Measuring R&D, for example, notes that the models of innovation that underlie the data are "increasingly unrepresentative of the whole of the R&D enterprise," omitting factors such as "the growth of the service sector, the growing . . . role of small firms in R&D, the shift in funding from manufacturing R&D to health-related R&D, changes in geographic location, and the globalization of R&D." Further, some scholars are describing new modes of "open innovation" occurring outside corporate R&D departments, and indeed often outside firms entirely.
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