Theory Testing and Case Studies by gjy28315


									  Theory Testing and
  Case Studies
Competencies, Capabilities, and
Information Technology: Analyzing
Resources for Competitive
Advantage in Russia
Kalle Kangas (Ch. 11, pp. 190 – 213)
 What is Research?
 What is a Theory?
 Research Criteria
 A Case Study
 Discussion Questions
What is Research?
                             Executed according to a plan

 Directed                     Goal-oriented, with measurable
 Purposive
 Collection of data              For empirical research, data are
                                   used to see if theory is “true”
 To shed light on
 A theory                       A sort of stress test for theories; if
                                 theory doesn’t hold water, then it’s

                 A set of statements about reality,
                  somewhat simplified, perhaps
                      saying that X causes Y
Hypothetico-Deductive Method
(Licker, 2006)
                                Realm of Ideas and Thoughts
     Idea about
                               Theory               Hypotheses
                That are
               crafted into
                coherent             Analyzed and
                                                              Subjected to a
                                     compared to

               Views or            Data/
              experiences       Experience
             phenomena in
             the real world
                            Focus on         Reality
                and has
                                                        Focus on
                            the ideas From which are
                                                         the test
Kinds of Theories
   Pictorial: an image that stands for reality
   Descriptive: a set of dimensions that distinguish
    various elements or phenomena
   Associational: a set of statements that tell what
    phenomena appear or go together
   Causal: a set of statements that say that some
    phenomena cause other phenomena
   Implicational: a set of statements that say that some
    phenomena imply other phenomena
   Operational: a set of conditions that make things
    happen or cause parts of reality to reappear.
Examples of Theories
   The Neoclassical Theory
   The Bain Type Competition Model
   New Industrial Economies
   The Behavioral Theories of the Firm
   Agency Theory
   The Industrial Organization Approach
   Transaction Cost Theory
   Resource-Based Theory
Research Criteria
 Validity: are the results really about the
  research question? Are the data about
  phenomena what the research question is
 Reliability: are the results replicable? Are
  they generalizable to a larger set of
A Case Study
   Multiple meanings:
    a  unit of analysis (e.g. a case study of a
      particular organization)
     a research method

   A case study is an empirical inquiry that
    investigates a contemporary phenomenon
    within its real-life context (Yin, 2002).
Positivist vs. Interpretative
 Positivist Research: reality is objectively
  given and can be described by
  measurable properties
 Interpretative Research: access to reality
  (given or socially constructed) is only
  through social constructions such as
  language, consciousness and shared
Examples of Case Studies
 Markus (1983): A very well known
  example of case study research which
  clearly shows the importance of
  organizational context for the
  implementation of information systems.
 Theories tested: Resistance to MIS
 Unit of study: 2 locations in 1 organization
Problems with a Single Case Study

   Lee (1989)
     Controlled  observations
     Controlled deductions
     Replicability
     Generalizability
Other References
   Orikowski & Baroudi (1991): An excellent
    overview of the underlying epistemological
    perspectives and assumptions in IS research.
   Benbasat, Goldstein, & Mead (1987): On case
    study method in IS
   Dubé & Peré (2003): On Positivist Case
   Walsham (1995): On Interpretive case studies in
Discussion Questions
 According to Kangas, Transaction Cost
  Theory is old, static, and doesn’t hold
  water now. Do you agree?
 Try applying the theory to Outsourcing. If
  the Transaction Cost Theory holds, what
  do you expect as a situation for

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