Energy Balance of Ethanol and Biodiesel

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					Energy Balance of Ethanol
      and Biodiesel
        Alice Pilgeram
     MSU Biobased Institute

            994-1986
     pilgeram@montana.edu
• 1896. Henry Ford produced his
  first vehicle, the Quadracycle
  The Quadracylce ran on
  alcohol ($0.14/gallon)

• 1908. The Ford Model-T was
  introduced. It can run on either
  gasoline or ethanol.

• 1920,s. Discovery of Texas oil
  fields. Gasoline costs $0.18-
  0.22/gallon. Ethanol prices
  skyrocket to $0.25/gallon.
Ethanol was
blended with
gasoline
through the
30’s to increase
octane.
        Ethanol
•90% of the ethanol
produced in the US is
produced from corn
•Most of the ethanol
produced in Brazil is
produced from sugar
cane.
•Ethanol can be
produced from starch
crops and numerous
biomass crops.
                   Ethanol
• The average US automobile (10,000 miles)
  running on 100% ethanol would burn 852 gallons
  of ethanol. This would require 11 acres of
  farmland.
• 11 acres of farmland produces enough yield to
  feed 7 Americans
• In 2004, if the entire US corn crop were converted
  to ethanol it would only supply about 20% of US
  transportation fuel.
     Energy Balance
Energy Input vs. Energy Output
 Energy Balance is not necessarily
correlated with yield or profit. It is
    correlated with crop inputs
(fertilizer) and efficiency of biofuel
              production.
         Energy Balance

• How much energy is used to grow the
  raw material?
• How much energy is used to
  manufacture the fuel?
• How do we differentiate the energy
  used directly for ethanol and the energy
  used for bioproducts?
          Energy Balance of Fuels
Fuel         Energy Yield/Btu of Net Energy
             Fossil fuel consumed Loss or Gain
             (Btu)                 (%)
Gasoline                      0.80           19.5
Diesel                        0.84           15.7
Corn Ethanol                  1.34           34.0
Biodiesel                     3.20            220
                      Input Energy

                    Corn       Corn      Corn       Cellulosic
                  Ethanol    Ethanol   Ethanol       Ethanol
                  Industry   Industry State of Art State of Art
                  Average      Best
Feedstock           27,134     19,622     14,765        14,663

Processing         53,956      37,883      33,183       61,430
(Co-generation)
Total Input        81,090      57,504      47,948       76,093


                                     (BTUs/gallon of ethanol)
                Output Energy
                  Corn       Corn      Corn      Cellulosic
                Ethanol    Ethanol    Ethanol     Ethanol
                Industry   Industry   State of    State of
                Average      Best     the Art       Art
Energy in         84,100     84,100     84,100       84,100
Ethanol
Energy in Co-     27,579     36,321     36,261     115,400
products
Total Output     111,679   120,361    120,361      199,500


                                 (BTUs/gallon of ethanol)
                 Energy Balance
                  Corn       Corn          Corn        Cellulosic
                 Ethanol    Ethanol      Ethanol        Ethanol
                 Industry   Industry    hypothetical   hypothetical
                 Average      Best
Total Input        81,090     57,504        47,948         76,093

Ethanol Output     84,100     84,100        84,100         84,100

Balance              1.04        1.46          1.75           1.11


Total Output     111,679     120,361      120,361        199,500
Balance             1.38        2.09         2.51           2.62
      Value of Ethanol Co-products
                 Wet-Mill
             (1 bushel corn)

Product             Amount   Market      Total     Percent
                     (lbs)   Value       Value      Value
                              ($/lb)                 (%)
Corn Oil             1.6         $0.35     $0.58        11.1
Gluten Feed (21%)    13.5         0.05      0.68        13.0
Gluten Meal (60%)    2.6          0.12      0.31         5.9
CO2                  17.0         0.04      0.68        13.0
Ethanol              16.5         0.18      2.97        56.9
                                           $5.22        99.9
Inefficient corn production plus inefficient
ethanol production will result in a negative
energy balance
    Improving Energy Balance
• Efficiency of Crop Production
  – Yield
  – Agronomy – Lower inputs
  – New Crops
• Efficiency of Ethanol Production
  – Wet mill vs. Dry Mill
  – Starch vs. Cellulosic
   Energy Balance of Other Crops
             Manitoba Wheat Commission

Crop                      Energy Balance

Corn                      1.32

Wheat                     1.1 – 1.2

Barley                    1.1 – 1.3

Cellulosic                2.60-8.00
Miscanthus and Switchgrass

                  Yields range from
                  30-60 ton/acre in
                  Illinois.
                  Energy balance
                  should be greater
                  than 4.
However, Grassland Biomass
                           Net Energy Balance


 Grassland Biomass
      Ethanol                                            Grassland Biomass
                                                         Ethanol
                                                         Soy Biodiesel
      Soy Biodiesel

                                                         Corn Ethanol
      Corn Ethanol


                      0      2         4         6
                Ratio of Energy Output to Energy Input




                                            Tilman, Hill and Lehman, 2006
                       Impact of Population Diversity on Bioenergy Yield

                 400
                 350
% Energy Yield




                 300
                 250
                 200
                 150
                 100
                  50
                   0
                        1            2             4             8         16
                                       Number of Grass species




                                               Tilman, Hill and Lehman, 2006
Brazil has a successful Biofuel Economy
   >40% Automobile fuel = ethanol




  • Ethanol produced from sugar cane in Brazil
    sells for $0.23-0.29/liter or $0.87-
    1.09/gallon.
     Contributions to Success
• Low production costs (rain-fed cane production
  vs. irrigated)
• Plentiful unused land suitable for cane production
• Research and commercialization (disease
  resistance, yield)
• Ethanol distillaries are sugar mill/distillery
  complexes
• Flex-fuel vehicles are readily available.
Establishment of a Successful
   Ethanol Industry in MT
        Build Ethanol Plants
EthaNext (Butte, MT) has an ethanol pilot
plant. They have developed a process to de-
lignify biomass at room temperature and
identified yeast that efficiently produce
ethanol at room temperature. Their goal is to
design small regional ethanol plants capable
of processing multiple feedstocks (Crop
biomass, grains, municipal waste).
             Build Ethanol Plants




Complex with other industry (sugarbeet
plants, feed lots, malting, breweries)
          Montana Ethanol
• Scale-up production of low-input biomass crops or
  divert crop residue.
    Contributions to Success
Research and commercialization
  – Work with MSU, the Ag Experiment Station
    and the Montana Extension service to identify
    new crops and new varieties and to optimize
    production and yield.
  – Work with EthaNext and EPAC to continue to
    isolate new yeasts and enzymes for cellulosic
    and starch ethanol manufacture.
Biodiesel
Camelina sativa or “Gold of Pleasure” or Leindotter




        •     Low input/Dryland Production
        •     800-2000 lbs/acre
        •     30-40% oil/42% protein
Oil Crop yields in Central Montana
          Northern ARC
            Vegetable Oil Yield in Central Montana

     Sunflower
     Soybean
     Safflower
     Rapeseed
     Mustard 1
     Flax
     Crambe
     Canola
     Camelina


                 0      500        1000       1500   2000
                                 Lbs/acre
               Camelina Yields
Target Yield   1500 lbs/acre
Meal           1050 lbs/acre
Oil            450 lbs/acre or 60 gallons/acre

   Camelina Input Cost =   3.0 cents /pound
   Canola Input cost   =   7.5 cents/pound
Safflower may be
  better suited for
  production in
  Eastern Montana.




                      Winter canola may be
                      better suited for
                      production in Western
                      Montana
            Energy Balance vs. Yield
Plant         Oil/acre      Output:Input
Canola                122           4.2
Soy                    46           3.2
Sunflower              98           2.6
Safflower              80            ?
Camelina               60            ?
Mustard                59            ?
Flax                   49            ?
Poppy                 119            ?
                  Cost of Biodiesel Manufacter

Vegetable oil is 70% of the cost of Biodiesel Manufacture.
        Manufacturers are looking for cheap oil!

                         Vegetable        Biodiesel*
                         Oil
                         $2.40            ~$3.42**
                         $2.00            ~$2.85**
                         $1.50            ~$2.14**
                              *Sans excise tax
                              **Large-scale manufacture
• Biodiesel manufacture is a commodity
  industry
• Culinary oils are more valuable than
  biodiesel oils (i.e. Montola or camelina)
• The value of the crop is highly dependent
  upon the value of the meal byproduct.
                                                                                                        Meal
Production of high omega-3,high tocopherol eggs
    David C. Sands, Alice L. Pilgeram, Duane L. Johnson, Nick Dale and
                          Matthew M. Kirkpatrick

                                                            Omega-3 in Yolks from Camelina-fed
                                                                      Chicken Eggs
                                                        20.00



                       A v e ra g e m g o f 1 8 :3 in
                                                        15.00

                                    y o lk              10.00

                                                         5.00

                                                         0.00
                                                                 0%         5%         10%        15%
                                                                        % Camelina Seed in Feed




 Research was funded by the US Egg and Poultry Assocation.
                                                                                                     Meal
        Production of high omega-3 milk
   David C. Sands, Alice L. Pilgeram, Duane L. Johnson, Nick Dale and
                         Matthew M. Kirkpatrick



                                                      Fatty acid Content of Goat Milk

                                          25


                                          20




                         Percentage (%)
                                          15
                                                                                               Camelina
                                                                                               Control
                                          10


                                          5


                                          0
                                               18:1              18:2                   18:3
                                                              Fatty Acid




Research was funded by the MSU Biobased Institute (USDA CSREES
Special Grant). Special thanks to the Amaltheia Goat Dairy.
                                                                                           Meal

                    Saturated and Unsaturated Fatty Acids in Goat Milk

               45                                                Saturated Fatty Acid
               40                                                Unsaturated Fatty Acids
               35
               30
 Percent (%)




               25
               20
               15
               10
               5
               0
                      Camelina                         Control

                                     Treatment



Research was funded by the MSU Biobased Institute (USDA
CSREES Special Grant)
                                                                                                                              Meal
          Production of high omega-3 beef
   Darrin Boss, David C. Sands, Alice L. Pilgeram, Duane L. Johnson, and
                          Matthew M. Kirkpatrick
                                                        Weight Gain and Feed Efficiency of Cattle Finished on Soy or
                                                                             Camelina Feeds

                                                  625                                                                         13.2
                                                                                                                              13




                          Weight Gain (lbs/day)
                                                  620                                                                         12.8




                                                                                                                                     Feed Efficiency
                                                                                                                              12.6
                                                  615                                                                         12.4
                                                                                                                              12.2
                                                  610                                                                         12
                                                                                                                              11.8
                                                  605                                                                         11.6
                                                                                                                              11.4
                                                  600                                                                         11.2




                                                                                             3.




                                                                                                               7%
                                                              3.




                                                                              7%




                                                                                                5%
                                                                 5%




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                                                                                  y




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                                                                                                                     el
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Research was funded by the MSU Biobased Institute (USDA CSREES
Special Grant).
                         Omega-3 Bread
                         Omega-3 Content of Bread
                            (Wheat Montana)

                250.00
18:3 in mg/kg




                200.00

                150.00

                100.00

                 50.00

                  0.00

                          Canola                    Camelina
                                   Oil Ingrediant

Development of camelina bread is a cooperative project with
Wheat Montana Bakery
   Montana/Wyoming Innovations
• Peaks and Prairies Oilseeds (Malta, MT)
   – Canola-based motor oil (10% increase in fuel
     efficiency, reduction in emissions)
• Cam-A-Lina Fuel Additive (Butte, MT)
   – Camelina/CA fuel additive (10% increase in gasoline
     and diesel fuel efficiency, reduction in emissions)
• BioKoal (Wyoming Biodiesel
   – Coal pellets that are 30% camelina meal. Original coal
     was 8,400 Btu/lb. BioKoal is 10,600 Btu.
• Composite Wood Pellets (Sustainable Systems)
    Potential Oilseed Bioproducts

• Composite Boards – Dakota
  Burl (~$100/sheet)
• Soy Fiber/Wool Yarn
• Waxes
• Soil stabilizers
Biobased Institute
   College of Agriculture
  Montana State University