Dual Enrollment, Advanced Placement, and International Baccalaureate by emz20494

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									                  Dual Enrollment, Advanced Placement,
                and International Baccalaureate in Georgia:
An Unbalanced Policy Environment that Short-Changes Student Success
                                   (October 2008)

Executive Summary

      High-achieving high school students in Georgia public schools have three options
      for earning college credit: Dual Enrollment (DE), Advanced Placement (AP),
      and International Baccalaureate (IB). While research demonstrates that DE
      affords a broader range of advantages to most college-bound high school students,
      public high schools in Georgia receive strong political and economic incentives to
      encourage students into AP and (to a lesser extent) IB programs, and away from
      DE. In order to maximize the benefits of DE to students across the state, Georgia
      Perimeter College is seeking opportunities to collaborate with high school
      superintendents and principals to influence legislation and public policy in order
      to redress this imbalance.


      In Georgia, three pathways are available to college-bound students who wish to
      earn college credit before graduating from high school: Dual Enrollment,
      Advanced Placement, and International Baccalaureate. Dual Enrollment (DE),
      often known as Joint Enrollment or Dual Credit in other states, is a cooperative
      effort between the high schools and one or more local colleges. Advanced
      Placement (AP) and the International Baccalaureate (IB) Diploma are programs
      offered by the high schools, generally taught by high school teachers. Current
      statewide and system-level policies tend to favor student participation in AP and
      IB programs over Dual Enrollment. However, available data on student outcomes
      suggest that DE may be the most educationally advantageous of the three

      This report will compare and contrast the three pathways from the standpoint of
      student achievement, and also examine political and economic incentives. Because
      the IB Diploma program is relatively small in Georgia, this program will be
      discussed briefly. More detailed analysis will be presented for AP and DE.

Dual Enrollment, Advanced Placement, and International Baccalaureate in Georgia:
An Unbalanced Policy Environment that Short-Changes Student Success

                                          Dual Enrollment
DE Student Experiences                                    Students who take DE classes on the college
                                                          campus enjoy a number of additional
In Georgia, the program that enables qualified
                                                          advantages over their classmates who are
high school students to fulfill certain high
                                                          taking advanced (IB or AP) high school
school requirements by taking college-level
                                                          classes. Even when high school teachers
courses is known as Dual Enrollment. In many
                                                          conduct their advanced classes in as collegiate
other states, these programs are called Joint
                                                          a style as possible, the physical environment
Enrollment or Dual Credit. In fall 2007, there
                                                          prevails. Classes are held in the same rooms
were 2,732 Dual Enrollment (DE) students
                                                          students use for other classes, during the
enrolled in University System of Georgia
                                                          same daily time schedule. An IB or AP student
(USG) institutions, of whom 906 or 33.2%
                                                          is subject to the same rules and regulations,
were enrolled at GPC. By contrast, in the
                                                          and disciplinary consequences, as any other
2005-06 academic year, community colleges
                                                          student. When DE students come to the
across the state of Florida enrolled 32,916
                                                          college campus, they are held to the same
Dual Enrollment (DE) students, representing
                                                          level of responsibility, the same standard of
nearly one out of ten (9.7%) of all 11th and
                                                          work, and the same accountability as any
12th graders statewide (Dual Enrollment
                                                          other college student. They even have the
Penetration Study).
                                                          same personal and academic freedoms as
                                                          other college students, along with the same
Dual Enrollment affords a much broader
                                                          obligation to use that freedom wisely.
range of curricular opportunities than do the
IB or AP programs. As previously described,
                                                          High school students who attend DE classes at
the College Board offers a total of 37 AP
                                                          GPC will also be better prepared for the global
exams, but most Atlanta metro area high
                                                          workplace they will be entering as adults. By
schools offer about 10-20 AP classes annually.
                                                          virtue of GPC’s diverse student population, DE
In the 2007-08 academic year, DE students at
                                                          students      interact       with     classmates
GPC took 110 separate courses in 36 subject
                                                          representing a wide spectrum of ages,
areas, across all the disciplines offered by the
                                                          ethnicities, nationalities, and viewpoints. In a
College: business, fine arts, foreign language,
                                                          recent (Spring 2008) survey, about 80.0% of
humanities, mathematics/computer science,
                                                          GPC students reported that they had serious
science and social science. Moreover, DE
                                                          conversations with students of a different
students were enrolled in Honors sections in
                                                          race or ethnicity than their own during the
13 of those courses. Appendix A, at the
                                                          past year, and about 76.0% had serious
conclusion of this report, lists all courses
                                                          conversations with students who differed
taken by DE students at GPC.
                                                          from their religious beliefs, political opinions,
                                                          or personal values. A similar majority (82.0%)
Not only does DE benefit students in terms of
                                                          of survey respondents felt that the College
course availability, but also in terms of quality
                                                          encouraged contact among students from
of instruction. Whether in a college classroom,
                                                          different economic, social, and racial or ethnic
or a dedicated DE class taught on-site at the
high school, DE students are guaranteed to be
taught by a faculty member who meets
                                                          DE Student Performance, College Credit and
college-level accreditation requirements.
                                                          Subsequent Outcomes
Typically, that means the instructor has a
minimum of a Master’s degree and 18                       While college credit for IB and AP
graduate semester credit hours in their                   participation is contingent upon satisfactory
specific discipline of the course they are                test scores, credit for DE courses is based
teaching.                                                 upon the grade the student earns in the
                                                          course. There are a small number of elite

Dual Enrollment, Advanced Placement, and International Baccalaureate in Georgia:
An Unbalanced Policy Environment that Short-Changes Student Success

universities (e.g. the Ivy League and some of               currently attended by former DE students
the Armed Services Academies) that will not                 enrolled at GPC in FY 2006 – FY 2008.
accept credit from students who took college-
level classes while still enrolled in high school.          At GPC, not only do the overwhelming
However, nearly all public, and the majority of             majority of DE students pass their courses,
private, higher education institutions will                 but an average of 42.3% earns an “A.” Table 1
treat the student’s DE credit in the same                   describes    enrollment     patterns     and
manner as transfer credit from any regionally               achievement of DE students enrolled at GPC in
accredited college or university. Appendix B                the 2007-08 academic year.
lists the more than 125 Four Year Institutions

Table 1:   Enrollment Patterns and Success Rates of DE Students at GPC, FY 2008

                     Number of         Number of           Avg Courses      % Grades
   Semester           Students          Courses            per Student      C or better      % “A” Grades
  Summer 2007                  30               44                  1.47           84.1%            59.1%
      Fall 2007               906            1,544                  1.71           92.0%            43.0%
    Spring 2008               884            1,460                  1.65           91.4%            41.0%
           Total            1,820            3,048                  1.67           91.6%            42.3%

Thus, a typical DE student at GPC will
                                                            •   A.A. degree graduation rates in FL
graduate from high school with three to four
                                                                community colleges were significantly
college courses under their belts – essentially
                                                                higher for former DE students than for
a full semester ahead of their peers. Extremely
                                                                students with comparable academic
high-achieving students who are eligible to
                                                                achievement (based on high school
enter the DE program as juniors can complete
                                                                grades and placement test scores) but no
a full year’s worth of college credit, and some
                                                                DE    experience (Impact      of    Dual
have been to known to fulfill the requirements
for an associate’s degree, by the time they
complete high school.                                       •   Students who took DE courses as high
                                                                school     seniors   in   2003-04   and
Available data suggest that at least two-thirds                 subsequently enrolled in a State
of former DE students at GPC continue their                     University System (SUS) institution in
baccalaureate education at a USG institution.                   2004-05 had higher GPAs at the end of
If that trend holds up statewide, the State will                their first year (2.83) than did non-DE
have saved over $1.8 million in tuition costs                   students (2.71). The same cohort of
paid through the HOPE scholarship program.                      students earned higher grades in next-
If DE participation were encouraged and                         level English and Math classes for which
expanded (as in Florida), the cost savings                      they had taken the prerequisite course
would be dramatic.                                              through DE than did the SUS students
                                                                who took the prerequisite course as
Currently, the USG has not conducted a                          freshmen at the university (Community
system-wide follow-up of DE students, nor                       College Dual Enrollment Students Do
provided institutions with performance                          Well).
feedback on former DE participants. The
Florida Department of Education has done                    It is important to note that in the 2004-05 SUS
extensive research on the collegiate success of             study described above, students who took AP
former Dual Enrollment (DE) students. Key                   or IB courses were excluded from the data set.
findings include the following:                             Therefore, the research findings can be
                                                            directly attributed to the DE course

Dual Enrollment, Advanced Placement, and International Baccalaureate in Georgia:
An Unbalanced Policy Environment that Short-Changes Student Success

To date, follow-up data on former DE students             The Clearinghouse returned records for
at GPC is limited. A list of 2,777 students              about one-third of the names on the list
enrolled in DE classes at GPC between Fall               (based on matching names and dates of birth).
2005 and Spring 2008 was submitted to the                Table 2 provides the enrollment patterns of
National Student Clearinghouse                           students for whom follow-up data were

 Table 2:        Former DE Students Enrolled in 4-Year Degree Programs as of Sept. 2008

                Total   Number                                        # in
                 DE     reported               # in                 Out-of-
               Studen      by                  USG                   State               # in
 Cohort         ts at   Clearing-    % of    Instituti    % of      Public      % of    Priva     % of
 Year           GPC      house      Cohort     ons       Cohort     Univs      Cohort   Univs    Cohort
 2005-06*         980        295     30.1%        197     66.8%           38    12.9%       60    20.3%
 2006-07          908        271    29.8%         186      68.6%         49    18.1%       36    13.3%
 2007-08          889        236    26.5%         158      66.9%         45    19.1%       33    14.0%
 Total          2,777        802    28.9%         541      67.5%        132    16.5%      129    16.1%

* Includes 16 students who began at GPC in FY05, presumably as HS Juniors

In total, former DE students over the past               students do enroll in private and out of state
three years have attended 14 USG                         institutions, the majority remain within the
universities, 13 private in-state colleges or            USG, presumably qualifying for the HOPE
universities, 65 private out-of-state colleges           Scholarship. A total of 242 students have
or universities, and 41 out-of-state public              attended the University of Georgia over the
universities. A complete list of four-year               three cohort years, representing 44.7% of all
institutions attended by former DE students              students in USG institutions, and 30.2% of the
appears at the conclusion of this report as              entire cohort for whom data were available.
Appendix B. Although many former DE

            Political Barriers to Encouragement and Expansion of DE in Georgia
Although the advantages that DE can provide              the designation of more than 80 Georgia
to high achieving high school students are               Advanced Placement (AP) “Honor Schools,”
clear, system superintendents and principals             State Superintendent of Schools Kathy Cox
in Georgia have compelling reasons to prefer             asserted that “AP is an important part of
AP over DE. These reasons fall into two broad            offering a rigorous education to our public
categories: accountability measures and                  school students. Our Honor Schools are
funding.                                                 leading the way in helping us expand the
                                                         number of AP classes we offer and helping us
Accountability Measures                                  grow the success our students are having on
                                                         AP exams.”
Based on publicly available information,
growth in AP and IB participation is a priority
                                                         One of the most conspicuous features of the
for the Georgia Department of Education and
                                                         Governor’s Office of Student Achievement
the Governor’s Office of Student Achievement.
                                                         (OSA) website (www.gaosa.org) is “Georgia’s
In a February 2008 press release announcing
                                                         Education Scoreboard,” which includes 14

Dual Enrollment, Advanced Placement, and International Baccalaureate in Georgia:
An Unbalanced Policy Environment that Short-Changes Student Success

performance measures to compare the state              In 2004, the U.S. Department of Education
to other southeastern states and the nation as         conducted a nationwide survey of state
a whole. Two of these measures are Advanced            policies toward dual enrollment. The first
High School Course Achievement and                     published report was updated in 2005. In the
Advanced High School Course Participation.             “Funding” category, data are provided for 21
On the Scoreboards for school systems and              states as follows:
individual high schools, those same measures
are defined as “AP or IB” Course                                            Count
Achievement/Participation. Similarly, the                 Category         (states)       Comment
more detailed annual “Report Cards”                    Double Funding         10      (neither high
published by the OSA provide data on AP                                               school nor
                                                                                      college loses
course participation and exam success rates
for school systems and individual high                 High School Loses      2
schools. There is no outcome measure                   Funds
published by the OSA that reports DE                   Colleges Lose          0
participation or success by system or by               Funds
school.                                                Both Lose Funds        4       including
Funding Formulas                                       Partial Policies       5

States with double funding include Arizona,            classified as “Gifted” may be funded at 1.6673
California, Colorado, Illinois, Maryland,              FTE, if they are receiving a regularly
Minnesota, Missouri, New Mexico, Virginia,             scheduled service on the count day.
and Wyoming. The funding pattern for Florida           “Advanced Content Classes,” including AP, IB
(with an extensive dual enrollment program             and Honors Courses; are considered services
described earlier) was not described.                  for which the “gifted weight” may apply.
However, under the “Tuition” category,                 While participation in Dual Enrollment “may
Florida is listed as “Institution Pays,” along         serve as the gifted instruction local districts
with eight states, while Georgia’s designation         are required to provide for qualified students
is “State Pays,” along with five other states          … present rules indicate FTE funding
(Update to State Dual Enrollment Policies).            generated while away from the regular school
In Georgia, under the Quality Basic Education          campus will be awarded to the post-
(QBE) Act, local school systems report student         secondary institution” (Georgia Department
enrollment in terms of Full-Time Equivalent            of Education, Resource Manual for Gifted
(FTE) students. Three different funding cycles         Education Services). Based on these funding
occur throughout the school year. Students             considerations, it would be in any Georgia
attending post-secondary institutions are              superintendent’s or principal’s best interest to
expressly restricted from counting toward              actively encourage AP or IB participation, and
FTE (Georgia Department of Education, FY               to actively discourage DE.
2008 FTE Data Collection). Moreover, students

Advanced Placement, International Baccalaureate and Dual Enrollment in Georgia:
An Unbalanced Policy Environment that Short-Changes Student Success

                             International Baccalaureate Diploma
According to the International Baccalaureate             who do not earn enough passing scores to
Organization website, www.ibo.org/diploma,               receive the IB diploma may still be eligible for
the International Baccalaureate (IB) Diploma             college credit based on individual subject
is “a challenging two-year programme of                  scores.
international education for students aged 16
to 19” As of October 2008, there were 26 “IB             In Georgia, the Board of Regents of the
World Schools” in Georgia authorized to offer            University System of Georgia has established
the IB Diploma. Of these, 14 are located in the          system-wide guidelines for accepting IB
Atlanta metropolitan area, including one                 course assessment scores for college-level
private institution. The metro-area public               credit in core curriculum courses in USG
high schools with IB Diploma programs are:               institutions, to a maximum of 24 semester
                                                         credit hours. BOR Policy 402.0105 describes
                                                         IB Standard Level course assessments as
 School System            High Schools
                                                         “college preparatory,” and requires a score of
Atlanta City        North Atlanta HS
                                                         5 or higher to demonstrate comparability
Clayton Co.         Lovejoy HS                           with college level work. IB Higher Level
                    North Clayton HS                     course assessments are considered to be
Cobb Co.            Campbell HS                          “college comparable” and require a minimum
DeKalb Co.          Druid Hills HS                       score of 4 in order for credit to be awarded.
                    Martin Luther King Jr. HS
                    Tucker HS                            Neither national nor state trends for success
Douglas Co.         Douglas Co. HS                       rates on IB exams are publicly available on the
Forsyth Co.         South Forsyth HS                     IBO website. Students receive their scores
Fulton Co.          Riverwood HS                         through a secured reporting system;
Gwinnett Co.        Norcross HS                          presumably these scores are also reported to
Marietta City       Marietta HS                          the high schools. For example, Riverwood
Morgan Co.          Madison HS                           High School in Sandy Springs publicizes that
                                                         its 2007 IB Diploma pass rate was 88%,
Information on requirements for candidacy as             exceeding the international pass rate of 75%
an     IB    Diploma     World       School:             (www.riverwoodhs.org). In a study based on
http://www.ibo.org/ibna/educators/diploma                exam results for 2005, the Southern Regional
schools.cfm#prospective.                                 Education Board (SREB) reported that 949
                                                         Georgia IB students passed 72% of IB diploma
The IB curriculum contains six subject areas,            exams, compared with 79% of students
organized around three “core requirements:”              nationwide. The average for the 16 SREB
the Extended Essay; Theory of Knowledge;                 states was 75%, ranging from lows of 34% in
and Creativity, Action, and Service. Subject             Mississippi and 55% in Arkansas, to highs of
tests are scored on a scale of 1 through 7, with         85% in Florida and 88% in Delaware
a score of 4 representing satisfactory                   (Progress in Advanced Placement and
performance. In order to receive the IB                  International Baccalaureate in SREB States, p.
diploma, students must achieve a score of 4 or           5).
higher in each of six subject areas. Students

                                       Advanced Placement
History and Development of the Program                   to take college-level courses and earn college
                                                         credit (or at least advanced standing) while
When it began in 1955, the Advanced
                                                         still in high school. Based upon student
Placement (AP) Program was intended to
                                                         performance on the nationally standardized
provide high school students the opportunity
                                                         final exams, American colleges and

Advanced Placement, International Baccalaureate and Dual Enrollment in Georgia:
An Unbalanced Policy Environment that Short-Changes Student Success

universities would award course credits                 to Geiser and Santelices (2004), “almost all
and/or allow students to place out of                   selective colleges and universities give special
introductory courses and move directly into             consideration to AP and honors courses in
more advanced studies. The program grew                 admissions decisions, although the manner in
steadily from 104 participating high schools            which this information is used varies from
at its inception to over 2,500 by the mid-              institution to institution” (p. 3). Similarly,
1960s, and about 3,500 in the mid-1970s. In             Klopfenstein and Thomas (2006) cite a 2000
the next decade, participation doubled, to              survey of 962 four-year public and private
about 7,000 by the mid-1980s, and then by               colleges and universities that identified the
more than 50% to over 11,000 by the mid-                top six admissions criteria as follows: 1) high
1990s. From 1993 to 2003, the number of                 school GPA or class rank, 2) admissions test
exams taken annually grew by over 270%,                 scores (e.g. SAT/ACT), 3) pattern of high
from 639,385 to 1,737,231 (College Board,               school course work, 4) college-level
“Annual AP Program Participation 1956-                  coursework in high school (AP, IB, or dual
2003”).                                                 credit), 5) AP coursework specifically, and 6)
                                                        AP course grades. Additionally, grades on AP
National interest in AP courses received an
                                                        exams ranked ninth. The authors emphasize
additional boost when President George W.
                                                        that “the five criteria valued most heavily by
Bush mentioned the program by name in his
                                                        colleges do not depend on AP exam scores but
2006 State of the Union address. Specifically,
                                                        on course participation” (pp. 2-3).
the President proposed to “train 70,000 high
school teachers to lead advanced placement
                                                        AP Curriculum and Instruction
courses in math and science, bring 30,000
                                                        Each academic year, AP teachers must submit
math and science professionals to teach in
                                                        an electronic copy of their course syllabi,
classrooms, and give early help to students
                                                        providing “clear and explicit evidence” that
who struggle with math so they have a better
                                                        they have met the curricular and resource
chance at good, high-wage jobs” (State of the
                                                        expectations established by college and
Union, Jan 31, 2006). By 2007, the number of
                                                        university faculty for college-level courses
participating secondary schools had grown to
                                                        (College Board, AP Course Audit Information).
16,464 worldwide, of which 12,241 were U.S.
                                                        However, as Tai (2008) points out, “while AP
public schools, 3,264 were U.S. private
                                                        course syllabi may indicate what content is
schools, and 959 were located outside the
                                                        taught, they offer little or no evidence of how
United States. The total number of exams
                                                        content is taught” (p 38). Many college and
taken in 2007 reached 2,533,431, an increase
                                                        university faculty would argue that the “how”
of nearly 46% in four years (College Board, 4th
                                                        is a more distinguishing characteristic of
Annual Report to the Nation). However, while
                                                        college-level instruction than the “what.”
participation rates are up, success rates are
                                                        Some college faculty have observed that one
moving in the opposite direction. According to
                                                        of the biggest adjustments that recent high
the College Board, mean scores on AP exams
                                                        school graduates must make in college is
nationwide have dropped from 3.00 in 2002
                                                        getting used to receiving fewer grades. Over a
to 2.89 in 2007 (AP Grade Distributions – All
                                                        15-week semester, a typical high school
Subjects 1987-2007).
                                                        course might have 30 or more graded
                                                        assignments, whereas a college course
One of the reasons for the explosive growth in          covering similar material might have only five
the AP program since the 1980s is the                   or six. If high school AP instructors increase
importance of student participation to the              the number of assignments and exams with
college admissions process. Beginning in the            the intention of increasing the rigor of their
1980s, highly selective institutions began to           courses, the effect may be that the course is
consider student experience in AP courses not           actually less collegiate in nature rather than
only for placement purposes, but as a                   more so.
criterion for admission. Currently, according

Advanced Placement, International Baccalaureate and Dual Enrollment in Georgia:
An Unbalanced Policy Environment that Short-Changes Student Success

According to its 2005 AP Teacher Standards,              •   New AP teachers should participate in a
the College Board “does not have a rigidly                   one-day workshop, followed by a week-
defined set of requirements for AP teachers,                 long College Board endorsed AP Summer
[but] recognizes that there are certain                      Institute (p.6).
standards that apply in order to support
quality and equity in AP programs” (p. 2). The           The College Board reports that 69.7% of AP
Program “suggests” that AP teachers have at              teachers nationwide hold a Master’s degree.
least three years prior teaching experience,             To date, comparable information has not been
and an advanced mastery of the discipline.               located for the state of Georgia. In fact,
Standards are enumerated in five areas:                  relatively minimal information on AP courses
Content Knowledge, Teacher Certification,                or teacher certification is available for current
Pedagogy, Analysis and Reflection, and                   or prospective teachers on the Georgia
Professional       Development.       Specific           Department of Education website
“recommendations” (albeit not requirements)
include the following:
•      Because AP course work is college-level
                                                         The National Board of Professional Teaching
       work, and because virtually all college
                                                         Standards (NBPTS) provides public access to
       instructors hold advanced degrees, AP
                                                         its membership directory at
       teachers should hold an advanced degree
       (p. 3).                                           http://www.nbpts.org/resources/nbct_direct
•      AP teaching assignments should not be                                ory.
       based primarily on such factors as
                                                         Based on this published information, Table 3
       seniority and longevity in the profession
                                                         shows the number of faculty with a NBPTS
       (p. 3).
                                                         Certificate at the “Adolescence and Young
•      Teachers should hold National Board for
                                                         Adulthood” level in selected subject areas for
       Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS)
                                                         the state of Georgia, and selected school
       certification (p. 4).
                                                         systems served by a GPC campus. It is not
•      AP teachers should promote the use of             clear from the available data whether or not
       various instructional strategies that             all the NBPTS Certified teachers are the ones
       encourage students to develop critical            who teach AP classes in their respective high
       thinking,      problem      solving, and          schools. However, even if that were presumed
       communication skills, using diverse               to be the case, current certification levels
       teaching and assessment strategies and            would allow for only a very small proportion
       college-level materials (p. 4).                   of AP classes to be taught by certified faculty.

Table 3: Number of Faculty with National Board of Professional Teaching Standards Certificate at
               “Adolescence and Young Adulthood” Level

                          Number of                                                       NBPTS Social
                            High        NBPTS English/       NBPTS          NBPTS           Studies -
    School System          Schools      Language Arts         Math          Science          History
    State of Georgia         356            142               114             126              83
    Atlanta Public
                              11               1                2              1                2
    Butts Co.                  1               1                0              1                0
    Cherokee Co.               6               1                3              7                3
    Clayton Co.                8               1                0              4                2
    Cobb Co.                  16              12                5              4                2

Advanced Placement, International Baccalaureate and Dual Enrollment in Georgia:
An Unbalanced Policy Environment that Short-Changes Student Success

                      Number of                                                       NBPTS Social
                        High        NBPTS English/        NBPTS         NBPTS           Studies -
 School System         Schools      Language Arts          Math         Science          History
 Decatur City             1               2                  0              2               0
 DeKalb Co.               22                4                2              1               1
 Fayette Co.               5                8                1              3               4
 Forsyth Co.               4                4                3              3               4
 Fulton Co.               12                6               11              7               4
 Greene Co.                1                0                0              1               0
 Gwinnett Co.             16               18               24             20              18
 Henry Co.                 7                2                1              2               2
 Jasper Co.                1                0                1              0               0
 Marietta City             1                2                1              0               0
 Morgan Co.                1                2                0              0               0
 Newton Co.                3                0                0              0               0
 Putnam Co.                1                0                0              0               0
 Rockdale Co.              3                2                0              4               0
 Social Circle City        1                1                0              0               0
 Walton Co.                2                1                0              0               1

AP Testing and College Credit                          recent research in both California and Texas
                                                       (Geiser and Santelices, 2004; Klopfenstein and
In order to receive college credit, students
                                                       Thomas, 2006) have called into question
who have successfully completed an AP
                                                       whether or not mere participation in AP
course at their local high school must pass a
                                                       classes provides a benefit to students. The
standardized, national test administered by
                                                       primary counter-arguments (e.g. Camara and
the College Board. In 2007, there were 37
                                                       Michaelides, 2005) rely heavily on findings
separate AP exams offered, covering 25
                                                       from Adelman’s (1999) extensive study,
subject areas. The top five exams taken by the
                                                       Answers from the Tool Box: Academic Intensity,
high school graduating class of 2007 were:
                                                       Attendance Patterns, and Bachelor’s Degree
U.S. History; English Literature and
                                                       Attainment. However, in his 2006 follow-up
Composition;      English     Language     and
                                                       report, The Toolbox Revisited: Paths to Degree
Composition; Calculus AB; and U.S.
                                                       Completion from High School through College,
Government and Politics (College Board, 4th
                                                       Adelman disputes this interpretation.
Annual Report to the Nation). Exams are
graded on a 5-point scale. Generally, a                    …[A] spate of recent reports and
minimum score of 3 is considered to be a                   commentaries on the Advanced
passing score on the exam. Virtually all                   Placement Program claim that the
colleges that award credit for AP test scores              original Tool Box demonstrated the
will require a minimum score of 3, but many                unique power of AP coursework in
will require a 4 or 5, particularly in science             explaining     bachelor’s       degree
and mathematics disciplines.                               completion. To put it gently, this is a
                                                           misreading. AP is only a component of
While several academic studies have                        the academic curriculum intensity in
demonstrated the effectiveness of AP test                  both the original Tool Box and this
scores as predictors of success in college,                replication. But to test the mis-

Advanced Placement, International Baccalaureate and Dual Enrollment in Georgia:
An Unbalanced Policy Environment that Short-Changes Student Success

    readings, AP was tried out as one of                 of 59.3%. Moreover, Georgia is one of the
    the three variables that might serve as              states cited by the College Board for having an
    proxies for curriculum intensity (p.                 “equity and excellence gap” (4th Annual Report
    40).                                                 to the Nation, p. 10). While African American
                                                         students made up 33.7% of all Georgia high
The three proxy variables Ademan used were
                                                         school students, they only accounted for 9.4%
“science momentum” (a combination of
                                                         of students scoring 3 or higher on the AP
highest level of math achieved and number of
Carnegie units in core laboratory science), AP
course participation, and foreign language
                                                         This gap is particularly visible in the Atlanta
study. Only “science momentum” emerged as
                                                         metropolitan area. Wide variations in access
a statistically significant predictor of
                                                         to AP classes exist across individual schools
bachelor’s degree attainment.
                                                         within the same system. For example, in
                                                         DeKalb Co., the number of AP classes offered
Nationwide, 24.9% of the high school
                                                         during the 2006-7 school year ranged from a
graduating class of 2007 had taken at least
                                                         low of six to a high of 26. In Fulton Co.,
one AP exam during their high school.
                                                         offerings ranged from ten to 24. In the rural
Georgia’s class of 2007 exceeded the national
                                                         counties served by GPC’s Newton Campus,
average for taking AP exams at 28.6%.
                                                         most schools had fewer than ten AP courses
However, the proportion of the same
                                                         available to students, and many had fewer
graduating class with AP test scores of 3 or
                                                         than five.
above was roughly equivalent for both
Georgia and the nation, indicating that a
                                                         Table 4 shows the success rates (students
smaller proportion of Georgia test-takers
                                                         earning at least 3 on the exam) statewide and
were achieving passing scores. Of all tests
                                                         in school systems served by a GPC campus.
taken in 2007, Georgia students’ 52.7%
success rate lags behind the national average

Table 4: AP Success Rates by School System, 2007

                      # Students        # Tests       Average Tests    # Test Scores    % Test Scores
 School System       Taking Tests       Taken          per Student      3 or higher      3 or higher
 Nation                   1,464,254     2,533,431          1.73             1,502,366             59.3
 State of Georgia            43,027       67,705           1.57                35,676             52.7
 Atlanta Public
                               645             866         1.34                   240             27.7
 Butts Co.                       61              86        1.41                    43             50.0
 Cherokee Co.                  827            1,429        1.73                   980             68.6
 Clayton Co.                  1,233           1,792        1.45                   247             13.8
 Cobb Co.                     4,968           8,967        1.80                 5,698             63.5
 Decatur City                  179             318         1.78                   208             65.4
 DeKalb Co.                   3,399           5,041        1.48                 1,851             36.7
 Fayette Co.                  1,130           1,802        1.59                 1,264             70.1
 Forsyth Co.                  1,375           2,107        1.53                 1,252             59.4
 Fulton Co.                   4,292           7,617        1.77                 5,747             75.4
 Greene Co.                      50              77        1.54                     1              1.3

Advanced Placement, International Baccalaureate and Dual Enrollment in Georgia:
An Unbalanced Policy Environment that Short-Changes Student Success

                         # Students      # Tests        Average Tests   # Test Scores    % Test Scores
 School System          Taking Tests     Taken           per Student     3 or higher      3 or higher
 Gwinnett Co.                   6,284       10,826           1.72                6,975             64.4
 Henry Co.                      1,574        2,619          1.66                1,002              38.3
 Jasper Co.                        21           22          1.05                    6              27.3
 Marietta City                    255          332          1.30                   95              28.6
 Morgan Co.                       175          209          1.19                   34              16.3
 Newton Co.                       262          349          1.33                   88              25.2
 Putnam Co.                        14           17          1.21                    6              35.3
 Rockdale Co.                     538          903          1.68                  439              48.6
 Social Circle City                40           50          1.25                    4               8.0
 Walton Co.                       238          330          1.39                  126              38.2

                               Implications and Recommendations
The research literature, performance outcomes of Georgia high school students, and performance
outcomes of GPC Dual Enrollment students all point to DE as the ideal pathway for the majority of
high-achieving high school students in Georgia. However compelling the arguments may be for
students and parents, the power of the political and financial incentives for high schools to keep
these students in AP and IB classes must not be underestimated.

In order to maximize the benefits of DE to students across the state, Georgia Perimeter College
should consider actions including, but not limited to, the following:

1) Target specific high schools with small student populations and limited resources to provide
   AP instruction for active recruitment into DE at GPC. This might be a more attractive (and
   financially advantageous) solution to these principals than to those in economically
   advantaged locations, who will be more concerned about the “prestige factor” of AP and IB

2) Collaborate with high school principals to explore ways to provide part-time teaching
   opportunities for high school teachers with appropriate academic credentials to teach college-
   level courses.

3) Develop a collaboration among system superintendents and senior leadership of USG
   institutions to explore ways to
         a.     influence state legislation to minimize or eliminate funding disincentives for DE
                participation; and
         b.     influence policy-makers to include DE participation and success as an accountability
                measure for high school achievement, along with AP and IB participation and success.

Advanced Placement, International Baccalaureate and Dual Enrollment in Georgia:
An Unbalanced Policy Environment that Short-Changes Student Success

Adelman, C. 1999. Answers from the Tool Box: Academic Intensity, Attendance Patterns, and Bachelor’s
Degree Attainment. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.

________. 2006. The Toolbox Revisited: Paths to Degree Completion from High School through College.
Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.

Board of Regents of the University System of Georgia, Policy Manual

Bush, G.W., State of the Union, Jan 31, 2006

College Board. 2008., 4th Annual Report to the Nation,

________. 2005 AP® Teacher Standards

________, AP Course Audit Information

________. Annual AP Program Participation 1956-2003,

________. AP Grade Distributions All Subjects 1987-2007,

Florida Department of Education, Community College Dual Enrollment Students Do Well in Subsequent
University Courses, Fast Fact #83, August 2006.

_______. Fast Facts Student Success Series #2007-06 Dual Enrollment Penetration Study, July 2007.

_______. Impact of Dual Enrollment on High Performing Students, Data Trend #26, March 2004.

Geiser, S., and V. Santelices. 2004. The role of Advanced Placement and honors courses in college
admissions, Berkeley CA: Center for Studies in Higher Education, University of California, Berkeley.

Georgia Department of Education. FY 2008 FTE Data Collection General Information

________. Resource Manual for Gifted Education Services

Advanced Placement, International Baccalaureate and Dual Enrollment in Georgia:
An Unbalanced Policy Environment that Short-Changes Student Success

________. Schools Honored for Advanced Placement Success (Updated 2/15/08),

Klopfenstein, K., and M. K. Thomas. 2006. The link between Advanced Placement experience and early
college success, Revised June 2006.

Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2006. Progress in Advanced Placement and International
Baccalaureate in SREB States, May 2006.

Tai, R.H. 2008. Posing Tougher Questions about the Advanced Placement Program. Liberal Education,
Summer 2008: 38-43.

U.S. Department of Education, Office of Vocational and Adult Education, Update to State Dual
Enrollment Policies: Addressing Access and Quality, Washington, D.C: September 2005

Advanced Placement, International Baccalaureate and Dual Enrollment in Georgia:
An Unbalanced Policy Environment that Short-Changes Student Success

               Appendix A: Courses Taken by DE Students at GPC, FY 2008
                                                    Return to paper
 Course             Description                                 Course        Description
 ACCT- 2101         Prin. of Acct. I: Financial                 HIST- 1112    Survey of World Hist From 1500
 ACCT- 2102         Prin. of Acct. II: Managerial               HIST- 2111    United States History I
 ANTH- 1102         Introduction to Anthropology                HIST- 2112    United States History II
 ARTS- 1301         Art Appreciation                            HUMN- 1303    Aesthetic Exp. Western Cult. I
 ARTS- 1611         Drawing II                                  HUMN- 1305    Aesthetic Exp. W. Culture II
 ASTR- 1010         Astronomy of the Solar System               ITAL- 1001    Elementary Italian I
 ASTR- 1010L        Astronomy of the Solar Sys Lab              JAPN- 1001    Elementary Japanese I
 ATEC- 1201         Computer Concepts                           JAPN- 1002    Elementary Japanese II
 ATEC- 1203         Digital Literacy/Res. Skills                MATH- 1101    Intro to Mathematical Modeling
 BIOL- 1402         Cell Biology and Genetics                   MATH- 1111    College Algebra
 BIOL- 1402L        Cell Biology and Genetics(Lab)              MATH- 1113    Precalculus
 BIOL- 1403         Diversity in the Living World               MATH- 1431    Introduction to Statistics
 BIOL- 1403L        Diversity in Living World(Lab)              MATH- 2431    Calculus I
 BIOL- 1611         Human Anatomy & Physiology I                MATH- 2432    Calculus II
 BIOL- 1611L        Human Anatomy & Physiology I                MATH- 2633    Calculus III
 BIOL- 1612         Human Anatomy & Physiology II               MATH- 2641    Linear Algebra
 BIOL- 1612L        H Anatomy & Physiology II (Lab)             MUSC- 1301    Music Appreciation
 BIOL- 2108         Principles of Biology II                    MUSC- 1303    Understanding Jazz
 BIOL- 2108L        Principles of Biology II (Lab)              PHED- 1025    Bowling
 BISM- 2601         Business Information Systems                PHED- 1038    Tennis
 BUSA- 2106         The Environment of Business                 PHED- 1042    Modern Dance
 BUSA- 2106         The Environment of Business                 PHED- 1051    Beginning Swimming
 CHEM- 1151         Survey of Chemistry I                       PHED- 1065    Weight Training
 CHEM- 1151L        Survey of Chemistry I (Lab)                 PHED- 1101    Choices For Life
 CHEM- 1152         Survey of Chemistry II                      PHED- 2006    First Aid and Safety and CPR
 CHEM- 1152L        Survey of Chemistry II (Lab)                PHED- 2022    Personal and Community Health
 CHEM- 1211         Principles of Chemistry I                   PHIL- 1301    Survey Philosophical Thought
 CHEM- 1211L        Principles of Chemistry I (Lab)             PHIL- 2120    Introduction to Ethics
 CHEM- 1212         Principles of Chemistry II                  PHIL- 2641    Logic and Critical Thinking
 CHEM- 1212L        Principles of Chemistry II (Lab)            PHYS- 1111    Introductory Physics I
 CHIN- 1001         Elementary Chinese I                        PHYS- 1111L   Introductory Physics I (Lab)
 COMM- 1201         Public Speaking                             PHYS- 1112    Introductory Physics II
 CSCI- 1300         Intro. to Computer Science                  PHYS- 1112L   Introductory Physics II (Lab)
 CSCI- 1302         Principles Computer Science II              PHYS- 2211    Principles of Physics I
 ECON- 2105         Principles of Macroeconomics                PHYS- 2211L   Principles of Physics I (Lab)
 ECON- 2106         Principles of Microeconomics                PHYS- 2212    Principles of Physics II
 ENGL- 1101         English Composition I                       PHYS- 2212L   Principles of Physics II (Lab)
 ENGL- 1102         English Composition II                      POLS- 1101    American Government
 ENGL- 2111         World Literature I                          POLS- 1101    American Government
 ENGL- 2121         British Literature I                        POLS- 2101    Intro. to Political Science
 ENGL- 2131         American Literature I                       PSYC- 1101    Intro. to General Psychology
 ENGL- 2132         American Literature II                      PSYC- 2103    Intro. to Human Development
 ENGL- 2600         Creative Writing                            PSYC- 2621    Abnormal Psychology

Advanced Placement, International Baccalaureate and Dual Enrollment in Georgia:
An Unbalanced Policy Environment that Short-Changes Student Success

 Course          Description                              Course       Description
 ENVS- 1401      Environmental Science                    RELI- 1301   World Religions
 FILM- 1010      Introduction to Film                     RSCH- 1203   Research Strategies/Technology
 FREN- 1001      Elementary French I                      RUSS- 1001   Elementary Russian I
 FREN- 1002      Elementary French II                     SOCI- 1101   Introduction to Sociology
 GEOG- 1101      Intro. to Human Geography                SOCI- 1160   Intro. to Social Problems
 GEOL- 1121      Physical Geology                         SPAN- 1001   Elementary Spanish I
 GEOL- 1121L     Physical Geology (Lab)                   SPAN- 1002   Elementary Spanish II
 GEOL- 1122      Historical Geology                       SPAN- 2001   Intermediate Spanish I
 GEOL- 1122L     Historical Geology (Lab)                 SPAN- 2002   Intermediate Spanish II
 GRMN- 1002      Elementary German II                     SPAN- 2610   Composition and Conversation
 GRMN- 2001      Intermediate German I                    SURB- 1105   Survey of Business Enterprise
 HIST- 1111      Survey of World Hist to 1500             THEA- 1301   Theatre Appreciation

                                                Honors Sections
BISM 2601H      Business Information Sys. (Honors)
COMM 1201H      Public Speaking (Honors)
ENGL 1101H      English Composition I (Honors)
ENGL- 1102H     English Composition II (Honors)
HIST 1111H      Survey of World Hist to 1500 (Honors)
HIST 1112H      Survey World Hist From 1500 (Honors)
HIST 2111H      United States History I (Honors)
HIST 2112H      United States History II (Honors)
POLS 1101H      American Government (Honors)
PSYC 1101H      Intro. to Gen. Psychology (Honors)
PSYC 2618H      Psychology of Women (Honors)
RELI 1301H      World Religions (Honors)
SOCI 1101H      Intro. to Sociology (Honors)

Advanced Placement, International Baccalaureate and Dual Enrollment in Georgia:
An Unbalanced Policy Environment that Short-Changes Student Success

    Appendix B: Four Year Institutions Currently Attended by Former DE Students
                          Enrolled at GPC in FY 2006 – FY 2008
                                        Return to paper
STATE UNIVERSITY                                  UNIVERSITY           UNIVERSITY
UNIVERSITY                                        SOUTHERN COLLEGE
UNIVERSITY              DECATUR                                        UNIVERSITY
STATE UNIVERSITY        MACON                     UNIVERSITY           UNIVERSITY
TECHNOLOGY              NURSING                                        UNIVERSITY
UNIVERSITY                                        RESERVE UNIVERSITY   UNIVERSITY
UNIVERSITY                                        UNIVERSITY           UNIVERSITY
UNIVERSITY              ART & DESIGN                                   UNIVERSITY - AG
STATE UNIVERSITY                                                       UNIVERSITY
                                                  AERONAUTICAL         STATE UNIV
                                                  UNIVERSITY -
UNIVERSITY OF WEST                                EMERSON COLLEGE      NORTH GEORGIA
GEORGIA                                                                COLLEGE & STATE
                                                  EMORY UNIVERSITY     SUNY COLLEGE AT
                                                  FAIRFIELD            TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY
                                                  FLAGLER COLLEGE      THE CITADEL MILITARY
                                                                       COLLEGE OF SOUTH
                                                  FLORIDA COLLEGE      UNIVERSITY OF
                                                  FURMAN UNIVERSITY    UNIVERSITY OF CENTRAL
                                                  GEORGE               UNIVERSITY OF
                                                  WASHINGTON           CINCINNATI
                                                  GEORGETOWN           UNIVERSITY OF

Advanced Placement, International Baccalaureate and Dual Enrollment in Georgia:
An Unbalanced Policy Environment that Short-Changes Student Success

                                              UNIVERSITY          COLORADO AT BOULDER
                                              GREENVILLE          UNIVERSITY OF
                                              COLLEGE             COLORADO AT
                                                                  COLORADO SPRINGS
                                              HAMPDEN-SYDNEY      UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
                                              HARDING             UNIVERSITY OF
                                              UNIVERSITY          LOUISVILLE
                                              HARVARD             UNIVERSITY OF
                                              UNIVERSITY -        MARYLAND - COLLEGE
                                              CONTINUING ED       PARK
                                              HOWARD              UNIVERSITY OF
                                              UNIVERSITY          MICHIGAN-CENTRAL
                                              LAGRANGE COLLEGE    UNIVERSITY OF
                                                                  MISSOURI-KANSAS CITY
                                              LEE UNIVERSITY      UNIVERSITY OF NEW
                                              MARYMOUNT           UNIVERSITY OF NORTH
                                              MANHATTAN           CAROLINA-CHAPEL HILL
                                              MARYVILLE COLLEGE   UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH
                                              MIAMI UNIVERSITY    UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH
                                              MOUNTAIN STATE      UNIVERSITY OF
                                              UNIVERSITY          TENNESSEE
                                              NEW YORK            UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS -
                                              UNIVERSITY          SAN ANTONIO
                                              NORTH GREENVILLE    UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA
                                              NORTHWESTERN        UNIVERSITY OF
                                              UNIVERSITY          WASHINGTON - SEATTLE
                                              NOVA                UNIVERSITY OF WEST
                                              SOUTHEASTERN        FLORIDA
                                              PRESBYTERIAN        UNIVERSITY OF
                                              COLLEGE             WISCONSIN - MADISON
                                              RHODES COLLEGE      VIRGINIA POLYTECH AND
                                                                  STATE UNIV
                                              ROANOKE COLLEGE     WESTERN KENTUCKY
                                              ROOSEVELT           WORCESTER
                                              UNIVERSITY          POLYTECHNIC
                                              SCHOOL OF THE ART
                                              INSTITUTE OF
                                              ST EDWARDS

Advanced Placement, International Baccalaureate and Dual Enrollment in Georgia:
An Unbalanced Policy Environment that Short-Changes Student Success

                                              ST JOHNS UNIVERSITY
                                              THE NEW SCHOOL
                                              THE UNIVERSITY OF
                                              THE SOUTH
                                              UNION COLLEGE
                                              UNIVERSITY OF
                                              UNIVERSITY OF
                                              UNIVERSITY OF NEW
                                              UNIVERSITY OF
                                              UNIVERSITY OF
                                              UNIVERSITY OF
                                              UNIVERSITY OF
                                              WAKE FOREST
                                              WARREN WILSON
                                              WHEATON COLLEGE
                                              WOFFORD COLLEGE
                                              YALE UNIVERSITY


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