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					             FutureGen
    Zero Emissions Energy
      Plant of the Future




Clean Coal Technology Foundation of Texas
                     July 1, 2004
                     Austin, Texas



             C. Lowell Miller, Ph.D.
       Office of Coal Fuels and Industrial Power Systems
                   U.S. Department of Energy
                                                           1
                             FutureGen
              What is the FutureGen prototype?
                                 A global effort to build the world’s
                                 first zero emission power plant:
                                   A Government/Industry cost shared
                                    partnership
                                   Pioneer advanced hydrogen
                                    production from coal
                                   Emit virtually no air pollutants
                                   Capture and permanently sequester
                                    carbon dioxide
 Other nations invited to join in this research project (~1 billion dollars over
  the next ten years)
 FutureGen will be an international test facility for breakthrough
   technologies that addresses feasibility of zero emissions
 U.S. Department of Energy                                                    2
                 Tomorrow’s Hydrogen
         Why is Hydrogen from Coal Important?
                             95% of U.S. hydrogen comes from natural gas
                             Future “Hydrogen Economy” must have more
                              diversified sources
                             Over longer term, hydrogen will likely come from
                              renewables, nuclear power, fusion, etc.

                               But coal can also be a major feedstock
                             Most abundant U.S. fossil fuel (250-yr supply); if
                              transportation fuel today was hydrogen, potential for
                              additional 1.3 billion tons coal per year; by 2025 that
                              addition could grow to 2.4 billion tons
                             Hydrogen from coal for transportation enhances
                              energy/economic security
                             Can be environmentally clean source of hydrogen
U.S. Department of Energy                                                         3
                            Climate Change
                Why is Sequestration Important?

                                        Since the world relies on fossil fuels
Carbon Management Paths                  (~ 88%), sequestration is an
   Switch to low- & no-carbon fuels     important option
    Renewables, Nuclear, Natural Gas
                                        May be only option that removes
   Increase energy efficiency
                                         enough carbon to stabilize CO2
     Demand-Side & Supply Side
                                         concentrations in atmosphere
   Sequester carbon
                                        May prove to be lowest cost carbon
                                         management option


     The FutureGen plant will be a first-of-its-kind project by the U.S.
     electric power industry to prove that large-scale sequestration is
     safe and practicable, and one that encompasses all three carbon
     management paths.
U.S. Department of Energy                                                         4
  Project Performance Objectives
      Design, construct and operate a full – scale prototype
       plant (integrated with CO2 sequestration) that
       produces electricity and hydrogen with essentially
       zero emissions
      Sequester at least 90 percent of CO2 initially and 100
       percent sequestered eventually
      Prove the effectiveness, safety, and permanence of
       CO2 sequestration
      Establish technology standards and protocols for CO2
       measuring, monitoring, and verification
      Validate the engineering, economic, and
       environmental viability of advanced coal-based, zero
       emission technologies for commercial readiness in
       2020
U.S. Department of Energy                                       5
                Features of the Project

 Coal-fueled gasification process that produces
    electricity and hydrogen--275 MWe [net equivalent
    output]

 Operational rate of 1 million tons per year of CO2
    captured and sequestered

 Incorporates advanced technologies that will be
    competitive in future zero emission energy plants

 Full-scale integrated operations
U.S. Department of Energy                               6
                            Project Concept
      Refinery                     FutureGen
                   Hydrogen                        Electricity




Oil                                     CO2

                                     And/Or




           Enhanced Oil Recovery               Geological Sequestration
U.S. Department of Energy                                                 7
   FutureGen Conversion Process
                   Converting Coal into Gas is Key

                               Up to 99%+ of Clear Skies pollutants
                                (sulfur/nitrogen/mercury) can be cleaned from
Oxygen                          gasified coal
(from air)                     Hydrogen is a primary product
                               Carbon gases are in concentrated form for
                                easier capture and sequestration


 Coal                                   Hydrogen + Carbon Gases (CO2 , CO)
 +H2O
                              No coal-to-gas plant in the world today is configured
                              to optimize hydrogen production or to capture
                              carbon. The FutureGen prototype plant would be the
                              world’s first.
  U.S. Department of Energy                                                       8
                 Technology Challenge

Traditional Advanced Technology   Emerging Research Inventions
   Cryogenic Separation           O2 Membranes
   Amine Scrubbers                Hydrogen Membranes
   Amine Scrubbers                “Clathrate” CO2 Separation
   Gas Stream Clean-Up            “Dirty” Shift Reactor
   Syngas Turbine                 Hydrogen Turbine
   Fuel Cell ($4,000/kW)          SECA Fuel Cell ($400/kW design)
   EOR based                      Sequestration Technology
                                    (including in-situ CO2 monitoring)
   Existing Gasifier              Advanced Transport Reactor
   System Integration             “First of a Kind” System Integration
   Plant Controls                 “Smart” Dynamic Plant Controls &
                                   CO2 Management Systems
U.S. Department of Energy                                                9
                      FutureGen Systems
        Oxygen                Gasification                  Gas Cleaning

                                                                  Gas
                                                                Stream
                                                                Cleanup
       Oxygen
      Membrane                                                                                              Power
                                                                                                         High Efficiency Turbine

                                  Gasifier

        Coal                                                                                Fuel Cell
                                                                                                                             Process
                                                                                                                            Heat/Steam
                                                                                                              Electricity
                                                                                     H2
    Fuel + H2O
                                Products/
                               Byproducts                 CO2                              Liquids
                                                                  H2/CO2                  Conversion
                                Utilization                                                                Fuels/Chemicals
                                                                Separation
                                                                                                        Fuels and
         CO2                                                                                            Chemicals
     Sequestration                             Figure 2




                                              Coal Seams          Saline Reservoir
                      Enhanced Oil Recovery

U.S. Department of Energy                                                                                                          10
                            FutureGen
           Research Initiative - Status

 February 27, 2003 - Presidential announcement
       • Received strong support from states, industry, international
         community and some environmentalists

 April 2003 – Initial project plan developed
 October 2003 - Completed DOE affirmation of Mission Need for
  FutureGen (zero-emission coal option)
 FutureGen Program Plan submitted to Congress
 Fiscal Year 2004 funding of $9 million appropriated
 Plan to enter into negotiations with industry in FY 2004


U.S. Department of Energy                                           11
      Project Schedules --- Key Phases


                              Supporting Research*
Major Project
                              Project Definition
 Milestones                   &Site Characterization

                                                       Design / Construction
                                                                                                 Follow-on
                                                                         Shakedown / Operation   Testing


 Fiscal Year 2003             2005          2007        2009       2011        2013     2015




* Supporting research includes research embedded in the FutureGen project and additional
research in FE’s carbon sequestration, IGCC, turbines, and fuel cell R&D programs.
  U.S. Department of Energy                                                                                  12
                                       Project Schedule
                                      (FY)2004   (FY)2005   (FY)2006   (FY)2007   (FY)2008   (FY)2009   (FY)2010   (FY)2011   (FY)2012   (FY)2013   (FY)2014    (FY)2015




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                                  Jul.
 BP0 – Project Definition,
 Baselining and NEPA
 NEPA (EIS)
 Candidate Sites Identified
 Site Selection
 Permitting
 Site Monitoring & Characterization
 Technology Assessment
 Preliminary Design                                                                      FE R&D Advanced Technology
                                                                                              (base plant design)
                                 Cooperative Agreement
                                        Award
 BP1 – Plant Detailed Design,
 Procurement & Construction

 Detailed Design
 Procurement
 Construction
   Base Plant
   Sequestration (Phase 1)


 BP2 - Shakedown, Full Scale
 Operation, & Sequestration

                                                                                                                                           Continuous Power
 Shake-down and Start-up                                                                                                                   First Plant Revenue

 Full-Scale Operation
 (inc. sequestration)
 Design & Procurement                                                   NEPA Record
                                                                         of Decision
 Construction                                                                                                                                                                 ( to
                                                                                                                                                                              2018)
 BP3 – Site Monitoring                                                                                                               Phase 2
                                                                                                                                   Sequestration



                                      BP0 $61MM                                     BP1 $571MM                                   BP2 $308MM               BP3 $10MM




U.S. Department of Energy                                                                                                                                                             13
        Seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships
             Established in Five Geographic Regions
                                                                 Cost Share 39%
                            GP
                                                                                       Representing:
                        Great Plains                                   DOE
                                                                      $11.1M           140 Organizations
                          Region
                                                                                       2 Canadian Provinces
                                       Saskatchewan   Manitoba
                                                                 Partnership           3 Indian Nations
                                                                   $7.0M               33 States
                                                      7
                                6



   WC
West Coast                                                                                              MW
               5                                                               1
 Region                                                          2                                    Midwest
                                                                                                      Region



                                        4
                                                                                   3           SE
                                                                                            Southeast
                                                                                             Region

                                           SW
                                        Southwest
                                         Region


    U.S. Department of Energy                                                                                   14
           Potential For International
                 Participation
   Participation on a cost-shared basis can be either on the industry
    side or on the government side.

   Interest in participation from Carbon Sequestration Leadership
    Forum members encouraged
   Mechanisms for participation can be through existing, modified,
    or new international agreements or protocols

   Benefits and information negotiable depending on extent of cost-
    shared participation.

   FutureGen International Participation Prospectus

   Benefits to worldwide use of coal is enormous if zero emissions
    coal option is proven and accepted.
U.S. Department of Energy                                                15
                             FutureGen
                  Near-Term Next Steps

 Begin Environmental (NEPA) process for project
 Begin development of site selection criteria
 Complete selection process for industry Consortium

 Once cooperative agreement in place with Consortium:

         Develop test scope for validating FutureGen
         Assess cutting-edge technology readiness
         Site characterization, evaluation and selection
         Start preliminary design work
         Conduct permitting activities


 U.S. Department of Energy                                  16
                            Summary Remarks

 FutureGen is a key research step towards proving the
  feasibility of a zero-emission coal option.
 The goals are very challenging and it will collectively
  require our best minds and resources to meet these goals.
 The cooperation and support of all stakeholders
  (government, industry, environmental, NGO’s and
  international) will be needed for FutureGen to be
  successful and accepted.
 The potential benefits of a zero-emission coal option are
  enormous with respect to energy, environmental and
  economic security.

U.S. Department of Energy                                     17
Web Sites For Additional Information

   GENERAL
   www.fe.doe.gov
   www.netl.doe.gov
   www.eia.doe.gov
   www.epa.gov
   www.climatescience.gov




   SPECIFIC
   http://fossil.energy.gov/techline/tl_cslf_print.html
   http://fossil.energy.gov/techline/tl_futuregen1_print.html
   http://fossil.energy.gov/events/speeches/03_sec_futuregen_022703.shtml
   http://www.netl.doe.gov/coalpower/sequestration/index.html

U.S. Department of Energy                                                   18

				
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