Navigating the product safety certification process for solid-state by xzz19988


									lighting | safEty cErtificatioN

Navigating the product safety certification
process for solid-state lighting products
With proper planning, it is possible to efficiently navigate the testing and certification waters and
launch high-quality LED products into the rapidly changing lighting market, writes TODD STRAKA .

        roduct safety compliance is a                                                                        participate in the NRTL’s follow-
                                               Standard                       Product Type
        legal requirement worldwide,                                                                         up services program. This typically
                                                                 Fixed Luminaires
        and is a necessity when intro-                                                                       involves an initial audit of the man-
ducing new solid-state lighting prod- UL 1598                                                                ufacturing facility, as well as peri-
ucts into different markets. In the CSA C22.2 # 250 Luminaires                                               odic manufacturing facility inspec-
USA, according to the requirements UL 1573                   Stage & studio lighting                         tions to ensure consistent design,
of the Occupational Safety & Health UL 1574                  Track lighting                                  production, and labeling of the prod-
Administration (OSHA), electronic                              Portable Luminaires                           uct. It is also necessary to maintain
equipment is deemed to be safe for UL 153                    Portable electric lamps
                                                                                                             and update files to remain current
use in the workplace if it is listed                                                                         with the latest revision of the appli-
                                           UL 1993           Self-ballasted lamps and lamp adapters
by a Nationally Recognized Testing                                                                           cable standards.
Laboratory (NRTL; see www.osha.                               Specialty Luminaires
gov/dts/otpca/nrtl/index.html). UL 48                        Electric signs                                  Product safety standards
NRTLs are qualified, third-party UL 676                      Underwater lighting fixtures                    Existing lighting safety standards
organizations that meet the require- UL 844                  Fixtures for use in hazardous locations         still apply for LED lighting, but eval-
ments mandated by OSHA under 29                                                                              uations are now conducted incorpo-
                                           UL 924            Emergency lighting and power equipment
CFR section 1910.7 to perform inde-                                                                          rating UL 8750 Safety Standard for
pendent safety testing and product UL 1786                   Nightlights                                     LED Lighting. The requirements
certification.                             UL 1838           Low-voltage landscape lighting systems          found in UL 8750 are intended to
   The process of conducting prod- UL 1994                   Low-level path marking and lighting systems     supplement those found in the exist-
uct certification can be broken UL 2108                      Low-voltage lighting systems                    ing standards that relate to lighting
down into several steps. First, a UL 2388                    Flexible lighting products
                                                                                                             (see table). For example, UL 1993
review of the product’s construc-                                                                            covers self-ballasted lamps and lamp
                                                                  Power Supplies
tion and design is performed, which                                                                          adapters, and now includes replace-
includes careful evaluation of spe- UL 1012                  Power units other than Class 2                  ment LED lamps. The third edition,
cific product information, includ- UL 1310                   Class 2 power units                             published in August 2009, added
ing the bill of materials, applicable These product safety standards still apply for LED                     requirements covering LED driver
ratings of the individual components lighting, but evaluations are now conducted incorporating circuitry, and added requirements
and materials, product design draw- UL 8750 – Safety Standard for LED Lighting.                              and limits for LED light sources. UL
ings, and spacing and dimensional                                                                            1993 is now harmonized with ANCE
requirements. From the review of all submit- environmental (wet location), and mechan- (Mexico) and CSA (Canada).
ted information, it is then possible to deter- ical tests, among others. Step three includes           UL 8750 covers LED equipment that is an
mine the appropriate testing that will be the creation and issuance of the formal test integral part of a luminaire, including LED
required to sufficiently satisfy the require- report and “authorization to mark” (ATM), drivers, controllers, arrays, modules and pack-
ments stated in the applicable standard(s).       which grants the manufacturer permis- ages. The first edition of UL 8750 was released
   Next comes the actual product testing sion to label the product with the applica- in May 2009, and a revised version was pub-
phase, which is performed in accordance ble safety mark from an NRTL (an exam- lished in September. After a further comment
with the requirements of the applicable ple would be the ETL Listed mark from period, the final standard is expected to be
standard(s). Such tests may include tem- Intertek).                                                  published before the end of 2009.
perature, electrical, dielectric, strain relief,    Finally, the manufacturer must agree to            In North America, product safety stan-
                                                                                                     dards are published by organizations such
TODD STRAKA is Director – Lighting Services with Intertek (, Cortland, NY.          as the American National Standards Insti-                                                                                            NovEmbEr/DEcEmbEr 2009             37
lighting | safEty    cErtificatioN

tute (ANSI), the National Fire Protection         actively evaluating these effects.
Association (NFPA), Underwriters Labora-             Another consideration is to identify as
tories (UL) and Canadian Standards Asso-          many product variations as possible. This
ciation (CSA), after gaining industry-wide        will allow products of similar design and
consensus. NTRLs (such as Intertek, UL,           construction to be grouped into product
and CSA) are authorized to evaluate and cer-      families, which may help to minimize the
tify products according to these standards.       total number of samples required for evalu-
Each NTRL issues its own safety certifica-        ation and testing, and in turn lower the total
tion mark, which is an equally valid indica-      project certification and testing fees.
tion of compliance with the standard(s).             Finally, as LED technology continues to
                                                  advance rapidly, it is advisable to tap into
Efficiently navigating the process                industry resources to help you keep pace
When beginning the safety certification pro-      with ever-changing product safety and per-
cess, it is important to first consider where     formance standards. There are many valu-
you intend to sell your products. Thinking        able educational resources available, includ-
globally from the outset may save a consid-       ing industry meetings and events, standards
erable amount of time and cost for the man-       development committees, trade publications
ufacturer in the long run. Another tip is         and online resources.
to design with compliance in mind, which
means involving your certification partner at     Performance testing                                A Type C high-speed mirror
the R&D and design phases of your product’s       As LED products continue to seek wide-             goniophotometer for luminaire testing.
life cycle. Doing so may minimize potential       spread adoption in the marketplace, it is
compliance issues and improve time to mar-        also important to remain mindful of your           luminaires and integrated LED lamps.
ket. During the product design phase, it is       specific product’s performance levels. Some            IESNA LM-80-08 covers the measure-
necessary to be mindful of the main safety        NTRLs have the capability to also                       ment of lumen maintenance for LED
concerns with LED lighting, which include         carry out product performance test-                     light sources and applies to LED arrays,
the risk of electric shock, risk of fire, and     ing. Three major standards related to                   packages, and modules only. It does not
also biological hazards. For electric shock,      LED lighting were released in 2008:                     apply to luminaires. LM-80 provides a
UL 1310 covers Class 2 power supplies, which      IESNA LM-79-08, ANSI C78.377-2008,                      test method to measure L70, the time
operate at 24V or below and offer reduced         and IESNA LM-80-08.                                     taken for the light output to fall to 70%
shock and fire hazard. UL 1012 covers power          IESNA LM-79-08 covers electrical and            of its original value. Testing is carried out
supplies other than Class 2, which must com-      photometric testing of SSL devices, and            at three different case temperatures over a
ply with standard insulation and accessibil-      applies to both LED luminaires and LED             minimum of 6,000 hours with lumen mea-
ity requirements. Generally, it is necessary      light sources to be used in retrofit or replace-   surements taken at 1,000-hour intervals.
to enclose (or create a barrier to) live parts    ment scenarios. It does not cover LED mod-         However, it is important to note that this
to prevent physical contact. It is also neces-    ules, LED packages, or individual LEDs.            standard does not provide guidance regard-
sary to insulate live parts with appropriately    LM-79 is based on absolute, rather than rela-      ing predictive estimations or extrapola-
rated materials, and to utilize appropriate       tive, photometry, and includes the measure-        tion of product life; this will be addressed
spacings for live and accessible parts.           ment of total luminous flux (lumens), lumi-        by IES TM-21-xx, which is currently under
   The risk of fire arises because of heat pro-   naire efficacy (lm/W), color (chromaticity,        development.
duction within LEDs. Thermal dissipation is       CCT, CRI), and intensity distribution. ANSI            Another example of performance testing
dependent on the ambient temperature and          C78.377-2008 applies to general indoor light-      might include Ingress Protection (IP) testing
the thermal path design. It is necessary to       ing applications. It covers the chromaticity       according to IEC 60529. This ensures that the
take into account the proximity and spac-         of SSL products and specifies recommended          product’s enclosure will withstand varying
ing of LEDs, the material and design of the       chromaticity (color) ranges for white LEDs,        degrees of moisture and dust intrusion should
diffuser if appropriate, the type of enclosure    including correlated color temperature             it be placed in an environment where it will be
utilized and its flame ratings, and the instal-   (CCT) values for SSL products such as LED          exposed to such elements (see page 23).
lation scenario.
   In terms of biological hazards, exposure        Links
to ultraviolet wavelengths (100–400 nm)
                                                   “Solid-State Lighting: Safety Certification Process and Performance Testing Measurement
is a concern. The US and Canada currently
                                                   Techniques” Originally broadcast: September 2009
do not have mandatory standards or regu-
lations in this respect. However, organiza-        LED lighting standards and guidelines are now building on a firm foundation
tions such as IESNA, ANSI, CIE, and IEC are

38      NovEmbEr/DEcEmbEr 2009                                                                                        

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