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					                                         Questionnaire – Part A


                                         Pavement Drainage



About the Questionnaire

This questionnaire is designed to be reasonably quick to answer. Some questions are answered by
ticking boxes. Please tick more than one box, if relevant. There are some write-in parts, too. You
can answer electronically, by using the TAB-key to move to the fill-in areas. Or you can print out
the questionnaire and fill in.
The questions are meant to cover all pavements with an asphaltic surfacing, whether they are coun-
try roads, suburban streets or major motorways/autoroutes/freeways.

The questionnaire and any questions regarding it, should be mailed, faxed or sent to the address at
the bottom of each part of the questionnaire. We would ask that you please answer the questionnaire
before January 25, 2005.



Your details

Country

Name                       Can we contact you if we have any questions? If so, please fill in the rest of this table. Thank you.




Profession/occupation

Organisation

Office Address



Telephone

E-mail address


Please indicate your organisation‟s main work area:
   Resarch,      Consultancy,     Administration,   Maintenance, Construction, or
   other, please specify        ……………………………………………………………….

Does your answers apply for.
  General requirements? ( State level,    local level,    other, please specify
     ………………………………………………………………………………..…………….)
  Specific projects? ( Research ,    other, please specify         ….………….…..……….)


                                                             1
Surface (Runoff) drainage

     For new roads:
1.   Do you always use piped drainage systems to collect surface water (runoff)? YES / NO
     If “YES” go to Q4.
2.   If you sometimes don‟t use piped drainage systems to collect runoff, where does it then go?
            into a grass verge where it soaks away
            into a lateral gravel-filled trench
            into a lateral drainage ditch that leads to a stream or river
            into a lateral “swale” (a grass lined ditch where it gets some natural treatment soaking
           away into the ground or slowly exiting to a stream or river)
            into something else (please describe)            ...........................................................
            If you never use piped drainage systems to collect surface water (runoff), go to Q8.
3.   How do you decide whether a pavement needs a piped drainage system?
          importance of road
          amount of traffic using the road
          sensitivity of groundwater in the locality
          sensitivity of the streams/rivers/lakes in the locality
          area (rural or populated)
          another reason (please describe) .............................................................................
4.   Please give the name of the software, or the calculation method, that you use to design your
     surface drainage system.        ……………………………………………………………….
     For new and old roads:
5.   If you sometimes or always use piped drainage systems to collect surface water (runoff), what
     percentage of rainfall arrives in the drainage system?
          ..................... %,    I don‟t know.
6.   Do you know how much rain penetrates into typical pavement constructions?
         I don‟t know,      0-10%,          10-20%,         20-40%,          >40%
7.   As the pavement gets older it often has increased cracking. Have you noticed any reduction in
     runoff because the cracking allows more water to enter the pavement construction? YES / NO
     If “YES”, how much rain enters old and cracked pavements?           ......................%



Sub-surface drainage
     For new roads:
8.   Are there any requirements for the distance between the pavement construction and the ground
     water table? YES / NO
     If “YES” what is the requirement?          ………………………………………………...
9.   Do you use sub-surface drainage systems (drainage trenches and/or drainage layers)?
     YES / NO / SOMETIMES
     If “NO” go to Q31.
     If “SOMETIMES” on what basis do you decide whether they are required?
           importance of road
           amount of traffic using the road
           sensitivity of groundwater in the locality
           height of groundwater

                                                              2
            type (permeability) of subgrade soil
            the location of the road relative to ground level (i.e. embankment, cutting, at
            grade)
            another reason (please describe)           …………………………………………….
10. Does the sub-surface drainage system vary with depth to the water table? YES / NO
    If yes, what system is used when the groundwater table is at:
    - great depth beneath the road           ……………………………………………….…..
    - moderate depth beneath the road        …………………………………………………..
    - shallow depth beneath the road         …………………… …………………………….
11. Does the surface (runoff) water combine with the water in the sub-surface drainage system or
    are they always kept separate?
    ALWAYS SEPARATE/ALWAYS COMBINE/SOMETIMES COMBINE
12. What type of drain is used at the edge of the road to collect sub-surface water?
          nothing (if this is your answer, please go to Q17)
          a “French” drain (a gravel-filled trench)
          a gravel-filled trench drain with the gravel in a geosynthetic „envelope‟
          a geosynthetic „fin‟ drain (a narrow trench with rigid geotextile core)
          something else (please describe)           …………………………………………….
13. Does the edge drain have a pipe at the bottom? YES / NO
    If “YES” where does the pipe go to:
          a soakaway
          a surface water body (stream / river / lake)
          a treatment works
          somewhere else (please describe)            ……………………………………………
    For new and old roads
14. Do you monitor your sub-surface drains to check that they are working properly?
    YES / NO.
    If “YES”, how do you do this and how often?           ………………………………………
    …………………………………………………………………………………………………
15. Please describe any common problems you have with sub-surface edge drains:
            …………………………………………………………………………………………
    ………………………………………………………………………………………………….
16. Please give the name of the software, or the calculation method, that you use to design your
    sub-surface drainage.        …………………………………………………………………
    For new roads:
17. In the design of pavements; does suction affect the choice of materials used for any of the
    pavement layers? YES / NO
    If “YES”, which layers?
            surface course
            base (stabilised)
            base (unbound)
            subbase
            fill/capping layer
            other layers (please specify)      ……………………………………………………

18. In the design of pavements; does frost penetration affect the choice of materials and thick-
    nesses used for any of the pavement layers? YES / NO


                                                 3
       If “YES”, which layers?
             surface course
             base (stabilised)
             base (unbound)
             subbase
             fill/capping layer
             other layers or requirements (please specify)                           ………………………………..
19. Which test methods do you use to provide information about possible water movements in the
    pavement materials?
          No tests.
          sand equivalent
          sieve analysis
          permeability
          others (please specify)      …………………………………………
    For new roads:
20. Do you use open-graded drainage layers beneath the pavement? YES / NO / SOMETIMES
       If “NO” go to Q31.
       If “SOMETIMES” go to Q21.
       If “YES” go to Q22.
21. How do you decide whether to use an open graded drainage layer beneath the pavement?
         importance of road
         amount of traffic using the road
         sensitivity of groundwater in the locality
         height of groundwater
         type (permeability) of subgrade soil
         the location of the road relative to ground level (i.e. embankment, cutting, at grade)
         another reason (please describe)          …………………………………………….
22. Which layer in the pavement is considered to be the drainage layer?
          surface course
          base (stabilised)
          base (unbound)
          subbase
          fill/capping layer
          other layers (please specify)        ……………………………………..………….
23. What is the design permeability of the open-graded material?                            k= .......... m/s
    (or   not specified)
24. Is there a grading specification for the open-grade material? YES / NO
    Please attach a copy of a graph or table showing the specified grading.
25. Is there a design drainage time for the layer? YES / NO
    If “YES” what is this design time?           ……………………………………………....
    and how is it defined (e.g. time to 50 % saturation)    ……………………………..
26. Does the design of the drainage layer change with increased width of pavement? YES / NO.
    If “YES” how does it change (thickness, cross-fall, permeability, etc?)
           …………………………………………………………………………………….
27. Are there any mechanical performance requirements for the open-graded drainage layer mate-
    rial (e.g. stiffness, durability, etc.)? YES / NO.
    If “YES” what are these?               .......................................................................................


                                                                4
    For new and old roads:
28. Do you have any information on change of condition of the open-graded drainage layer with
    time? (e.g. infiltration of fines, reduced permeability, etc.) YES / NO
    If “YES”, please describe or give reference.          ………………………………………
    ………………………………………………………………………………………………
29. Have you evaluated bearing capacity at different water contents? YES / NO
    If yes, please give reference if possible     ……………………………………………..
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………….
30. Please give the name of the software, or the calculation method, that you use to design your
    pavement.         …………………………………….. ………………………………….….


     Modelling of Water Movements

31. Do you do modelling of water movements in pavements YES / NO
    If “YES”, please give the name of the software, or the calculation method, that you use for
    modelling.        ………………………………………………………………………….
    In “NO”, go to Q33.
32. What parameters are used to characterise the materials in modelling the water movements?
          permeability
          relative permeability
          porosity
          temperature
          grading
          retention curve
          others (please specify)       …………………………………..……………………
33. Are there any test or trial road projects in your country where hydrological aspects are or have
    been monitored? YES / NO
    If yes, please specify or give reference if possible       ………………………………….
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………….



     Finally....

34. Thank you for your help. Please could you attach a copy of any standard design cross-
    sections that you use, showing drainage arrangements? That would help us a lot.




Many thanks for your help. Please return this form to:



     Susanne Baltzer, Danish Road Institute, Elisagaardsvej 7, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark.

                     Tel.: + 45 4630 7132, Fax +45 4630 7105; email: sub@vd.dk



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