The DMFCs currently on the market, however, have limitations. For example, Nafion (a sulfonated tetrafluoroethylene copolymer), the material currently used for the electrolyte, is expensive and - even more important - is permeable to methanol, allowing some of the fuel to seep across the center of the fuel cell. This lowers the cell's efficiency because the fuel is not available for the reactions that generate electricity.
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