CRASH COURSE IN FIRST AID Call 911 if life threatening. Do not attempt to get to the ER in private vehicle. It is better to use a land locked phone when calling 911, as the number/address can be traced. If no land locked phone available, use cell phone. CPR – See Back – Call 911 – Get AED (Clinic) –30 pumps to 2 Breaths- adult, child and infant 1. Tilt head, lift chin – check for breathing 2. Give 2 breaths 3. position hands on the center of chest 4. Adults-2hands, child-heel of hand, infant-2fingers 5. Push down 2 inches on chest 30 times 6. give 2 breaths 7. continue cycle Choking – - See Back -Universal sign-hands at neck– can’t speak or cough -Heimlich – if unresponsive – CPR check mouth before breath Frequent Complaints: Abdominal Pain-notify MD if pain occurs frequently- do not give any by mouth. If stomach feels hard and tender to touch - seek medical attention immediately. Asthma Attack-Make comfortable in a sitting (criss-cross applesauce) position almost whistle while exhaling. Keep room well ventilated. Stay calm. Administer inhaler or nebulizer per student’s asthma action plan. If no relief or distressed-call 911. If no action plan, administer emergency nebulizer and call 911. Bites – Human and Animal Human-clean area with soap/water, and seek medical attention if needed. Make sure both students have up to date immunizations. Animal-if able, flush bitten area with water, cover with sterile dressing, avoid movement of affected area, seek medical attention at once, 911 if needed. Also, notify police or animal control (have animal captured). Bleeding- wear gloves. Apply direct pressure over wound with sterile gauze or clean cloth. Apply pressure bandage/dressing. Elevate, if an extremity is involved. If bleeding continues, call 911/seek medical attention. DO NOT disturb blood clots, remove dressing, apply tourniquet or give anything by mouth. Broken Tooth-if tooth knocked out; rinse tooth in cool water or milk, rinse mouth with cool water. If able, put tooth back in socket until adjacent with other teeth. Adhere with chewing gum, dental wax, etc. Take to dentist immediately. (If unable to reinsert tooth, place tooth in cup of cool water or milk). DO NOT give anything by mouth. DO NOT put aspirin on site to relieve pain. Burns-Do not apply anything to burn other than cool water (or what is prescribed by MD). Thermal 1st degree: for redness apply cool water applications (NO ICE), apply dry dressing if needed. 2nd degree: blister (DO NOT break blister). Immerse burn in cool water or apply cool/wet applications. Blot dry and apply sterile dressing. If arms/legs involved, elevate. Seek medical attention as needed. 3rd degree: charred. Call 911. Cover burns with thick sterile gauze or clean cloths. Elevate involved limbs. Do not removed charred clothing that is adhered. Do not immerse or apply water/ice. Do not apply ointment, etc. Diabetes- Low Blood Sugar-Insulin shock/hypoglycemia (very low blood sugar-too much insulin): pale face, moist skin, weak, trembling, headache, faint, confusion, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness. If unconscious, inject glucagons (if available and you are trained) and call 911. If awake, give fruit juice, regular soft drink (1/2-1/3 cup), or ¼-1/3 candy bar, cake frosting or 2 packets (2 tsp) sugar for a rescue- followed by a snack. May need coaxing to eat. Notify parent. High Blood Sugar -Diabetic Coma/hyperglycemia (Very high blood sugar-too little insulin): sweet, fruity odor of breath, flushed face, dry skin, labored breathing, increased thirst, frequent urination, nausea/vomiting. Encourage drinking water if less then 2 hours from last dose of insulin. If greater then 2 hours from last insulin – give a correction – inject insulin per care plan. May need to check ketone levels (urine test)- refer to care plan. Notify parent. If uncontrolled may become unconscious. If unconscious- call 911. Dislocation- R.I.C.E- rest, ice, compress, elevate Splint and immobilize affected joint in position which was found (can splint with magazine/soft cover book, tape together with any type tape). Take to MD. DO NOT attempt to put back in place even if it is just a finger. Eye injuries- Foreign body in eye-flush eye with tepid water for several minutes, cover with gauze if unable to flush out, medical attention if necessary Injury of eyelid-stop bleeding, clean with water, apply sterile dressing, prevent swelling with cold application, call 911 or to MD ASAP Penetrating eye injury-keep victim flat, DO NOT REMOVE OBJECT, avoid side to side head movement, call 911, apply sterile dressing Food Allergies: Check if student has a food allergy action plan, if so follow it. If not – Minor reaction – skin rash, itching, lungs clear – give emergency Benedryl per label and wash area if contacted Major reaction – distress breathing, coughing, major swelling etc – give emergency Epi pen, Call 911 Fracture/suspected fracture- R.I.C.E- rest, ice, compress, elevate – seek medical attention Open fracture-(bone through skin), call 911, if able, splint in position found and apply dry sterile dressing Closed fracture-(bone does not penetrate skin), if able, splint in position found, elevate extremity, apply cold pack, seek medical attention Remember – children can “buckle” fracture or bend bone – not always swollen, bruised and may be able to move area Headache-rest. The following requires immediate medical attention-headache with vomiting, and/or high fever, and/or convulsions, and/or loss of consciousness, and/or if headache follows a head injury. Heat Problems Heat Cramps-exert firm pressure on cramped muscle with hands or massage area gently; allow to cool off/cool water to sip. Heat Exhaustion- skin pale, clammy; accompanied by fatigue, faintness, nausea, headache, sweating profusely, muscle spasms common. Air conditioned room if possible, lie down, raise feet, loosen clothing, sips of water (if vomits, do not give water), call 911. Heat Stroke-skin is red, hot, dry, may be unconscious, extremely high fever, disoriented, twitching, seizures. Call 911. Put in air conditioned room if possible. Sponge with water/apply cold pads. If able, offer sips of water. If person vomits, do not give water. Nosebleed-sitting position, press side of nose bleeding or if both nostril involved press both nostrils together. Lean forward and bend head down. May need to apply pressure for 10 minutes, can apply cold compresses to nose/face. Do not bend head backwards. Puncture Wounds-rinse wound/wash with soap-water, blot with sterile pad apply sterile dressing, seek medical attention-may need tetanus shot. If deeply penetrated by an object-do not remove object (make comfortable/call 911). Seizures- prevent victim from harm. Loosen constrictive clothing. DO NOT force blunt object into mouth. Do NOT restrain. DO NOT give anything by mouth unless completely awake. If able, assist to side lying position. If this is a first seizure or last longer then 5 minutes -Call 911 or seek medical attention. If student stops breathing, administer rescue breathing and CPR if needed- Call 911. Give rectal Diastat, if indicated in care plan. If seizure is less then 5 minutes and student is known to have seizures- document time, type, treatment and refer to care plan. Allow to rest after seizure. Notify parent. Shock-skin is pale/bluish, cool to touch, skin moist to touch/clammy, may have weakness, rapid pulse, rapid breathing, dilated pupils. Give urgent first aid (ie stop bleeding), keep lying down flat, call 911. DO NOT give anything by mouth, don’t move if suspect severe fracture or spinal injury Snake Bite-snakebite (or suspected snakebite) needs medical attention (regardless if poisonous or nonpoisonous). Keep from moving around, keep calm, prefer to have victim in lying down position, , immobilize site, keep it at or below level of heart, call 911, observe for shock, urgent first aid if necessary, wash wound with soap/water, try to kill snake to take to hospital (for identification), do not give anything by mouth. Spinal Injury-call 911, do not move unless in immediate danger. If needed, give urgent first aid. Rule of thumb: if victim fell and distance is that of victim’s height, need to call 911. Sprain/Strain – R.I.C.E – rest, ice, compress, elevate – See suspected fracture. Stings/Insect Bites- Minor-remove stinger if present using a credit card not tweezers then wash site with soap/water, apply cold application and baking soda paste, do not give aspirin Severe reaction (may have swelling/hives, difficulty breathing, may complain of tongue /throat itching or tingling or tickling)-Give Benedryl per emergency protocol, if no relief -give epi pen injection per emergency protocol. Follow instructions for minor sting, but do not give anything by mouth. Toothache-advise to take to dentist, ambesol for pain relief CPR GUIDELINES For practice and great video - http://depts.washington.edu/learncpr/ 30 compressions/ 2 breaths If the person is sitting or standing, stand behind him or her. Form a fist with one hand and place your fist, thumb side in, just below the person’s rib cage in the front. Grab your fist with your other hand. Keeping your arms off the person’s rib cage, give four quick inward and upward thrusts. You may have to repeat this several times until the obstructing object is coughed out. Step 1. Determine if the person can speak or cough. If not, proceed to the next step. Step 2. Perform an abdominal thrust (Heimlich Maneuver) repeatedly until the foreign body is expelled. Step 3. A chest thrust may be used for markedly obese persons or in late stages of pregnancy. If the adult or child becomes unresponsive perform CPR. if you see an object in the throat or mouth, remove it.
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