CRASH COURSE IN FIRST AID by htt39969

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									          CRASH COURSE IN
             FIRST AID
Call 911 if life threatening. Do not attempt to get to the ER in private vehicle. It is
better to use a land locked phone when calling 911, as the number/address can be
traced. If no land locked phone available, use cell phone.

CPR – See Back – Call 911 – Get AED (Clinic) –30 pumps to 2 Breaths- adult,
child and infant
       1. Tilt head, lift chin – check for breathing
       2. Give 2 breaths
       3. position hands on the center of chest
       4. Adults-2hands, child-heel of hand, infant-2fingers
       5. Push down 2 inches on chest 30 times
       6. give 2 breaths
       7. continue cycle

Choking – - See Back -Universal sign-hands at neck– can’t speak or cough -Heimlich
– if unresponsive – CPR check mouth before breath

Frequent Complaints:

Abdominal Pain-notify MD if pain occurs frequently- do not give any by mouth. If
stomach feels hard and tender to touch - seek medical attention immediately.

Asthma Attack-Make comfortable in a sitting (criss-cross applesauce) position almost
whistle while exhaling. Keep room well ventilated. Stay calm. Administer inhaler or
nebulizer per student’s asthma action plan. If no relief or distressed-call 911. If no action
plan, administer emergency nebulizer and call 911.

Bites – Human and Animal
Human-clean area with soap/water, and seek medical attention if needed. Make sure
both students have up to date immunizations.
Animal-if able, flush bitten area with water, cover with sterile dressing, avoid movement
of affected area, seek medical attention at once, 911 if needed. Also, notify police or
animal control (have animal captured).

Bleeding- wear gloves. Apply direct pressure over wound with sterile gauze or clean
cloth. Apply pressure bandage/dressing. Elevate, if an extremity is involved. If bleeding
continues, call 911/seek medical attention. DO NOT disturb blood clots, remove
dressing, apply tourniquet or give anything by mouth.

Broken Tooth-if tooth knocked out; rinse tooth in cool water or milk, rinse mouth with
cool water. If able, put tooth back in socket until adjacent with other teeth. Adhere with
chewing gum, dental wax, etc. Take to dentist immediately. (If unable to reinsert tooth,
place tooth in cup of cool water or milk). DO NOT give anything by mouth. DO NOT
put aspirin on site to relieve pain.

Burns-Do not apply anything to burn other than cool water (or what is prescribed by
MD).
Thermal 1st degree: for redness apply cool water applications (NO ICE), apply dry
dressing if needed.
2nd degree: blister (DO NOT break blister). Immerse burn in cool water or apply
cool/wet applications. Blot dry and apply sterile dressing. If arms/legs involved,
elevate. Seek medical attention as needed.
3rd degree: charred. Call 911. Cover burns with thick sterile gauze or clean cloths.
Elevate involved limbs. Do not removed charred clothing that is adhered. Do not
immerse or apply water/ice. Do not apply ointment, etc.

Diabetes-
Low Blood Sugar-Insulin shock/hypoglycemia (very low blood sugar-too much insulin):
pale face, moist skin, weak, trembling, headache, faint, confusion, nausea, dizziness,
drowsiness. If unconscious, inject glucagons (if available and you are trained) and call
911. If awake, give fruit juice, regular soft drink (1/2-1/3 cup), or ¼-1/3 candy bar, cake
frosting or 2 packets (2 tsp) sugar for a rescue- followed by a snack. May need coaxing
to eat. Notify parent.
High Blood Sugar -Diabetic Coma/hyperglycemia (Very high blood sugar-too little
insulin): sweet, fruity odor of breath, flushed face, dry skin, labored breathing, increased
thirst, frequent urination, nausea/vomiting. Encourage drinking water if less then 2 hours
from last dose of insulin. If greater then 2 hours from last insulin – give a correction –
inject insulin per care plan. May need to check ketone levels (urine test)- refer to care
plan. Notify parent. If uncontrolled may become unconscious. If unconscious- call 911.

Dislocation- R.I.C.E- rest, ice, compress, elevate
Splint and immobilize affected joint in position which was found (can splint with
magazine/soft cover book, tape together with any type tape). Take to MD. DO NOT
attempt to put back in place even if it is just a finger.

Eye injuries-
Foreign body in eye-flush eye with tepid water for several minutes, cover with gauze if
unable to flush out, medical attention if necessary
Injury of eyelid-stop bleeding, clean with water, apply sterile dressing, prevent swelling
with cold application, call 911 or to MD ASAP
Penetrating eye injury-keep victim flat, DO NOT REMOVE OBJECT, avoid side to
side head movement, call 911, apply sterile dressing
Food Allergies: Check if student has a food allergy action plan, if so follow it. If not –
        Minor reaction – skin rash, itching, lungs clear – give emergency Benedryl per
label and wash area if contacted
        Major reaction – distress breathing, coughing, major swelling etc – give
emergency Epi pen, Call 911

Fracture/suspected fracture- R.I.C.E- rest, ice, compress, elevate – seek medical
attention
Open fracture-(bone through skin), call 911, if able, splint in position found and apply
dry sterile dressing
Closed fracture-(bone does not penetrate skin), if able, splint in position found, elevate
extremity, apply cold pack, seek medical attention
Remember – children can “buckle” fracture or bend bone – not always swollen, bruised
and may be able to move area

Headache-rest. The following requires immediate medical attention-headache with
vomiting, and/or high fever, and/or convulsions, and/or loss of consciousness, and/or if
headache follows a head injury.

Heat Problems
Heat Cramps-exert firm pressure on cramped muscle with hands or massage area gently;
allow to cool off/cool water to sip.
Heat Exhaustion- skin pale, clammy; accompanied by fatigue, faintness, nausea,
headache, sweating profusely, muscle spasms common. Air conditioned room if
possible, lie down, raise feet, loosen clothing, sips of water (if vomits, do not give water),
call 911.
Heat Stroke-skin is red, hot, dry, may be unconscious, extremely high fever, disoriented,
twitching, seizures. Call 911. Put in air conditioned room if possible. Sponge with
water/apply cold pads. If able, offer sips of water. If person vomits, do not give water.

Nosebleed-sitting position, press side of nose bleeding or if both nostril involved press
both nostrils together. Lean forward and bend head down. May need to apply pressure
for 10 minutes, can apply cold compresses to nose/face. Do not bend head backwards.

Puncture Wounds-rinse wound/wash with soap-water, blot with sterile pad apply sterile
dressing, seek medical attention-may need tetanus shot. If deeply penetrated by an
object-do not remove object (make comfortable/call 911).

Seizures- prevent victim from harm. Loosen constrictive clothing. DO NOT force blunt
object into mouth. Do NOT restrain. DO NOT give anything by mouth unless
completely awake. If able, assist to side lying position. If this is a first seizure or last
longer then 5 minutes -Call 911 or seek medical attention. If student stops breathing,
administer rescue breathing and CPR if needed- Call 911. Give rectal Diastat, if indicated
in care plan. If seizure is less then 5 minutes and student is known to have seizures-
document time, type, treatment and refer to care plan. Allow to rest after seizure. Notify
parent.

Shock-skin is pale/bluish, cool to touch, skin moist to touch/clammy, may have
weakness, rapid pulse, rapid breathing, dilated pupils. Give urgent first aid (ie stop
bleeding), keep lying down flat, call 911. DO NOT give anything by mouth, don’t move
if suspect severe fracture or spinal injury

Snake Bite-snakebite (or suspected snakebite) needs medical attention (regardless if
poisonous or nonpoisonous). Keep from moving around, keep calm, prefer to have
victim in lying down position, , immobilize site, keep it at or below level of heart, call
911, observe for shock, urgent first aid if necessary, wash wound with soap/water, try to
kill snake to take to hospital (for identification), do not give anything by mouth.

 Spinal Injury-call 911, do not move unless in immediate danger. If needed, give
urgent first aid. Rule of thumb: if victim fell and distance is that of victim’s height, need
to call 911.

Sprain/Strain – R.I.C.E – rest, ice, compress, elevate – See suspected fracture.

Stings/Insect Bites-
Minor-remove stinger if present using a credit card not tweezers then wash site with
soap/water, apply cold application and baking soda paste, do not give aspirin
Severe reaction (may have swelling/hives, difficulty breathing, may complain of tongue
/throat itching or tingling or tickling)-Give Benedryl per emergency protocol, if no
relief -give epi pen injection per emergency protocol. Follow instructions for minor
sting, but do not give anything by mouth.

Toothache-advise to take to dentist, ambesol for pain relief


CPR GUIDELINES
For practice and great video - http://depts.washington.edu/learncpr/ 30
compressions/ 2 breaths
If the person is sitting or
standing, stand behind him or
her. Form a fist with one hand
and place your fist, thumb side
in, just below the person’s rib
cage in the front. Grab your fist
with your other hand. Keeping
your arms off the person’s rib
cage, give four quick inward and
upward thrusts. You may have
to repeat this several times until
the obstructing object is
coughed out.




                             Step 1.
 Determine if the person can speak or
                               cough.
     If not, proceed to the next step.




                             Step 2.
Perform an abdominal thrust (Heimlich
Maneuver) repeatedly until the foreign
                    body is expelled.




                             Step 3.
      A chest thrust may be used for
    markedly obese persons or in late
                stages of pregnancy.




 If the adult or child becomes unresponsive perform CPR.
  if you see an object in the throat or mouth, remove it.

								
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