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Other realists showed that Soviet conventional-military superiority was a myth, and that a Soviet attack against the West was unlikely to occur and even less likely to succeed.1 Neoconservatives greeted the end of the cold war by proclaiming the "end of history" and imagining a long era of benign hegemony, while realists correctly foresaw that it would simply unleash new forms of security competition. Realists like Zbigniew Brzezinski and Brent Scowcroft also argued that replacing America's traditional balance-of-power approach in the Persian Gulf with "dual containment" was a strategic blunder that would make it harder to protect U.S. interests in that vital region, a warning that subsequent events have vindicated.2 Although realists recognized that U.S. primacy could have stabilizing effects on great-power relations, they also warned that overly bellicose policies would encourage anti-Americanism around the globe.
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