bonding

          MOlecular Orbital theory - bonding , anti - bonding non-bonding
      orbitals. Bond order.M.O configuarion of H2,He2,N2,O2,F2, Diamagnetism
      and paramagnetism. VSEPR Theory - shapes of H2O,NH3,

          CH4,BrF3,IF5 and IF7 molecules.

      1.2 Hydrides

          Classification, preparation and properties.
1.3 Diborane         : preparation, properties and structure. Preparation
and chemistry of NaBH4, Borazole and BN.

   Interhalogen compounds: ICl,BrF3,IF5 and IF7. Preparation, properties ,
hybridisation and shapes. Basic properties of Iodine.

1.4 Preparation, properties, uses and structures of Peracids of Sulphur.
Preparation and uses of sodium hydro sulphite, sodium thio sulphate.

1.5 Metals: General methods of extraction of metals. Types of ores -
methods of ore dressing,reduction methods - types of refining -

   electrolytic , Van Arkel and Zone refining. Extraction of Uranium and
Thorium. Role of Carbon in the properties of steel heat treatment

   of steel - alloy steels and their uses.

Unit-II                                       (30Hrs)

2.1 Energetics : Types of systems, reversible and irreversible processes,
isothermal and adiabatic processes and spontaneous processes.

    Statements of First law. Need for the II law of thermodynamics and
statements. Carnot's cycle and efficiency of a heat engine.

    Entropy and its significance. Entropy changes in physical
trasformations. Free energy change and its importance. (no derivation)

   Conditions for spontaneity in terms of S and G. Relationship between
changes in G, H,T and S.

2.2 Solutions: Liquid in liquid type - Raoult's law for ideal solutions.
Positive and negative deviation from Raoult's law - reasons

   and examples, fractional distillation and Azeotropic distillation.

2.3 Chromatography: Priciples and applications of column paper and thin
layer chromatography.
Unit-III                                        (30Hrs)

3.1 Covalent Bond: Orbital overlap hybridisation and geometry of CH4 C2
H4, C2 H2 and C6 H6 molecules. Inductive effect, electometric effect,

   mesomeric effect and steric effects-examples and explanation.

3.2 Stereoisomerism : Elements of symmetry-symmetry and
asymmetry_cause of optical activity. Isomerism of tartaric acid-
recimisation and resolution.

    Geometrical isomerism of Maleic and Fumaric acids. Keto-enol
tautomerism. Conformers of n-butane with brief explanation.

3.3 Aromatic Compounds : Aromaticity-Huckel's rule- Mechanisms of
nitration, halogenation, alkylation, acylation and sulphonation of benzene.
Properties

   and structural elucidation of naphthalene- Haworth's synthesis.

3.4 Preparation and uses of CHCl3,Saccharin,Aspartic acid and Freon.

           ALLIED CHEMISTRY-PAPER II                (90Hrs)

Unit-I                                       (30Hrs)

1.1 Carbohydrates:Classification- properties of glucose and fructose-
discussion about open-chain and ring structures of glucose and fructose.

    properties and structures of sucrose. Properties and uses of starch and
cellulose and their derivatives.

1.2 Aminoacids : Classification. Preparation and properties of alpha
amino acids. Peptide synthesis. Classification of proteins by physical

   properties and biological functions. Biological functions of peptide
harmones, protein harmones. Elementary ideas about RNA and DNA.

1.3 Chemotherapy : Preparation, uses and mode of action of sulpha drugs-
Prontosil, Sulphadiazine and Sulphafurazole. Uses of Pencillin,
    chloramphenicaol and streptomycin. Definition and one example each
for-analgesics, antipyretics, tranquilisers, sedatives, hypnotics,

   local anesthetics and general anesthetics.

   Cause and treatment of - Diabetes, cancer and AIDS.

Unit II                                         (30Hrs)

2.1 Co-ordination chemistry : Nomenclature. Theories of Werner and
Pauling. Examples and effects of chelation. Ionisation isomerism

   Chemistry of EDTA, hemoglobin and chlorophyll.

2.2 Industrial chemistry : Fuel gases-Natural gas, water gas, semi-water
gas, carburetted water gas, producer gas, oil gas(composition

   and uses only). Synthesis, properties and uses of silicones.

2.3 Fertilisers : Preparation and uses of urea, ammoniun sulphate,
superphosphate, triple superphosphate and NPK fertilizer.

2.4 Environmental chemistry: Pollution of air, water and soil by
chemicals and chemical industries- Sources consequences and controlling
methods.

Unit-III                                        (30Hrs)

3.1 Photochemistry : Grotthus-Draper's law and Stark- Einstien's law of
photochemical equivalence. Quantum yield. Examples for photochemical
reactions-

   Hydrogen- Chlorine reaction, photosynthesis. Phosophorescence,
Fluorescence,Chemiluminescence and photosensitisation -definitions with
examples.

3.2 Phase rule : Phase rule and the definition of terms in it. Application of
phase rule to water system. Reduced phase rule and its applications
         to a simple eutectic system (Pb-Ag). Freezing mixtures.

      3.3 Electrochemistry : Ionic equilibria- strong and weak electrolytes,
      acid- base, common ion effect, pH, buffer solutions and buffer action in
      biological

         systems and salt hydrolysis. (definitions, examples and equations only).
      (No derivations)

          Galvanic cells : EMF and its origin, standard electrode potentials,
      reference electrodes(NHE and Calomel) Electrochemical series and its
      applications.

         Formation of standard cells, cell reaction and calculation of EMFs.
      Lead storage cell. Corrosion and its prevention.


    MAJOR CHEMISTRY PRACTICALS

PRACTICAL I INORGANIC QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS AND
PREPARATION


1.Analysis of a mixture containing two cations and two anions,one of which will
be an interfering ion.Semimicro methods using the conventional scheme may
be adopted.


Reactions of the following anions to be studied:
carbonate,sulphide,sulphate,fluoride,
Chloride,bromide,nitrate,oxalate,phosphate,borate,*iodide,*arsenite,*chromate,
*sulphite,thiosulphite*,nitrite*,acetate* and tartrate*

Reactions of the following cations to be studied :
lead,silver*,mercury*,copper*,tin.
Antimony,cadmium,bismuth,aluminium,*chromium,iron,manganese,zinc,
cobalt, nickel,calcium,strontium,barium,magnesium and ammonium.
2.Preparation of the following inorganic compounds:

1.Ferrous ammonium sulphate 2.Manganous sulphate 3.Microcosmic salt
4.Tetrammine copper(II)sulphate 5.*Sodium thiosulphate and6.*Pottasium
trioxalatochromate(III)*.not to be given for examination.


               PRACTICAL II VOLUMETRIC ESTIMATION

Acidimetry

   1. Estimation of sodium hydroxide-standard sodium carbonate.
   2. Estimation of borax-std.Sodium carbonate
   3. *Estimation of bicarbonate and carbonate in a mixture

   Permanganometry

   1.Estimation of oxalic acid-std-Mohrs salt or ferrous sulphate.
   2.Estimation of calcium
   3.*Estimation of sodium nitrite-std.oxalic acid.
   4.*Estimation of ferric ion.
   5.*Estimation of % of manganese in pyrolusite.

   Iodimetry

   1.Estimation of arsenious oxide

   Odometry

   1.Estimation of copper-std.Potassium dichromate.
   2.Estimation of Potassium dichromate-std.Copper sulphate.

   Complexemetry

   1.Estimation of zinc or magnesium using EDTA.
   2.Estimation of zinc using potassium ferro cyanide.
   3.*Estimation of temporary and permanent hardness of water.
  Dichrometry

  1.Estimation of ferrous ion using diphenyl amine/N-Phenylanthranilic acid as
  indicator.
  Precipitation titration.
  1.Estimation of chloride in neutral medium.
   *Need not to be given for examination.

PRACTICAL - III – PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY

  1. Distribution Law:
        a) Determination of partition coefficient of iodine between carbon tetra
            chloride and water.
        b) *Association factor of benzoic acid between water and benzene.
        c) *Determination of the equilibrium constant of the reaction KI+I2—
            KI3.

  2. KINETICS:
            Determination of the rate constant of the following reactions.

        a) Acid catalysed hydrolysis of ester.(methyl or ethyl acetate)
        b) Reaction between KI and K2S2O8.
        c) Iodination of acetone.

  3. Determination of molecular weight of solute—using naphthalene and
     biphenyl as solvents.

  4. Heterogeneous Equilibria:
           Phenol- water system – CST

  5.      a) Effect of impurity –2% NaCl on phenol
             -Determination of concentration of the given solution.
        a) Determination of the transition temperature of the given salt hydrate.
            Na2S2O3.5H2O, CH3COONa.3H2O, SrCl2.6H2O

 6. ELECTROCHEMISTRY:
    Conductivity:

       a) Determination of cell constant and equivalent conductance of
          solutions of two different concentrations.
      b) Conductometric titration of strong acid Vs strong base.

         *Need not be given in examination.


            PRACTICAL IV- (A)GRAVIMETRIC ESTIMATION

1.Estimation of sulphate as barium sulphate.
2.Estimation of barium as barium sulphate.
3.Estimation of barium as barium chromate.
4.Estimation of lead as lead chromate.
5.Estimation of silver as silver chloride.
6.*Estimation of calcium as calcium oxalate monohydrate.
7.*Estimation of nickel as DMG complex.
8.*Estimation of zinc of magnesium as oxinate.
*Need not tobe given for the examination.



PRACTICAL IV-(B) ORGANIC ANALYSIS AND PREPARATION

1.Organic preparations involving

a)Oxidation (benzaldehyde to benzoic acid).
b)Hydrolysis (methyl salicylate or ethyl benzoate to the acid).
c)Nitration (metadinitro benzene or picric acid).
d)Halogenation (parabromo acetanilide from acetanilide)
e)Diazotisation (methyl orange)
f)Acylation (benzoylation of betanaphthol)
g)Esterification.

2.Organic analysis: Reaction of the following functional groups:
Aldehyde,ketone,carboxylic acid(mono and di),ester,carbohydrate
(reducing and non reducing),phenol,aromatic primary amine,amide
nitrocompound,diamide and anilide.Analysis of organic compounds
containing one functional group and characterization with a derivative.


3.Determination of boiling point and melting point-demonstration
   experiments.
                        Allied Chemistry Practicals

Volumetric Analysis                                                 Marks:50

1.Estimation of sodium hydroxide using Std.Carbonate.
2.Estimation of hydrochloric acid using Std.oxalic acid.
3.Estimation of oxalic acid using Std. sulphuric acid.
4.Estimation of borax using Std. sodium carbonate.
5.*Estimation of temporary and permanent hardness of water.
6.Estimation of ferrous sulphate using Sta.Mohr salt solution.
7.Estimation of oxalic acid using ferrous sulphate solution.
8.Estimation of KMnO4 using Std.sodium hydroxide.
9.*Estimation of Zinc using EDTA- Std.MgSO4.

Organic Analysis

Reactions of aldehyde (Aromatic),*ketone (aliphatic and
aromatic),carbohydrate,carboxylic acid(mono and dicarboxylic),phenol, aromatic
primary amine,amide and diamide.Systematic analysis of organic compounds
containing one functional group and characterization by confirmatory tests or
derivatives.

* Need not be given for examination.

				
DOCUMENT INFO