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Chapter 8_ Work and Machines

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Chapter 8: Work and Machines
Lesson Plan
Section 1: Work and Power
________________________________________________________________________

Pacing
1 Block = 45 minutes
Regular Schedule:    with Lab(s): 3 Days             without Lab(s): 2 Days
Block Schedule:      with Lab(s): 1 1/2 Days               without Lab(s): 1 Day

Objectives
1. Determine when work is being done on an object.
2. Calculate the amount of work done on an object.
3. Explain the difference between work and power.

Standards Covered
Unifying Concepts and Processes (UCP)
3. Change, constancy, and measurement

Science as Inquiry (SAI)
1. Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry

Science and Technology (ST)
2. Understandings about science and technology

History and Nature of Science (HNS)
3. History of Science



Block 1
Focus 5 minutes
        Bellringer, ATE p. 188. On the board, give students the following task: Select
        the activities below that require the least amount of work. Write your answers in
        your ScienceLog.
        carrying heavy books home
        reading a 300-page novel
        skiing for 1 hour
        lifting a 45 kg mass
        holding a steel beam in place for 3 hours
        jacking up a car

Holt Science & Technology: Physical Science                  Chapter 8 Lesson Plans   1
        Remind students to explain what work is being done in each situation.

Motivate 5 minutes
        Discussion, ATE p. 188. Discuss with students the use of the words work and
        power in everyday language. Identify uses that do not match the scientific
        definition of work, and discuss why they are different. Remind students that work
        is discussed in this section in terms of physically moving objects, not in terms of
        energy expenditure.

Teach 30 minutes
        Reading Strategy, “Prediction Guide,” ATE p. 189. Before students read the
        section, ask them whether they agree with the following statements:
        1. Any time a force is applied to an object, work is being done.
        2. Power, work, and force are the same.
        3. More power means doing work faster.

        Teaching Transparency 229, “Work or Not Work?” Use this transparency to
        illustrate four activities, and describe them in terms of direction of force and
        direction of motion.

        Teaching Transparency 230, “Work Depends on Force and Distance.” This
        transparency explains the equation for work by using the example of someone
        lifting a barbell.

        MathBreak, “Working It Out,” p. 190. Ask students to practice two work-
        equation problems. These items support STANDARD UCP 3.


Block 2
Extend 30 minutes
        Directed Reading Worksheet 8, Section 1. This worksheet focuses
        students’ attention on the critical information in the section.

        QuickLab, “More Power to You,” p. 191. This activity gives students further
        practice in calculating work and power, and it emphasizes the difference between
        the two concepts. This lab supports STANDARDS UCP 3 and SAI 1.

Close 15 minutes
        Quiz, ATE p. 191. Students demonstrate knowledge of STANDARD UCP 3
        by answering three quiz questions about work and power.

        Alternative Assessment, “Concept Mapping,” ATE p. 191. Have students
        create a concept map using the scientific definitions of the words work and power.



Holt Science & Technology: Physical Science                   Chapter 8 Lesson Plans   2
Block 3
Lab Day 45 minutes
        Discovery Lab, “A Powerful Workout,” p. 662. In this lab, students calculate
        the work and power involved in climbing a flight of stairs at different speeds.

       Datasheets for LabBook, Datasheet 27, “A Powerful Workout.” This
       blackline master makes progressing through the lab easier for students and
grading        easier for you.

Additional Resources
        Inquiry Labs, “Get an Arm and an Egg Up,” Lab 19. Students work in teams to
        design and construct a hydraulic arm that will lift an egg, move it to one side, and
        lower it.

        Math and More, ATE p. 190. Groups of students select a sport, discuss different
        ways work is done in that sport, and estimate how much work is done in an
        average game.

        Self-Check, p. 189. Students answer one question about work.

        Review, p. 191. Evaluate students’ mastery of STANDARDS UCP 3 and SAI 1
        by having students answer three questions about work and power.

       Science Puzzlers, Twisters & Teasers, Worksheet 8. These worksheets offer
puzzles, games, and logic problems that use vocabulary and concepts from the
       chapter.

        Holt Anthology of Science Fiction, “Clean Up Your Room!” by Laura Anne
        Gilman, p. 198. A young computer programmer writes a computer program to
        manage her household affairs, but her plan goes strangely awry.

        Holt Anthology of Science Fiction, Think About It! “Clean Up Your
        Room!” These questions encourage students to really think about what they’ve
        read.

        Math Skills for Science Worksheet 51, “Work and Power.” This worksheet
        gives students practice calculating work and power in real-life applications.

       Physical Science Guided Reading Audio CD Program, Disc 8, Tracks 1–2.
The audio reading of the chapter provides essential chapter content for ESL
       students, auditory learners, and struggling readers.

        NSTA sciLINKS: Work and Power, sciLINKS number HSTP180. Students
        research Internet resources related to work and power.

Holt Science & Technology: Physical Science                   Chapter 8 Lesson Plans   3
        CNN Presents Science in the News: Multicultural Connections,
        Segment 7, “Who Built the Egyptian Pyramids?” Students view a video segment
        about the building techniques and lifestyles of the people who built the Egyptian
        pyramids.

       CNN Presents Science in the News: Multicultural Connections Worksheet 7,
“Who Built the Egyptian Pyramids?” This worksheet reinforces  concepts from CNN
Presents Science in the News Multicultural Connections, video Segment 7.

        CNN Presents Science in the News: Science, Technology & Society,
        Segment 13, “Snake Robots.” Students view a video segment about robots that
        are designed to mimic the movements of snakes by using many motorized joints.
        This technology has many uses, including finding trapped people in collapsed
        buildings, retrieving samples from toxic waste dumps, and retrieving satellites in
        space.

        CNN Presents Science in the News: Science, Technology & Society,
        Worksheet 13, “Snake Robots.” This worksheet reinforces concepts from CNN
        Presents Science in the News: Science, Technology & Society, video Segment 13.

        go.hrw.com For worksheets and other teaching aids related to this chapter,
        visit the HRW Web site and type in the keyword: HSTWRK




Holt Science & Technology: Physical Science                  Chapter 8 Lesson Plans   4

				
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