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Emotions

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					Emotions
     EMOTION
A notoriously slippery
   thing to define.
             EMOTION
A state of arousal involving:
   Facial and bodily changes
   Brain activation
   Cognitive appraisals
   Subjective feelings
   Tendencies toward action
   Shaped by cultural rules
         Primary Emotions
Emotions considered to be universal and biologically
based, usually thought to include:
    Fear
    Anger
    Sadness
    Joy
    Surprise
    Disgust
    Contempt
     Secondary emotion
Emotions that develop with cognitive maturity
and vary across individuals and cultures.
For example:
   Love
   Jealousy
   Suspicion
   Envy
   Shame
   Guilt
   Loneliness
    Universal Expressions
         of Emotion
Facial expressions for primary emotions are
universal.
Even members of remote cultures can
recognize facial expressions in people who
are foreign to them.

Infants are able to read parental expressions.
Facial expressions can generate same
expressions in others, creating mood
contagion.
 The Brain and Emotion
The amygdala
 Responsible for assessing threat.

 Damage to the amygdala results in
 abnormality in processing fear.
 The Brain and Emotion
Left prefrontal cortex
 Involved in motivation to approach others.
 Damage to this area results in loss of joy.
Right prefrontal cortex
 Involved in withdrawal and escape.
 Damage to this area results in excessive
 mania and euphoria.
Hormones and Emotion
When experiencing an intense emotion,
two hormones are released.
   Epinephrine
   Norepinephrine

Results in increased alertness and
arousal.
At high levels, can create sensation of
being out of control emotionally.
  Culture and Emotion
Culture determines what people feel angry, sad, lonely,
happy, ashamed lonely, happy, ashamed or disgusted
about.
Some cultures have words for specific emotions.
    E.g., German
            schadenfreudeis = enjoyment taken from the
            misfortune of someone else.
Some cultures don’t have words for emotions that seem
universal to others.
    E.g., Tahitian
            no word for sadness
   Emotional Regulation
Display rules
  When, where, and how emotions are to be expressed or
  when they should be squelched.

Emotion work
  Acting out an emotion we do not feel or trying to create
  the right emotion for the occasion.

Body language
  The nonverbal signals of body movement, posture, and
  gaze that people constantly express.
 Emotion and Gender
Women recall emotional events more
intensely and vividly than do men.

Men experience emotional events more
intensely than do women.
Conflict is physiologically more
upsetting for men than for women.
   Possible Reasons
Males’ autonomic nervous system is
more reactive than females’.

Men are more likely to rehearse
angry thoughts, thus maintaining
anger.
Women are more likely to ruminate,
thus maintaining depression.
   Sensitivity to others’
        Emotions
Factors influencing one’s ability to “read”
emotional signals:
– The sex of the sender and receiver.

– How well the sender and receiver know each other.

– How expressive the sender is.

– Who has the power.

– Stereotypes and expectations.
 Emotion and Gender
Men and women appear to differ in
the types of everyday events that
provoke anger.
Women become angry over issues
related to their partners’ disregard.
Men become angry over damage to
property or problems with strangers
   Emotion and Gender
Women work hard at appearing warm,
happy, and making sure others are
happy.

Men work hard at persuading others
they are stern, aggressive, and
unemotional.
    Factors Influencing
  Emotional Expressiveness
Gender roles

Cultural norms

The specific situation
 “Let It Out” or “Bottle It Up”?
Despite pop-psych views that anger
should be expressed rather than bottled
up, research shows that expressing anger
does not get rid of it; expressing anger
often prolongs it.
                  Anger
• In our society, anger is viewed as an
  immature or uncivilized response to
  frustration, threat, violation, or loss of
  control.
• Keeping calm, coolheaded, or turning the
  other cheek is considered more socially
  acceptable.
• People tend to express their anger either
  passively or aggressively.
                  Passive Anger
• Secretive behavior, such as resentments that are expressed
  behind people’s backs, giving the silent treatment or under the
  breath mutterings, avoiding eye contact, putting people down,
  gossiping, anonymous complaints, stealing, and conning.

• Manipulation, such as provoking people to aggression and then
  patronizing them, provoking aggression but staying on the sidelines,
  emotional blackmail, false tearfulness, using a third party to convey
  negative feelings, withholding money or resources.

• Dispassion, such as giving the cold shoulder or phony smiles,
  looking cool, sitting on the fence while others sort things out.

• Evasiveness, such as turning your back in a crisis, avoiding conflict.
                    Aggressive Anger
•   Threats, such as frightening people by saying how you could harm them, their property or their
    prospects.

•   Hurtfulness, such as physical violence, verbal abuse, using foul language.

•   Destructiveness, such as destroying property or objects, harming animals.

•   Bullying, such as threatening people directly, persecuting, pushing or shoving shouting, playing
    on people’s weaknesses.
•
•   Unjust blaming, such as accusing other people for your own mistakes, blaming people for your
    own feelings, making general accusations.

•   Selfishness, such as ignoring other’s needs, not responding to requests for help.

•   Vengeance, such as being over-punitive.

•   Unpredictability, such as explosive rages over minor frustrations, attacking indiscriminately,
    inflicting harm on others for the sake of it.
      Anger Management Tips


• Take a "time out"
  – Counting to 10 before reacting
  – Leaving the situation
• Do something physically exerting
  – Go for a brisk walk or a run, swim, lift weights or shoot
    baskets.
• Find ways to calm and soothe yourself.
  – Deep-breathing exercises, visualize a relaxing scene,
    or repeat a calming word or phrase to yourself, such
    as "take it easy."
  – Listen to music, paint, write a journal or do yoga.
    Assertive Communication
• Use "I" statements when describing the
  problem to avoid criticizing or placing
  blame.
  – For instance:
  – "I'm upset you didn't help with the housework
    this evening"
  – Instead of:
  – "You should have helped with the housework"
            Other Remedies
• Learn to forgive
• Use humor
• Keep an anger journal or log
  – Will help to identify situations that set you off
    and to monitor your reactions.
• Practice relaxation techniques
    The Complex Emotion of Anger
•   Angered        Insulted
•   Outraged       Furious
•   Offended       Resented
•   Exasperated    Displeasured
•   Disappointed   Animosity
•   Hostile        Hatred
•   Infuriated     Enraged
•   Outraged       Inflamed
•   Provoked       Exasperated
•   Irritated      Annoyed
•   Antagonized    Bitter
    The Complex State of Joy

Happy          Amused
Delighted      Euphoric
Enthusiastic   Triumphant
Cheerful       Eager
Jubilant       Hopeful
Jovial         Elated
Exhilarated    Pleasured
Excited        Joyful
Ecstatic       Glad
Satisfied      Thrilled

				
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posted:5/28/2010
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