Using and Integrating Quotations by htt39969


									                                  Using and Integrating Quotations

Once you've carefully selected the quotations that you want to use, your next job is to weave those
quotations into your text. The words that precede and follow a quotation are just as important as the
quotation itself.

First, avoid beginning a paragraph with a quotation. This is because paragraphs usually begin with topic
sentences, and beginning a paragraph with a quotation may limits what the writer should talk about in the
paragraph to only the quoted words. However, it's sometimes effective to begin an introduction with a
thought-provoking quotation.

Second, avoid ending a paragraph with a quotation. This is because quotations, especially when they are
used as supporting evidence, often require some explanation from the writer. Ending a paragraph with a
quotation does not allow for this explanation. In addition, a quotation at the end of a paragraph often does
not serve as an effective transitional sentence into the next paragraph.

In illustrating four important steps, we'll use, as our example, Franklin Roosevelt's famous quotation, "The
only thing we have to fear is fear itself."

I. Provide a context for each quotation.
Do not rely on quotations to tell your story for you. It is your responsibility to provide your reader with
context for the quotation. The context should set the basic scene for when, possibly where, and under what
circumstances the quotation was spoken or written. So, in providing a context for our above example, you
might write:

When Franklin Roosevelt gave his inaugural speech on March 4, 1933, he addressed a nation
weakened and demoralized by economic depression.

II. Attribute each quotation to its source.
Even if you place an internal citation after a quotation, you must still attribute the quotation within the text.
What is attribution? Simply tell your reader who is speaking. A good rule of thumb is this: Try reading
your text aloud. Could your reader determine without looking at your paper where your quotations begin?
If not, your paper probably contains "hanging quotations," which leave your reader hanging because they
lack attribution.

III. Explain the significance of the quotation.
Once you've inserted your quotation, along with its context and attribution, don't stop! Your reader still
needs your assessment of why the quotation holds significance for your paper. Using our Roosevelt
example, if you were writing a paper on the first one-hundred days of FDR's administration, you might
follow the quotation by linking it to that topic:

With that message of hope and confidence, the new president set the stage for his next one-
hundred days in office and helped restore the faith of the American people in their government.

IV. Provide a citation for the quotation.
All quotations, just like all paraphrases, require a formal citation. In general, you should remember one rule
of thumb: Place the parenthetical reference or footnote/endnote number after—not within—the closed
quotation mark.

Roosevelt declared, "The only thing we have to fear is fear itself" (Roosevelt, Public Papers 11).

Part 1: Honesty
1A. Quoting the words of others carries a big responsibility. Misquoting misrepresents the ideas of others.

Here's a classic example of a misquote:
Example: John Adams has often been quoted as having said: "This would be the best of all possible worlds
if there were no religion in it."

John Adams did, in fact, write the above words. But if you see those words in context, the meaning changes
entirely. Here's the rest of the quotation:

Example: Twenty times, in the course of my late reading, have I been on the point of breaking out, 'this
would be the best of all possible worlds, if there were no religion in it!!!!' But in this exclamation, I should
have been as fanatical as Bryant or Cleverly. Without religion, this world would be something not fit to be
mentioned in public company—I mean hell.

Part 2: Integration
You should never have a quotation standing alone as a complete sentence, or, worse yet, as an incomplete
sentence, in your writing. A stand-alone sentence can be compared to a balloon filled with helium. We all
know what happens when you let go of a helium balloon: it flies away. In a way, the same thing happens
when you present a quotation that is standing all by itself in your writing, a quotation that is not "held
down" by one of your own sentences. The quotation will seem disconnected from your own thoughts and
from the flow of your sentences. Ways to integrate a sentence are given below.

2A. Introduce the quotation with a complete sentence and a colon.

Example: In "Where I Lived, and What I Lived For," Thoreau states directly his purpose for going into the
woods: "I went to the woods because I wished to live deliberately, to front only the essential facts of life,
and see if I could not learn what it had to teach, and not, when I came to die, discover that I had not lived."

Example: Thoreau's philosophy might be summed up best by his repeated request for people to ignore the
insignificant details of life: "Our life is frittered away by detail. An honest man has hardly needs to count
more than his ten fingers, or in extreme cases he may add his ten toes, and lump the rest. Simplicity,
simplicity, simplicity!"

Example: Thoreau ends his essay with a metaphor: "Time is but the stream I go a-fishing in."

This is an easy rule to remember: if you use a complete sentence to introduce a quotation, you need a colon
after the sentence. Using a comma in this situation will most likely create a comma splice, one of the
serious sentence-boundary errors. Be careful not to confuse a colon (:) with a semicolon (;).

2B. Use an introductory or explanatory phrase, but not a complete sentence, separated from the quotation
with a comma.

Example: In "Where I Lived, and What I Lived For," Thoreau states directly his purpose for going into the
woods when he says, "I went to the woods because I wished to live deliberately, to front only the essential
facts of life, and see if I could not learn what it had to teach, and not, when I came to die, discover that I
had not lived."

Example: "We do not ride on the railroad; it rides upon us," Thoreau says as he suggests the consequences
of making ourselves slaves to "progress."

Example: Thoreau asks, "Why should we live with such hurry and waste of life?"

Example: According to Thoreau, "We do not ride on the railroad; it rides upon us."

You should use a comma to separate your own words from the quotation when your introductory or
explanatory phrase ends with a verb such as "says," "said," "thinks," "believes," "pondered," "recalls,"
"questions," and "asks" (and many more). You should also use a comma when you introduce a quotation
with a phrase such as "According to Thoreau."

                                                                           Integrating Quotations 2
2C. Make the quotation a part of your own sentence without any punctuation between your own words and
the words you are quoting.

Example: In "Where I Lived, and What I Lived For," Thoreau states directly his purpose for going into the
woods when he says that "I went to the woods because I wished to live deliberately, to front only the
essential facts of life, and see if I could not learn what it had to teach, and not, when I came to die, discover
that I had not lived."

Example: Thoreau argues that "shams and delusions are esteemed for soundest truths, while reality is

Example: According to Thoreau, people are too often "thrown off the track by every nutshell and
mosquito's wing that falls on the rails."

Notice that the word "that" is used in two of the examples above, and when it is used as it is in the
examples, "that" replaces the comma which would be necessary without "that" in the sentence. You usually
have a choice, then, when you begin a sentence with a phrase such as "Thoreau says." You either can add a
comma after "says," or you can add the word "that," with no comma.

2D. Use very short quotations--only a few words--as part of your own sentence.

Example: In "Where I Lived, and What I Lived For," Thoreau states that his retreat to the woods around
Walden Pond was motivated by his desire "to live deliberately" and to face only "the essential facts of life."
Example: Thoreau argues that people blindly accept "shams and delusions" as the "soundest truths," while
regarding reality as "fabulous."

Example: Although Thoreau "drink[s] at" the stream of Time, he can "detect how shallow it is."

When you integrate quotations in this way, you do not use any special punctuation. Instead, you should
punctuate the sentence just as you would if all of the words were your own. All of the methods above for
integrating quotations are correct, but you should avoid relying too much on just one method. You should
instead use a variety of methods.

Part 3: Mechanical Issues

3A. Ellipses
An ellipsis is three periods, separated from one another with a space (. . .), and an ellipsis is used to indicate
that material has been deleted from a quotation. It's all right to delete material from a quotation, as long as
the deleted material is not vital to the meaning of the quotation and as long as the quoted words convey the
same meaning as they do in the source. Note the example below:

Example: Dillard says that the weasel "bites his prey at the neck . . . and he does not let go."

The ellipsis is used well in this example. The deleted material is "either splitting the jugular vein at the
throat or crunching the brain at the base of the skull." Deleting the specifics of how the weasel kills its prey,
as in the example above, does not change the meaning of the quoted words.

When you use an ellipsis, realize that, in terms of the grammar of the sentence, the ellipsis points are
"invisible." In other words, the ellipsis is read in the same way that someone would read a single space
between words. Therefore, you must make sure that the words before and after the ellipsis points make
sense together, both logically and grammatically.

3B. Punctuation

1. Keep period ands commas inside quotation marks.

                                                                            Integrating Quotations 3
Example: According to Professor Jones, Lincoln "feared the spread of slavery," but many of his aides
advised him to "watch and wait" (Jones 143).

2. Place all other punctuation marks (colons, semicolons, exclamation marks, question marks) outside the
quotation marks, except when they were part of the original quotation.

Example: The student wrote that the U. S. Civil War "finally ended around 1900"!
Example: The coach yelled, "Run!"

3. Quotation marks inside quotation marks
If you are quoting a passage that contains a quotation, then you use single quotation marks for the internal
quotation. Quite rarely, you quote a passage that has a quotation within a quotation. In that rare instance,
you would use double quotation marks for the second internal quotation.

Example: In "The Emperor's New Clothes," Hans Christian Andersen wrote, "'But the Emperor has nothing
on at all!' cried a little child."

3C. Grammar Issues
Sometimes it is necessary for clarity and flow to alter a word or words within a quotation. You should
make such changes rarely. In order to alert your reader to the changes you've made, you should always
bracket the altered words. Here are a few examples of situations when you might need brackets.

1. Changing verb tense or pronouns in order to be consistent with the rest of the sentence.
Suppose you were quoting a woman who, when asked about her experiences immigrating to the United
States, commented "nobody understood me." You might write:

Esther Hansen felt that when she came to the United States "nobody understood [her]."

In the above example, you've changed "me" to "her" in order to keep the entire passage in third person.
However, you could avoid the need for this change by simply rephrasing:

"Nobody understood me," recalled Danish immigrant Esther Hansen.

If a pronoun is unclear:

Dillard was "stunned into stillness as he was emerging from beneath an enormous shaggy wild
rose bush four feet away."

Can be changed to: Dillard was "stunned into stillness as [the weasel] was emerging from beneath
an enormous shaggy wild rose bush four feet away."

2. Indicating the use of nonstandard grammar or spelling.
In rare situations, you may quote from a text that has nonstandard grammar, spelling, or word choice. In
such cases, you may want to insert [sic], which means "thus" or "so" in Latin. Using [sic] alerts your reader
to the fact that this nonstandard language is not the result of a typo on your part. Always italicize "sic" and
enclose it in brackets. There is no need to put a period at the end.

Twelve-year-old Betsy Smith wrote in her diary, "Father is afraid that he will be guilty of beach
[sic] of contract."

Here [sic] indicates that the original author wrote "beach of contract," not breach of contract, which is the
accepted terminology.

                                                                          Integrating Quotations 4

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