Child care workers include any adult caring for a child before entering kindergarten, including preschool teachers and assistant teachers of infants, toddlers, and preschoolers (Women's Bureau, 1997). In the National Child Care Staffing study, Whitebook, Howes, and Phillips (1988) conducted observations and interviews in 227 child care centers in five major metropolitan areas of the United States to investigate the centers' level of quality. The recommendations from Whitebook, Howes, and Phillips included raising child care staff wages; promoting higher education for all staff members; adopting appropriate state standards to ensure adequate ratios, staff training, and compensation; developing industry standards to ensure the above criteria; and promoting public awareness of the importance of early childhood educators.
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