E. Economic indicators F. Social indicators

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					Charting the Mediterranean Child                               Demographic Indicators




              A. Demographic indicators
                       A.1         Child population
                       A.2         Birth rate
                       A.3         Birth registration
                       A.4         Fertility rate
                       A.5         Infant mortality rate
                       A.6         Under-five mortality rate
                       A.7         Life expectancy
                       A.8         Healthy life expectancy
                       A.9         Urban population
                       A.10        Migration
                       A.11        Divorces


              B. Nutrition
              C. Health
              D. Education
              E. Economic indicators
              F. Social indicators




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   Charting the Mediterranean Child                                                       Demographic Indicators




Child population
A 1.1 - Total population projections by regions, 2005 - 2015 - 2025                                   Pg 127
A 1.2 - Under-5 population (as % of total), 2003                                                      Pg 128
A 1.3 - Under-5 population (as % of total), projections, 2000 - 2050                                  Pg 129
A 1.4 - Under-5 population by region (as % of total) projections, 2000 - 2050                         Pg 130
A 1.5 - Under-15 population (as % of total), 2002                                                     Pg 131
A 1.6 - Under-15 population (as % of total), projections, 2000 - 2050                                 Pg 132
A 1.7 - Under-15 population by region (as % of total), projections, 2000 - 2050                       Pg 133
A 1.8 - Under-18 population (as % of total), 2003                                                     Pg 134
A 1.9 - Under-20 population (as % of total), projections, 2000 - 2050                                 Pg 135
A 1.10 - Under-20 population by region (as % of total), projections, 2000 - 2050                      Pg 136
A 1.11 - Population by age-groups (thousands), projections, 2000 - 2050                               Pg 137
A 1.12 - Child Dependency Ratios by region, projections, 2000 - 2050                                  Pg 138
A 1.13 - Child Dependency Ratios, projections, 2000 - 2050                                            Pg 139
Birth rate
A 2.1 - Crude birth rate (annual number of births per 1,000 population), 1970 and 2003                Pg 140
A 2.2 - Annual number of births (thousands), 2003                                                     Pg 141
Birth registration
A 3 - Annual births not registered by region (as % of total), 2000                                    Pg 142
Fertility rate
A 4.1 - Total fertility rate (average number of children per woman), 2003                             Pg 143
A 4.2 - Total fertility rate (average number of children per woman), 1960, 1990, 2001 and 2003        Pg 144
Infant mortality rate
A 5 - Infant mortality rate (probability of dying between birth and exactly one year of age expressed
                                                                                                      Pg 145
per 1,000 live births), 1960 and 2003
Under-five mortality rate
A 6.1 - Under-five mortality rate (probability of dying between birth and exactly five years of age
                                                                                                      Pg 146
expressed per 1,000 live births), 2003
A 6.2 - Under-five mortality rate (probability of dying between birth and exactly five years of age
                                                                                                      Pg 147
expressed per 1,000 live births), 1960, 1990 and 2003
A 6.3 - Annual number of deaths under the age of five (thousands), 2003                               Pg 148
Life expectancy
A 7.1 - Life expectancy at birth (years), 2002                                                        Pg 149
A 7.2 - Life expectancy at birth by gender (years), 2002                                              Pg 150
Healthy life expectancy
A 8.1 - Healthy life expectancy (HALE) at birth by gender (years), 2002                               Pg 151
A 8.2 - Healthy life expectancy (HALE) at birth and at age 60 by gender (years), 2002                 Pg 152
Urban population
A 9.1 - Urban population (as % of total), 2003                                                        Pg 153
A 9.2 - Urban population (as % of total), 2003 and average annual growth rate, 1990 - 2003            Pg 154
Migration
A 10.1 - Migrant and refugees stock estimation, 2000                                                  Pg 155
A 10.2 - Net migration, 1995 - 2000                                                                   Pg 156
Divorces
A 11 - Divorces and crude divorce rates, 1997 - 2001                                                  Pg 157




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        1.1 Child population

        The combined total population of countries in the Middle East will sharply increase between 2005 and
        2025, while the number of working age adults will double, and the number of elderly triple.
        The child population will increase by around 30 percent. The increase in population size will be more
        rapid in some countries than in others. Yemen, for instance, will experience an abrupt population
        explosion in the coming years. A similar upward trend in population size, though not as steep, will also
        occur in the North Africa region.
        In the north Mediterranean countries, the opposite will occur. In Europe, the total population will
        remain almost stable, experiencing a slight downward trend. Dramatic changes, however, will occur in
        the population composition, where we will see a declining trend in the child population and an upward
        trend in the number of the elderly.



        Total population projections by regions, 2005 - 2015 - 2025

          300,000



          250,000



          200,000



          150,000



          100,000



           50,000



                 0
                                2005                          2015                          2025

                                                     MENA         Europe        NA       Eastern Europe



        Source: The World Bank, 2003




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        1.2 Child population

        Analysis of the demographic characteristics of countries in the Euro-Mediterranean area with
        respect to the under-five population reveals sharp differences between the nations to the north and
        south of the Mediterranean. While the countries considered in southern Europe and the Arab region
        tend to coincide as a whole in terms of overall population, a significant gap emerges with regard to
        trends in their demographic characteristics. In southern Europe, with the exception of Turkey and
        Albania, the under-five population, expressed as a proportion of total population, is around the
        average value for the industrialized countries (5.3%) . While the average value of 11% shown for the
        developing countries is reflected in North Africa, a much higher proportion is found in the countries
        of the Middle East and the Arabian peninsula. The proportion under 5-years of age is between 13-
        15% in Jordan, Iraq, Oman and Saudi Arabia, rising to over 18% in Palestine and Yemen.




        Under-5 population (as % of total), 2003

                           Bahrain                                                 9.8
                              Iran                                              9.0
                              Iraq                                                                               15.2
                            Kuwait                                                   9.7
                             Oman                                                                           14.3
                             Qatar                                                  9.2
                      Saudi Arabia                                                                           14.6
              United Arab Emirates                                            8.2                                       19.0
                            Yemen

                              Israel                                                  9.8
                             Jordan                                                                       13.4
                           Lebanon                                                  9.2
              Occ. Palestinian Terr.                                                                                    18.0
              Syrian Arab Republic                                                                   13.0

                           Algeria                                                        10.5
                            Egypt                                                                  12.1
            Libyan Arab Jamahiriya                                                          10.8
                          Morocco                                                           10.8
                           Tunisia                                            8.2

                          Albania                                              8.7
               Bosnia and Herz.na                           4.9
                         Bulgaria                     3.9
                          Croatia                           5.4
                         Romania                           5.1
            Serbia and Montenegro                             5.9
                         Slovenia                       4.3
                  TFYR Macedonia                                        7.0
                           Turkey                                                     9.9

                              Cyprus                               6.5
                              France                               6.3
                              Greece                     4.6
                                Italy                    4.5
                               Malta                              5.8
                               Spain                     4.7




        Source: The State of the World's Children, UNICEF, 2005




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             1.3 Child population

             Over the next fifty years or so, the relative size of the under-5 population will decrease
             sharply in countries in the Middle East and North Africa. This expected downward trend is
             illustrated by the following two figures, which show the projected trend in the relative size of
             the under-5 population for 2000 and 2050.
             In the Middle East and North Africa, a major factor contributing to this trend is related directly
             to the expected magnitude of the fall in fertility levels. For the South European countries,
             which already have low fertility levels, the expected decreases in the relative size of the
             under-5 population will be negligible.

             Under-5 population (as % of total), projections, 2000 - 2050

                                 Bahrain                               10.6
                                                         5.7
                                      Iran                       9.0
                                                         5.8
                                      Iraq                                           15.6
                                                               7.4
                                   Kuwait                             10.2
                                                        5.5
                                    Oman                                          14.0
                                                               7.9
                                    Qatar                             10.3
                                                         5.9
                            Saudi Arabia                                            14.9
                                                           6.9
                 United Arab Emirates                            8.9
                                                        5.4
                                   Yemen                                                    19.2
                                                                            12.1


                                    Israel                            10.2
                                                         5.8
                                   Jordan                                         14.1
                                                          6.3
                                 Lebanon                             9.6
                                                         5.6
                  Occ. Palestinian Terr.                                                    18.6
                                                                 9.0
                  Syrian Arab Republic                                            13.5
                                                          6.3


                                   Algeria                             10.9
                                                         5.8
                                    Egypt                                    12.2
                                                          6.4
               Libyan Arab Jamahiriya                                  10.8
                                                         6.1
                                 Morocco                                   11.0
                                                         6.1
                                  Tunisia                        8.8
                                                        5.5
                                                                                                        2000

                                                                     9.2                                2050
                                  Albania               5.5
                    Bosnia and Herz.na                 5.1
                                                      4.6
                                 Bulgaria            4.0
                                                      4.5
                                  Croatia               5.4
                                                       5.1
                                Romania                5.1
                                                      4.8
                Serbia and Montenegro                    6.1
                                                       5.0
                                 Slovenia             4.6
                                                     4.2
                       TFYR Macedonia                      7.1
                                                       5.4
                                   Turkey                              10.4
                                                        5.6


                                  Cyprus                   6.7
                                                        5.3
                                   France                 6.2
                                                        5.2
                                   Greece              4.7
                                                      4.4
                                      Italy            4.6
                                                      4.2
                                    Malta                 6.0
                                                        5.1
                                    Spain              4.7
                                                      4.3



             Source: UN, 2003




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        1.4 Child population

        Under-5 population by region (as % of total) projections, 2000 - 2050


                     2000           2050




                                                        12.38

                                    11.29

                                                                                                10.17




                                                              7.18
                                           6.85                                                        6.62
                5.58
                       5.16




             More developed      Less developed           MENA                                     World
               regions (1)         regions (2)


        (1) The more developed regions comprise all regions of Europe plus Northern America, Australia/New
        Zealand and Japan.

        (2) The less developed regions comprise all regions of Africa, Asia (excluding Japan), Latin America and the
        Caribbean plus Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia.


        Source: Lynkeus' processing of UN 2003 data




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Charting the Mediterranean Child                                                                                  Demographic Indicators



           1.5 Child population

           A marked gap is also observed between the areas south and north of the Mediterranean with
           respect to the under-15 population, but with considerable differences existing within these two
           large geographical zones. While the proportion under 15-years of age in the countries of
           Southwest Europe is below the average for the industrialized countries (16.7%), this
           proportion is markedly higher in the Balkan region, where it rises to 28% in Albania and
           Turkey. The proportion under age15 is in the range 30-35% in Iran, Lebanon and five of six
           countries in North Africa, rising to between 39-42% in Iraq, Oman, Palestine and Saudi
           Arabia, with a peak of 46% in both Syria and Yemen.



            Under-15 population (as % of total), 2002

                             Bahrain                                            27.4
                                Iran                                                30.5
                                Iraq                                                              40.2
                              Kuwait                                       24.9
                               Oman                                                                 42.0
                               Qatar                                       24.9
                        Saudi Arabia                                                              40.6
                United Arab Emirates                                     23.4
                              Yemen                                                                        45.7

                                Israel                                          27.3
                               Jordan                                                        37.6
                             Lebanon                                                  30.8
                Occ. Palestinian Terr.                                                           38.9
                Syrian Arab Republic                                                                       45.6

                             Algeria                                                      34.7
                              Egypt                                                      34.0
              Libyan Arab Jamahiriya                                                    33.0
                            Morocco                                                      33.5
                             Tunisia                                             28.2

                            Albania                                              28.0
                 Bosnia and Herz.na                              17.4
                           Bulgaria                           14.9
                            Croatia                            16.3
                           Romania                                      21.9
              Serbia and Montenegro                              17.2
                           Slovenia                                            25.9
                    TFYR Macedonia                            15.3
                             Turkey                                              28.3

                                Cyprus                                  22.4
                                France                             18.6
                                Greece                        15.3
                                  Italy                      14.1
                                 Malta                              19.6
                                 Spain                        15.0



           Source: Human development Report, UNDP, 2004




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           1.6 Child population

            The child population constitutes a large proportion of the total population, and as a group
            requires special attention. In 2000, the Mediterranean region (MR) had approximately 175
            million children under age 15; that is, almost 29 percent of the region's total population.
            The largest share of the child population is found in the Middle East. Yemen, Palestine, Iraq,
            Syria, Saudi Arabia and Jordan have the youngest populations in the Mediterranean region.
            In the next fifty years the share of the child population is expected to decrease throughout
            the MR region. In terms of absolute numbers, however, there will be more children - and
            more adults and elderly.


            Under-15 population (as % of total), projections, 2000 - 2050


                               Bahrain                                 29.7
                                                          17.0
                                    Iran                                      35.2
                                                           18.0
                                    Iraq                                              42.1
                                                                 23.0
                                Kuwait                              26.6
                                                         16.4
                                  Oman                                            37.6
                                                                  24.0
                                  Qatar                             27.0
                                                          17.3
                          Saudi Arabia                                             39.7
                                                             21.2
                United Arab Emirates                                26.8
                                                         16.5
                                 Yemen                                                       49.1
                                                                              35.0


                                  Israel                              28.3
                                                          17.6
                                Jordan                                            38.9
                                                            19.3
                               Lebanon                                 30.8
                                                          17.2
                Occ. Palestinian Terr.                                                    46.4
                                                                    26.8
                Syrian Arab Republic                                               39.9
                                                            19.3


                                 Algeria                                      35.1
                                                           18.1
                                  Egypt                                        36.3
                                                            19.8
             Libyan Arab Jamahiriya                                        32.9
                                                           18.6                                     2000
                               Morocco                                     32.9
                                                           18.7                                     2050
                                Tunisia                                30.3
                                                          16.7


                                Albania                               29.5
                                                          16.9
                  Bosnia and Herz.na                        18.9
                                                       14.2
                               Bulgaria                  15.8
                                                       13.9
                                Croatia                   17.2
                                                         15.8
                              Romania                      18.2
                                                        14.7
              Serbia and Montenegro                          20.0
                                                         15.5
                               Slovenia                  15.9
                                                      13.0
                      TFYR Macedonia                           22.6
                                                          16.5
                                 Turkey                                    31.7
                                                          17.3


                                Cyprus                        23.1
                                                         16.1
                                 France                    18.8
                                                         15.9
                                 Greece                 15.1
                                                      13.6
                                   Italy               14.3
                                                      13.0
                                  Malta                     20.1
                                                        15.4
                                  Spain                14.6
                                                      13.4



           Source: UN, 2003




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        1.7 Child population

        Under-15 population by region (as % of total), projections, 2000 - 2050



                          2000              2050


                                                        37.19

                                   33.00
                                                                                                   30.12



                                                                21.86
                                           20.80
                                                                                                           20.11
              18.33
                     15.73




           More developed        Less developed            MENA                                       World
             regions (1)           regions (2)

        (1) The more developed regions comprise all regions of Europe plus Northern America, Australia/New
        Zealand and Japan.
        (2) The less developed regions comprise all regions of Africa, Asia (excluding Japan), Latin America and
        the Caribbean plus Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia.


        Source: Lynkeus' processing of UN 2003 data




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        1.8 Child population

        In the relatively wealthy area of Southwest Europe, the proportion of the total population under 18
        years of age ranges from 17% in Italy to 23% in Malta. Similar differences emerge in the Balkan
        region, with the exception of Albania and Turkey, where this proportion rises to 33% and 36%,
        respectively. A similar value is shown for Tunisia as against 38-40% in the other countries of the
        Maghreb. A greater degree of variation is found in the Middle East, where Jordan (44%), Syria (45%)
        and Palestine (53%) differ considerably from the neighbouring countries of Israel (33%) and Lebanon
        (35%). In the Gulf region, the population under age 18 accounts for 30-34% of the total in the United
        Arab Emirates, Qatar and Bahrain, compared to 40% in Iran, 43% in Oman, 45% in Saudi Arabia,
        48% in Iraq, and a high of 56% in Yemen.



        Under-18 population (as % of total), 2003

                        Bahrain                                                   33.7
                           Iran                                                               39.6
                           Iraq                                                                             47.8
                         Kuwait                                             30.1
                          Oman                                                                       43.2
                          Qatar                                                 31.0
                   Saudi Arabia                                                                       44.9
           United Arab Emirates                                             30.2
                         Yemen
                                                                                                                   55.6
                           Israel                                                32.8
                          Jordan                                                                     44.1
                        Lebanon                                                        35.0
           Occ. Palestinian Terr.                                                                                  52.6
           Syrian Arab Republic                                                                       45.0

                        Algeria                                                          39.6
                         Egypt                                                              41.5
         Libyan Arab Jamahiriya                                                        37.8
                       Morocco                                                         37.7
                        Tunisia                                                    34.1

                        Albania                                                   33.5
             Bosnia and Herz.na                                21.7
                       Bulgaria                            18.3
                        Croatia                              20.5
                       Romania                                21.1
          Serbia and Montenegro                                  23.4
                       Slovenia                            18.4
                TFYR Macedonia                                      26.4
                         Turkey                                                         36.2

                           Cyprus                                        26.6
                           France                                 22.4
                           Greece                          17.9
                             Italy                        17.0
                            Malta                                  23.4
                            Spain                         17.4




        Source: The State of the World's Children, UNICEF, 2005




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          1.9 Child population

          A similar downward trend in the proportion under age 20 is also projected over the next 50 years or
          so, but the paths of decline from 2000 to 2050 will be in different numerical ranges. The decline will
          be sharpest in the countries where the level of fertility in 2000 was highest (Middle East and North
          Africa as well as Albania and Turkey). A more modest reduction in the proportion under age 20 is
          projected for most of the Balkan countries, while the decline will be smallest in countries with very low
          fertility in 2000 (Southwest Europe).

          These different ranges suggest that countries on the north and south shores of the Mediterranean will
          experience different phases of population ageing.




          Under-20 population (as % of total), projections, 2000 - 2050

                             Bahrain                                          37.5
                                                             22.7
                                  Iran                                                      48.7
                                                              23.9
                                  Iraq                                                            52.9
                                                                       30.9
                              Kuwait                                     33.8
                                                             22.1
                                Oman                                                       47.7
                                                                        32.0
                                Qatar                                    33.8
                                                              23.3
                        Saudi Arabia                                                        49.0
                                                                     28.4
              United Arab Emirates                                          34.0
                                                             22.0
                               Yemen                                                                     60.3
                                                                                       45.5


                                Israel                                        36.9
                                                              23.8
                              Jordan                                                         49.9
                                                                26.2
                             Lebanon                                               40.5
                                                              23.1
              Occ. Palestinian Terr.                                                                 56.5
                                                                             35.5
              Syrian Arab Republic                                                                52.5
                                                                26.0


                               Algeria                                                     46.6
                                                               24.2
                                Egypt                                                      47.5
                                                                 26.8
           Libyan Arab Jamahiriya                                                         46.2
                                                               24.5
                             Morocco                                                  44.0                      2000
                                                                25.2
                                                                                    41.1                        2050
                              Tunisia                        22.3


                              Albania                                          38.5
                                                             22.6
                Bosnia and Herz.na                               26.7
                                                          18.9
                             Bulgaria                        22.7
                                                          18.6
                              Croatia                          24.0
                                                            21.3
                            Romania                             25.6
                                                           19.7
            Serbia and Montenegro                                 27.8
                                                            20.8
                             Slovenia                         22.9
                                                         17.5
                   TFYR Macedonia                                    30.9
                                                             22.3
                               Turkey                                               41.8
                                                              23.4


                              Cyprus                                 31.2
                                                             21.5
                               France                           25.4
                                                             21.4
                               Greece                        21.6
                                                          18.4
                                 Italy                     19.6
                                                         17.6
                                Malta                             27.6
                                                            20.6
                                Spain                       21.0
                                                         18.0


          Source: UN, 2003




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        1.10 Child population

        Under-20 population by region (as % of total), projections, 2000 - 2050



                      2000          2050




                                                   48.60

                                42.73
                                                                                         39.28



                                        27.85              29.16
                                                                                                 26.93
             25.17
                     21.14




          More developed      Less developed          MENA                                  World
            regions (1)         regions (2)


        (1) The more developed regions comprise all regions of Europe plus Northern America,
        Australia/New Zealand and Japan.
        (2) The less developed regions comprise all regions of Africa, Asia (excluding Japan), Latin America
        and the Caribbean plus Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia.

        Source: Lynkeus' processing of UN 2003 data




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         1.11 Child population

         Population by age-groups (thousands), projections, 2000 - 2050

                                                  2000                                  2050
                  Country
                                    0-4       5-9      10 - 14   15 - 19   0-4       5-9      10 - 14   15 - 19
         Bahrain                      71.6      70.8      58.7      53.1     71.9      71.8      72.0      72.6
         Iran                      5,986.6   8,308.7   9,105.6   8,953.8 6,094.6    6,455.2   6,486.8   6,204.1
         Iraq                      3,625.4   3,193.2   2,948.1   2,512.9 4,309.8    4,456.0   4,558.7   4,591.3
         Kuwait                      228.5     190.9     177.8     162.5    269.4     267.9     271.2     281.2
         Oman                        365.3     322.1     293.9     263.3    535.2     546.2     552.8     546.6
         Qatar                        59.7      50.0      47.0      40.0     51.3      49.9      49.6      52.5
         Saudi Arabia              3,292.1   2,891.0   2,601.1   2,062.1 3,763.1    3,865.1   3,957.8   3,972.5
         United Arab Emirates        249.6     256.3     251.0     203.0    224.1     227.1     226.5     228.0
         Yemen                     3,455.5   2,915.1   2,475.4   2,011.4 10,169.5   9,891.3   9,478.2   8,882.7

         Israel                      615.0   554.7   538.2   523.9          575.1   580.4   599.8   622.8
         Jordan                      709.2   651.7   595.9   553.6          641.0   644.2   673.9   699.6
         Lebanon                     335.3   364.9   369.4   337.7          277.7   284.4   289.1   292.4
         Occ. Palestinian Terr.      595.1   469.7   417.0   321.1          999.3   996.8   986.1   968.8
         Syrian Arab Republic      2,235.0 2,146.6 2,230.7 2,088.3        2,160.7 2,197.2 2,248.7 2,290.9

         Algeria                   3,291.2 3,589.7 3,741.5 3,478.2        2,825.9 2,954.0 3,004.7 2,969.0
         Egypt                     8,283.8 8,091.4 8,232.1 7,617.2        8,144.9 8,301.7 8,730.8 8,913.8
         Libyan Arab Jamahiriya      566.5   540.7   615.1   695.1          561.3   579.7   575.1   552.7
         Morocco                   3,196.5 3,107.3 3,285.3 3,204.2        2,876.8 2,923.0 3,014.2 3,064.5
         Tunisia                     837.2   981.2 1,063.6 1,032.4          705.7   727.2   725.2   717.1

         Albania                     287.9   320.4   310.4   280.7          202.7   207.8   209.4   210.1
         Bosnia and Herz.na          204.6   239.6   309.0   310.2          164.1   169.1   171.4   170.2
         Bulgaria                    323.3   430.3   521.9   559.1          238.3   243.6   247.3   247.1
         Croatia                     239.5   251.6   273.6   304.4          184.5   189.3   194.2   194.5
         Romania                   1,141.7 1,221.7 1,737.5 1,660.5          859.5   885.5   910.4   905.6
         Serbia and Montenegro       641.5   697.3   777.2   815.4          469.7   483.9   496.7   500.8
         Slovenia                     91.0   101.5   123.8   139.7           66.4    67.5    69.3    71.4
         TFYR Macedonia              143.8   153.4   160.3   167.4          115.4   119.4   121.9   123.5
         Turkey                    7,131.5 7,204.6 7,331.4 6,892.6        5,465.8 5,603.0 5,805.5 5,968.6

         Cyprus                       52.7    62.6    65.3    63.3           47.0    48.3    48.5    48.1
         France                    3,691.7 3,618.8 3,845.7 3,909.8        3,308.9 3,398.3 3,490.8 3,538.2
         Greece                      516.2   539.2   589.8   710.4          426.9   445.9   464.8   468.9
         Italy                     2,626.8 2,780.0 2,815.7 3,053.1        1,890.1 1,946.4 2,005.1 2,061.7
         Malta                        23.5    26.2    28.4    29.3           20.6    20.8    20.7    20.8
         Spain                     1,927.0 1,914.7 2,107.2 2,616.0        1,603.2 1,660.0 1,723.7 1,742.1

         Source: UN, 2003




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      1.12 Child population
       Child Dependency Ratios by region, projections, 2000 - 2050


              2000        2050



                                                   0.63


                                   0.53

                                                                                        0.48




                                          0.32            0.33
                                                                                               0.31
              0.27 0.27




           More developed        Less developed      MENA                                 World
             regions (1)           regions (2)


       (1) The more developed regions comprise all regions of Europe plus Northern America,
       Australia/New Zealand and Japan.
       (2) The less developed regions comprise all regions of Africa, Asia (excluding Japan), Latin
       America and the Caribbean plus Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia.


      Source: Lynkeus' processing of UN 2003 data




                                                             138
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        1.13 Child population

        Although the total number of children will increase in almost all countries in the Middle East and the
        Gulf regions, the number of children relative to total population, as well as to adults in the working
        age group (15 to 64 years) will decline in all sub-regions over the next 50 years.

        Overall, for every child under 15 years of age, there will be 3 working adults by 2050. In the Arab
        region, there will be, on average, 1 child for every two working adults. In Europe the ratio will be much
        lower, almost 1 child for every five working adults.




        Child Dependency Ratios, projections, 2000 - 2050

                           Bahrain                             0.44
                                                    0.25
                               Iran                                       0.58
                                                     0.28
                               Iraq                                                     0.76
                                                        0.34
                            Kuwait                       0.37
                                                    0.26
                             Oman                                           0.62
                                                            0.37
                             Qatar                          0.38
                                                    0.26
                     Saudi Arabia                                                0.69
                                                      0.31
            United Arab Emirates                         0.37
                                                    0.27
                            Yemen                                                                 1.01
                                                                          0.57


                              Israel                           0.46
                                                     0.28
                            Jordan                                               0.67
                                                     0.29
                          Lebanon                                  0.49
                                                    0.27
            Occ. Palestinian Terr.                                                             0.93
                                                             0.41
            Syrian Arab Republic                                                  0.70
                                                     0.29


                            Algeria                                       0.58
                                                     0.28
                             Egypt                                         0.61
                                                      0.29
         Libyan Arab Jamahiriya                                     0.52
                                                     0.29
                                                                     0.52                                  2000
                           Morocco                   0.29
                                                                   0.47                                    2050
                            Tunisia                 0.27


                           Albania                             0.46
                                                    0.27
              Bosnia and Herz.na                    0.27
                                                   0.25
                          Bulgaria                0.23
                                                   0.25
                            Croatia                0.26
                                                    0.27
                          Romania                   0.27
                                                   0.25
          Serbia and Montenegro                       0.30
                                                   0.26
                          Slovenia                0.23
                                                   0.24
                 TFYR Macedonia                         0.34
                                                    0.27
                            Turkey                                  0.51
                                                    0.27


                            Cyprus                      0.35
                                                    0.27
                            France                   0.29
                                                    0.28
                            Greece               0.22
                                                   0.26
                               Italy             0.21
                                                   0.25
                              Malta                  0.30
                                                    0.27
                             Spain               0.21
                                                   0.26



        Source: UN, 2003




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Charting the Mediterranean Child                                                                                        Demographic Indicators



      2.1 Birth rate

      The crude birth rate decreased since the early 1970s in the Balkan region and various
      countries in North Africa and the Middle East. In some countries in the Arabian peninsula,
      however, birth rates are still very high, particularly in Yemen. In general, birth rates in southern
      Europe are so much lower than those prevailing in the majority of countries on the southern
      shores of the Mediterranean, where levels of population growth are generally at least twice as
      high as those shown for the north. Higher growth rates are recorded in Jordan, Iraq, Iran, the
      occupied Palestinian territory, Oman and Yemen (which has an annual birth rate over five
      times higher than Italy).



       Crude birth rate (annual number of births per 1,000 population), 1970 and 2003


                          Bahrain                                                           40
                                                                 20
                               Iran                                                              45
                                                                  21
                               Iraq                                                                   48
                                                                                       35
                           Kuwait                                                                 47
                                                                 20
                            Oman                                                                       50
                                                                                  32
                             Qatar                                                 34
                                                            17
                    Saudi Arabia                                                                      48
                                                                                  32
          United Arab Emirates                                                         36
                                                            16
                            Yemen                                                                           53
                                                                                                 45


                             Israel                                         27
                                                                 20
                           Jordan                                                                          51
                                                                            28
                         Lebanon                                                       36
                                                                 19
           Occ. Palestinian Terr.                                                                      50
                                                                                            39
           Syrian Arab Republic                                                                   47
                                                                            28


                           Algeria                                                                    49
                                                                      23
                             Egypt                                                          40
                                                                            27
        Libyan Arab Jamahiriya                                                                        49
                                                                      23
                                                                                                  47             1970
                          Morocco                                     23
                                                                                            40                   2003
                           Tunisia                          17


                           Albania                                                33
                                                             18
             Bosnia and Herz.na                                       23
                                                  10
                          Bulgaria                          16
                                              8
                           Croatia                      15
                                                   11
                         Romania                                  21
                                                   11
        Serbia and Montenegro                                    19
                                                   12
                          Slovenia                          17
                                              8
                TFYR Macedonia                                         24
                                                        15
                           Turkey                                                           39
                                                                  21


                           Cyprus                                20
                                                       13
                           France                           17
                                                       13
                           Greece                           17
                                               9
                              Italy                         17
                                               9
                             Malta                          17
                                                   12
                             Spain                               20
                                               9



      Source: The State of the World's Children, UNICEF, 2005




                                                                            140
Charting the Mediterranean Child                                                                           Demographic Indicators



            2.2 Birth rate

             Crude numbers of total live births are not good indicators of the level of fertility in a
             population, as they take no account of such factors as the age structure and marital condition
             of the female population. Changes in the annual number of births, however, affect the need
             for various types of social provision. On the other hand, population growth rates largely
             reflect the interplay of fertility, mortality and migration. Thus the number of annual births in
             some European countries, e.g. France and Italy, must be seen in relation to the relatively
             high mortality rates of their predominantly ageing populations. In contrast, the population
             growth rates in Algeria, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, and Yemen, are
             accompanied by a much lower proportion of the population aged 65 or more years.


            Annual number of births (thousands), 2003

                             Bahrain        14
                                Iran                                             1,424
                                Iraq                                  879
                              Kuwait         50
                               Oman           91
                               Qatar        10
                        Saudi Arabia                             762
                United Arab Emirates         49
                              Yemen                                   901

                                Israel           126
                               Jordan             151
                             Lebanon            69
                Occ. Palestinian Terr.           137
                Syrian Arab Republic                      491

                             Algeria                            724                       1,911
                              Egypt
              Libyan Arab Jamahiriya             128
                            Morocco                             707
                             Tunisia              165

                            Albania          57
                 Bosnia and Herz.na          39
                           Bulgaria          62
                            Croatia          49
                           Romania                 233
              Serbia and Montenegro              123
                           Slovenia         16
                    TFYR Macedonia          29
                             Turkey                                               1,479

                                 Cyprus     10
                                 France                          772
                                 Greece         99
                                   Italy                  503
                                  Malta     4
                                  Spain                 379



            Source: UNICEF, 2003




                                                                141
Charting the Mediterranean Child                                                                          Demographic Indicators



            3 Birth registration

            Birth registration, apart from being the first legal acknowlegement of a child's existence, is
            fundamental to the realisation of a number of rights and practical needs. It should be universal and
            free. In addition to issues relating to protection, a functioning system of birth and civil registration
            ensures that the country has an up-to-date and reliable database for planning. The number of
            unregistered births still remains very high in many countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa (70%
            of births) and South Asia (63%). In the Middle East and North Africa, nearly 31% of the children born
            in 2000 (around three million) were unregistered, compared with an average of 2% in the
            industrialized countries. The unregistered children are almost always from poor, marginalized or
            displaced families or from countries where systems of registration are not functional.



            Annual births not registered by region (as % of total), 2000


                                                                                 71
                                                                           63



                                                                                              41

                                                                     31
                                                    22
                                                               14
                                              10
                                                          2
                                       d l r i c c o u fic




                                                                  a




                                                                                         ld
                                                                  S




                                                           b s




                                                                 ia

                                                                ca
                                                                  n
                                              as Ca trie



                                                               ic
                                    ti n r i a s ia C I




                                                     or bea



                                                      ra A s




                                                                                       or
                                                              ri
                                                             ci




                                                     So Afr
                                  La st t A E/




                                                           Af



                                                                                      W
                                  M A m zed P a

                                                           n




                                                   ha h
                                                        ri



                                                Sa ut
                                       du as CE

                                                        /




                                                       th



                                                        n
                                                   a/

                                                    N
                                                 t/
                                                li




                                             b-
                                             e
                                             E




                                            E


                                          Su
                                          e
                                    id
                                   In




            Source: UNICEF, 2001




                                                              142
Charting the Mediterranean Child                                                                              Demographic Indicators



      4.1 Fertility rate

       All countries on the northern shores of the Mediterranaen have total fertility rates below
       replacement level, with the exception of Albania and Turkey which have total fertility rates
       around replacement level (2.2 children per woman). In the majority of countries in the Middle
       East and North Africa, fertility has declined sharply in recent years. The most significant example
       of this trend is the decline in total fertility in Tunisia, from 3.4 children per woman in 1990-1995
       to a rate of 2.0 children per woman in 2003. Other countries in the region display marked
       differences in total fertility, from a rate of 2.2 children per woman in Lebanon and 2.3 in Iran, to
       around 2.8 in Algeria and Morocco, 3.3 in Egypt and Syria, 4,5 in Saudi Arabia, 4.7 in Iraq, and
       5.5 in occupied Palestinian territory. With a total fertility rate of 7 children per woman in 2003,
       Yemen has by far the highest fertility level in the Euro-Mediterranean region and one of the
       highest fertility levels in the world.


      Total fertility rate (average number of children per woman), 2003

                       Bahrain                                 2.6
                          Iran                               2.3
                          Iraq                                                     4.7
                        Kuwait                                     2.6
                         Oman                                                           4.9
                         Qatar                                            3.2
                  Saudi Arabia                                                    4.5
          United Arab Emirates                                      2.8
                        Yemen                                                                       7.0

                           Israel                                  2.7
                          Jordan                                            3.5
                        Lebanon                              2.2
           Occ. Palestinian Terr.                                                             5.5
           Syrian Arab Republic                                           3.3

                       Algeria                                      2.8
                        Egypt                                          3.3
        Libyan Arab Jamahiriya                                       3.0
                      Morocco                                      2.7
                       Tunisia                          2.0

                       Albania                               2.3
            Bosnia and Herz.na                   1.3
                      Bulgaria                 1.1
                       Croatia                       1.7
                      Romania                    1.3
         Serbia and Montenegro                     1.6
                      Slovenia                 1.1
               TFYR Macedonia                          1.9
                        Turkey                                2.4

                           Cyprus                      1.9
                           France                      1.9
                           Greece                1.3
                             Italy              1.2
                            Malta                      1.8
                            Spain               1.2



      Source: The State of the World's Children, UNICEF, 2005




                                                                     143
Charting the Mediterranean Child                                                        Demographic Indicators



        4.2 Fertility rate

        Total fertility rate (average number of children per woman), 1960, 1990, 2001 and 2003


                                                                            Average annual rate of
                       Country         1960      1990     2001      2003         decrease (%)
                                                                            1960-1990 1990-2001
        Bahrain                         7.1       3.8      2.4       2.6       1.5         2.4
        Iran                            7.0       5.0      2.9       2.3       1.0         4.2
        Iraq                            7.2       6.0      4.9       4.7       0.6         1.7
        Kuwait                          7.3       3.6      2.7       2.6       1.5         2.1
        Oman                            7.2       7.0      5.6       4.9       0.1         2.3
        Qatar                           7.0       4.4      3.4       3.2       1.2         2.0
        Saudi Arabia                    7.3       6.9      5.7       4.5       0.2         2.7
        United Arab Emirates            7.0       4.2      3.0       2.8       1.3         2.6
        Yemen                           7.6       7.6      7.6       7.0       0.0         0.1


        Israel                          3.9       3.0      2.8       2.7       0.8         0.1
        Jordan                          7.7       5.8      4.4       3.5       0.8         3.1
        Lebanon                         6.3       3.2      2.2       2.2       1.6         2.4
        Occ. Palestinian Terr.          7.7       6.5      5.7       5.5       0.5         1.1
        Syrian Arab Republic            7.3       5.7      3.8       3.3       0.7         3.2


        Algeria                         7.4       4.6      2.9       2.8       1.3         3.0
        Egypt                           7.1       4.2      3.0       3.3       1.4         1.6
        Libyan Arab Jamahiriya          7.1       4.9      3.5       3.0       1.0         2.9
        Morocco                         7.2       4.3      3.1       2.7       1.3         2.9
        Tunisia                         7.2       3.6      2.2       2.0       1.7         3.4


        Albania                         5.9       3.0      2.4       2.3       1.6         1.8
        Bosnia and Herz.na              4.1       1.7      1.3       1.3       2.0         1.8
        Bulgaria                        2.3       1.7      1.1       1.1       0.9         2.7
        Croatia                         2.4       1.7      1.7       1.7       1.0         0.0
        Romania                         2.3       1.9      1.3       1.3       0.6         2.4
        Serbia and Montenegro           2.7       2.1      1.6       1.6       0.8         1.9
        Slovenia                        2.4       1.6      1.2       1.1       1.1         2.4
        TFYR Macedonia                  4.2       2.0      1.6       1.9       1.8         0.3
        Turkey                          6.4       3.4      2.4       2.4       1.6         2.3


        Cyprus                          3.5       2.4      1.9       1.9       1.1         1.6
        France                          2.8       1.8      1.8       1.9       1.0         0.0
        Greece                          2.3       1.5      1.3       1.3       1.2         1.0
        Italy                           2.5       1.3      1.2       1.2       1.1         0.7
        Malta                           3.4       2.0      1.8       1.8       1.4         0.8
        Spain                           2.9       1.4      1.1       1.2       1.7         1.1



        Developing countries            6.1       3.6      3.0       2.9       1.7         2.0
        Industrialized countries        2.8       1.7      1.6       1.7       1.7         0.6
        MENA                            7.1       5.0      3.7       3.4       1.2         3.2


        World                           5.0       3.2      2.7       2.7       1.5         1.9


        Source: UNICEF, 2003




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           5 Infant mortality rate

            Infant mortality rates vary greatly between countries on the northern shores of the
            Mediterranean and those on the southern shores. An examination of trends since the 1960s
            shows that almost all countries in the Arab region have achieved substantial reductions in
            their infant mortality levels. The decline in infant mortality has been particularly rapid for the
            Arab Gulf states and North Africa, which managed to halve their early childhood mortality
            rates in the past 15 years or so. The figures also show important differences in the prospects
            of child survival between countrties in southwest Europe, which have the lowest mortality
            rates, and the majority of countries in southeast Europe, which still have mortality rates that
            are even higher than those prevailing in the Arab Gulf states. At the other end of the scale,
            Iraq and Yemen show extremely high levels of infant mortality, mainly due to a lack of basic
            maternal and child health care services, particularly in rural areas.



           Infant mortality rate (probability of dying between birth and exactly one year
           of age expressed per 1,000 live births), 1960 and 2003


                                    Bahrain                                           110
                                                   12
                                        Iran                                                      164
                                                         33
                                        Iraq                                         117
                                                                                  102
                                     Kuwait                                  89
                                               8
                                      Oman                                                        164
                                                   10
                                      Qatar                                      94
                                                   11
                                Saudi Arabia                                                        170
                                                        22
                  United Arab Emirates                                                        149
                                               7
                                     Yemen                                                                      220
                                                                            82


              Occ. Palestinian Terr. (1)                                                125
                                               5
                                      Israel              32
                                                        23
                                     Jordan                                      97
                                                        27
                                    Lebanon                            65
                                                        22
                  Syrian Arab Republic                                                      136
                                                    16


                                     Algeria                                                      164
                                                             35
                                      Egypt                                                               189
                                                         33
               Libyan Arab Jamahiriya                                                             159
                                                   13
                                                                                            132                       1960
                                    Morocco                  36                                                       2003
                                     Tunisia                                                        170
                                                    19


                                    Albania                                           112
                                                    18
                    Bosnia and Herz.na                                            105
                                                   14
                                    Bulgaria                      49
                                                   14
                                     Croatia                           70
                                               6
                                   Romania                             69
                                                    18
                Serbia and Montenegro                                       87
                                                   12
                                    Slovenia                 37
                                               4
                        TFYR Macedonia                                                 120
                                                   10
                                     Turkey                                                       163
                                                         33


                                     Cyprus              30
                                               4
                                     France              29
                                               4
                                     Greece                       53
                                               4
                                       Italy                   44
                                               4
                                      Malta                  37
                                               5
                                      Spain                    46
                                               4

            (1) U.N. estimate


           Source: The State of the World's Children, UNICEF, 2005




                                                                                  145
Charting the Mediterranean Child                                                                             Demographic Indicators



        6.1 Under-five mortality rate
        The data on under-five mortality rates bring into sharper focus the differences in the prospects of
        child survival between the various sub-regions of the Euro-Mediterranean zone. This indicator again
        points to a large gap between southwestern and southeastern Europe, and to a much greater extent
        between the countries to the north and south of the Mediterranean. A Turkish child is almost 10
        times more likely to die before the age of five than an Italian, an Iraqi child 25 times more likely than
        a Cypriot or Greek child, and a Yemeni child 28 times more likely than a Spaniard.
        Among the 19 countries in the MENA region, the under-5 mortality rate in 2003 was below 25 deaths
        per 1,000 live births in 10 countries, between 25 and 50 deaths in 7 countries, and above 100 deaths
        per 1,000 live births in two countries: Iraq and Yemen. As may be seen from table A 6.2, Yemen has
        experienced a particularly low average yearly rate of decrease in its under-5 mortality rate (2.9% in
        the period 1960-1990 and 2.6% in 1990-2001), while Iraq shows an average yearly increase of 8.9%
        in its under-5 mortality rate during the period 1990-2001.



        Under-five mortality rate (probability of dying between birth and exactly five years of
        age expressed per 1,000 live births), 2003

                        Bahrain                    15
                           Iran                                    39
                           Iraq                                                                        125
                         Kuwait               9
                          Oman                    12
                          Qatar                    15
                   Saudi Arabia                              26
           United Arab Emirates              8
                         Yemen                                                                   113

                            Israel        6
                           Jordan                            28
                         Lebanon                              31
            Occ. Palestinian Terr.                         24
            Syrian Arab Republic                      18

                        Algeria                                     41
                         Egypt                                     39
         Libyan Arab Jamahiriya                       16
                       Morocco                                     39
                        Tunisia                            24

                        Albania                       21
             Bosnia and Herz.na                     17
                       Bulgaria                    15
                        Croatia              7
                       Romania                          20
          Serbia and Montenegro                   14
                       Slovenia          4
                TFYR Macedonia                   11
                         Turkey                                    39

                            Cyprus       5
                            France       5
                            Greece       5
                              Italy      4
                             Malta        6
                             Spain       4


        Source: The State of the World's Children, UNICEF, 2005




                                                                         146
Charting the Mediterranean Child                                                         Demographic Indicators



        6.2 Under-five mortality rate

        Under-five mortality rate (probability of dying between birth and exactly five
        years of age expressed per 1,000 live births), 1960, 1990 and 2003


                    Country                    1960              1990        2003

       Bahrain                                  160               19          15
       Iran                                     281               72          39
       Iraq                                     171               50         125
       Kuwait                                   128               16          9
       Oman                                     280               30          12
       Qatar                                    140               25          15
       Saudi Arabia                             250               44          26
       United Arab Emirates                     223               14          8
       Yemen                                    340              142         113


       Israel                                   39                12          6
       Jordan                                   139               43          28
       Lebanon                                  85                37          31
       Occ. Palestinian Terr.                                     40          24
       Syrian Arab Republic                     201               44          18


       Algeria                                  280               69          41
       Egypt                                    282              104          39
       Libyan Arab Jamahiriya                   270               42          16
       Morocco                                  211               85          39
       Tunisia                                  254               52          24


       Albania                                  151               45          21
       Bosnia and Herz.na                       160               22          17
       Bulgaria                                 70                16          15
       Croatia                                  98                13          7
       Romania                                  82                32          20
       Serbia and Montenegro                    120               30          14
       Slovenia                                 45                9           4
       TFYR Macedonia                           177               41          11
       Turkey                                   219               78          39


       Cyprus                                   36                12          5
       France                                   34                9           5
       Greece                                   64                11          5
       Italy                                    50                10          4
       Malta                                    42                14          6
       Spain                                    57                9           4



       Developing countries                     223              103          89
       Industrialized countries                 37                9           7
       MENA                                     250               81          61


       World                                    197               93          82


       Source: The State of the World's Children, UNICEF, 2005




                                                       147
Charting the Mediterranean Child                                                                                  Demographic Indicators



      6.3 Under-five mortality rate

       Examination of absolute numbers of deaths occurring under 5 years of age reveals an even
       more striking picture of the situation prevailing in some countries that also happen to be
       among the most densely populated in the region. In Egypt (75,000 deaths), Iran (56,000
       deaths), and Turkey (58,000 deaths per year), the number of deaths under age 5 remains
       excessively high despite the enormous advances achieved in neonatal, infant and child health
       care in recent years. Algeria and Morocco, and, to a lesser extent, Saudi Arabia, also show
       the need for more efforts to reduce early childhood mortality risks. The shocking figures
       shown for Iraq and Yemen call for much more deliberate effort and action to address the
       underlying causes of early childhood mortality and to invest more resources in maternal and
       child health care services.



       Annual number of deaths under the age of five (thousands), 2003

                        Bahrain
                           Iran                                          56
                           Iraq                                                                           110
                         Kuwait
                          Oman           1
                          Qatar
                   Saudi Arabia                       20
           United Arab Emirates
                         Yemen                                                                      102

                            Israel       1
                           Jordan          4
                         Lebanon          2
            Occ. Palestinian Terr.        3
            Syrian Arab Republic                  9

                        Algeria                            30
                         Egypt                                                      75
         Libyan Arab Jamahiriya           2
                       Morocco                             28
                        Tunisia              4

                        Albania          1
             Bosnia and Herz.na          1
                       Bulgaria          1
                        Croatia
                       Romania                5
          Serbia and Montenegro           2
                       Slovenia
                TFYR Macedonia
                         Turkey                                           58

                             Cyprus
                             France          4
                             Greece
                               Italy      2
                              Malta
                              Spain       2

       No bar shown for a country on this bar graph is an indication of less than 1,000 under-five child deaths
       per year.



      Source: The State of the World's Children, UNICEF, 2005




                                                                   148
Charting the Mediterranean Child                                                                             Demographic Indicators



      7.1 Life expectancy

      Countries in Southwest Europe lead the Euro-Mediterranean region with a life expectancy at birth
      higher than 78 years, while in the Balkan region, life expectancy is between 71 and 76 years. In the
      19 countries on the southern shores of the Mediterranean, life expectancy at birth is above 75 years
      in 3 countries, between 70 and 74 years in 12 countries, and around 69 years in 2 countries. At the
      other extreme, two countries show the lowest life expectancy in the region, Iraq (61 years) and
      Yemen (60 years). Detailed information reveal a picture of sustained increases in survivorship in
      virtually every country south of the Mediterranean over the recent past. These substantial
      improvements in survivorship have been triggered by the increased use of antibiotics, insecticides,
      vaccinations, and also by the internationally sponsored disease control and sanitation programmes.
      As may be seen from table A 7.2, in all countries considered, life expectancy for females exceeds that
      for males. The average size of the female advantage in life expectancy is smaller in the Arab region
      relative to the countries in southern Europe. This is due at least in part to higher levels of maternal
      mortality in several Arab countries. It should be noted, however, that the widening of the gender gap
      in life expectancy at birth is not necessarily a concomitant consequence of mortality decline. In fact,
      there are no precise explanations of the gender gap in life expectancy, but the gap has been
      described as "a geo-cultural phenomenon", associated with a complex interplay of biological, social,
      and behavioural conditions.




       Life expectancy at birth (years), 2002

                       Bahrain                                                                 73.9
                          Iran                                                              70.1
                          Iraq
                        Kuwait                                                                   76.5
                         Oman                                                                 72.3
                         Qatar                                                                72.0
                  Saudi Arabia                                                                72.1
          United Arab Emirates                                                                  74.6
                        Yemen                                                       59.8

                          Israel                                                                      79.1
                         Jordan                                                              70.9
                       Lebanon                                                                 73.5
          Occ. Palestinian Terr.                                                              72.3
          Syrian Arab Republic                                                                71.7

                       Algeria                                                              69.5
                        Egypt                                                              68.6
        Libyan Arab Jamahiriya                                                                72.6
                      Morocco                                                              68.5
                       Tunisia                                                                72.7

                      Albania                                                                  73.6
           Bosnia and Herz.na                                                                   74.0
                     Bulgaria                                                                70.9
                      Croatia                                                                   74.1
                     Romania                                                                 70.5
        Serbia and Montenegro
                     Slovenia                                                                     76.2
              TFYR Macedonia                                                                   73.5
                       Turkey                                                                70.4

                         Cyprus                                                                      78.2
                         France                                                                      78.9
                         Greece                                                                      78.2
                           Italy                                                                     78.7
                          Malta                                                                      78.3
                          Spain                                                                       79.2



      Source: Human Development Report 2004, UNDP, New York




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             7.2 Life expectancy

             Life expectancy at birth by gender (years), 2002

                                                    Life expectancy at birth
                          Country
                                                Total         Males      Females
             Bahrain                             73.9           72.4       75.8
             Iran                                70.1           68.8       71.7
             Iraq                                n.a.           n.a.       n.a.
             Kuwait                              76.5           74.8       78.9
             Oman                                72.3           70.9       74.3
             Qatar                               72.0           70.4       75.3
             Saudi Arabia                        72.1           71.0       73.6
             United Arab Emirates                74.6           73.2       77.3
             Yemen                               59.8           58.7       60.9


             Israel                              79.1           77.0       80.9
             Jordan                              70.9           69.6       72.4
             Lebanon                             73.5           71.8       75.0
             Occ. Palestinian Terr.              72.3           70.7       73.9
             Syrian Arab Republic                71.7           70.5       73.0


             Algeria                             69.5           68.0       71.1
             Egypt                               68.6           66.6       70.8
             Libyan Arab Jamahiriya              72.6           70.7       75.3
             Morocco                             68.5           66.6       70.3
             Tunisia                             72.7           70.7       74.8


             Albania                             73.6           70.8       76.6
             Bosnia and Herz.na                  74.0           71.2       76.6
             Bulgaria                            70.9           67.4       74.6
             Croatia                             74.1           70.2       78.0
             Romania                             70.5           67.0       74.2
             Serbia and Montenegro               n.a.           n.a.       n.a.
             Slovenia                            76.2           72.5       79.7
             TFYR Macedonia                      73.5           71.3       75.7
             Turkey                              70.4           67.9       73.1


             Cyprus                              78.2           75.9       80.5
             France                              78.9           75.1       82.7
             Greece                              78.2           75.7       80.9
             Italy                               78.7           75.5       81.9
             Malta                               78.3           75.8       80.6
             Spain                               79.2           75.8       82.7


             Source: Human Development Report, 2004, UNDP, New York




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         8.1 Healthy life expectancy

         Health-adjusted life expectancy (HALE) is "the equivalent number of years in full health that a
         newborn can expect to live based on current rates of ill-health and mortality" (WHO, 2002). With
         the exceptions of Kuwait and Qatar, healthy life expectancy is always higher for women than for
         men.
         In the Arab region, Kuwait leads with a healthy life expectancy at birth of 67.2 for males and 67.1
         for females. Of the 16 Arab states with data, healthy life expectancy for females is higher than 60
         years in 14 countries, while for males, it exceeds 58 years in all but two countries.
         In southeast Europe, healthy life expectancy for females ranges from 62.8 years in Turkey to
         72.3 years in Slovenia, and for males, from 59.5 years in Albania to 66.6 years in Slovenia. The
         highest values are shown for southwest Europe (72.9-75.3 years for females and 69.1-70.7 years
         for males).



         Healthy life expectancy (HALE) at birth by gender (years), 2002

                            Bahrain                                                  64.2
                                                                                     64.4
                                Iran                                            56.1
                                                                                  59.1
                                Iraq                                       48.8
                                                                             51.5
                             Kuwait                                                       67.2
                                                                                          67.1
                              Oman                                                     62.7
                                                                                         65.3
                               Qatar                                                      66.7
                                                                                        63.8
                      Saudi Arabia                                                   59.8
                                                                                       62.9
            United Arab Emirates                                                        63.5
                                                                                        64.2
                             Yemen                                        48.0
                                                                            50.7


                               Israel                                                         70.5
                                                                                               72.3
                             Jordan                                                 59.7
                                                                                      62.3
                           Lebanon                                                  59.2
                                                                                     61.6
             Occ. Palestinian Terr.
             Syrian Arab Republic                                                    60.4
                                                                                       63.1


                             Algeria                                                 59.7
                                                                                      61.6
                               Egypt                                                57.8
                                                                                     60.2
          Libyan Arab Jamahiriya                                                       62.3
                                                                                         65.0
                                                                                     59.5             Males
                            Morocco                                                   60.9            Females
                             Tunisia                                                  61.3
                                                                                        63.6


                            Albania                                                  59.5
                                                                                        63.3
               Bosnia and Herz.na                                                      62.3
                                                                                          66.4
                           Bulgaria                                                    62.6
                                                                                          67.1
                             Croatia                                                    63.8
                                                                                            69.3
                           Romania                                                    61.0
                                                                                         65.2
           Serbia and Montenegro                                                       62.7
                                                                                         64.9
                           Slovenia                                                       66.6
                                                                                              72.3
                  TFYR Macedonia                                                      61.9
                                                                                         65.0
                             Turkey                                                   61.2
                                                                                       62.8


                             Cyprus                                                      66.7
                                                                                          68.5
                             France                                                       69.3
                                                                                               74.7
                             Greece                                                       69.1
                                                                                              72.9
                                Italy                                                       70.7
                                                                                               74.7
                               Malta                                                       69.9
                                                                                              72.9
                              Spain                                                        69.9
                                                                                               75.3



         Source: World Health Report, WHO 2004


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          8.2 Healthy life expectancy

          Healthy life expectancy (HALE) at birth and at age 60 by gender (years), 2002

                                                             Healthy life expectancy
                         Country                          Males                   Females
                                                  At birth    At age 60     At birth  At age 60
          Bahrain                                   64.2         11.5       64.4         11.6
          Iran                                      56.1         10.4       59.1         11.9
          Iraq                                      48.8         9.2        51.5         10.6
          Kuwait                                    67.2         13.8       67.1         14.2
          Oman                                      62.7         11.9       65.3         13.7
          Qatar                                     66.7         13.7       63.8         11.2
          Saudi Arabia                              59.8         11.2       62.9         13.0
          United Arab Emirates                      63.5         12.0       64.2         12.5
          Yemen                                     48.0         8.7        50.7         10.4


          Israel                                    70.5         16.8       72.3         18.2
          Jordan                                    59.7         11.1       62.3         12.9
          Lebanon                                   59.2         11.3       61.6         12.6
          Occ. Palestinian Terr.
          Syrian Arab Republic                      60.4         11.3       63.1         12.9


          Algeria                                   59.7         12.5       61.6         13.3
          Egypt                                     57.8         9.9        60.2         11.3
          Libyan Arab Jamahiriya                    62.3         12.0       65.0         13.8
          Morocco                                   59.5         11.4       60.9         12.7
          Tunisia                                   61.3         12.0       63.6         13.3


          Albania                                   59.5         10.5       63.3         13.9
          Bosnia and Herz.na                        62.3         12.4       66.4         15.4
          Bulgaria                                  62.6         12.5       67.1         15.0
          Croatia                                   63.8         12.5       69.3         16.1
          Romania                                   61.0         12.3       65.2         14.6
          Serbia and Montenegro                     62.7         12.1       64.9         13.9
          Slovenia                                  66.6         14.3       72.3         18.1
          TFYR Macedonia                            61.9         12.2       65.0         14.0
          Turkey                                    61.2         12.8       62.8         14.2


          Cyprus                                    66.7         14.2       68.5         15.0
          France                                    69.3         16.6       74.7         20.4
          Greece                                    69.1         16.0       72.9         18.1
          Italy                                     70.7         16.4       74.7         19.4
          Malta                                     69.9         15.4       72.9         18.2
          Spain                                     69.9         16.4       75.3         19.9


          Source: World Health Report, WHO 2004




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              9.1 Urban population

              The urban share of the world’s population has grown from 30 percent in 1950 to an estimated
              48 percent in 2003. The urban proportion is projected to rise to 53 percent in 2015 and reach
              58 percent in 2025. In the Arab region, the pace of urbanization was rapid during the second
              half of the twentieth century. In 1950, only about a quarter of the population of the Arab
              region was living in urban areas; fueled by heavy rural-urban migration as well as natural
              increase, the figure had risen to 50 percent and 57 percent in 1990 and 2003, respectively.
              There are marked differences in degree of urbanization between the MENA countries; the
              proportion urban in 2003 was below 50 percent in 2 countries, between 50-75 percent in 7
              countries, between 76-90 percent in 7 countries, and over 90 percent in 3 countries. The high
              level of urbanization shown for the Arab Gulf states is related to the expansion of the oil-
              based economies of these states and the influx of international migrant labour from more
              populous Arab countries, and from South and Southeast Asian countries.




              Urban population (as % of total), 2003

                               Bahrain                                                                90
                                  Iran                                              67
                                  Iraq                                              67
                                Kuwait                                                                     96
                                 Oman                                                         78
                                 Qatar                                                                 92
                          Saudi Arabia                                                               88
                  United Arab Emirates                                                              85
                                Yemen                     26

                                  Israel                                                                 92
                                 Jordan                                                        79
                               Lebanon                                                              87
                  Occ. Palestinian Terr.                                                 71
                  Syrian Arab Republic                                   50

                               Algeria                                        59
                                Egypt                              42
                Libyan Arab Jamahiriya                                                              86
                              Morocco                                         57
                               Tunisia                                             64

                              Albania                               44
                   Bosnia and Herz.na                               44
                             Bulgaria                                                   70
                              Croatia                                        59
                             Romania                                       55
                Serbia and Montenegro                                    52
                             Slovenia                                    51
                      TFYR Macedonia                                         59
                              Turkey                                                66

                                 Cyprus                                                 69
                                 France                                                       76
                                 Greece                                        61
                                   Italy                                            67
                                  Malta                                                                  92
                                  Spain                                                       76

              For the exact definition of "Urban population", please refer to the Glossary


              Source: The State of the World's Children, UNICEF, 2005




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           9.2 Urban population

           Urban population (as % of total), 2003 and average annual growth rate, 1990 -
           2003

                                                 Urban population (as        Urban population growth
                        Country
                                                     % of total)              (annual growth rate %)

          Bahrain                                           90                           3.2
          Iran                                              67                           2.8
          Iraq                                              67                           2.6
          Kuwait                                            96                           1.4
          Oman                                              78                           5.1
          Qatar                                             92                           2.3
          Saudi Arabia                                      88                           3.8
          United Arab Emirates                              85                           3.2
          Yemen                                             26                           5.4

          Israel                                            92                           2.8
          Jordan                                            79                           4.7
          Lebanon                                           87                           2.7
          Occ. Palestinian Terr.                            71                           4.4
          Syrian Arab Republic                              50                           2.8

          Algeria                                           59                           2.9
          Egypt                                             42                           1.7
          Libyan Arab Jamahiriya                            86                           2.5
          Morocco                                           57                           3.0
          Tunisia                                           64                           2.1

          Albania                                           44                            1.2
          Bosnia and Herz.na                                44                            0.7
          Bulgaria                                          70                           -0.4
          Croatia                                           59                            0.0
          Romania                                           55                           -0.1
          Serbia and Montenegro                             52                            0.4
          Slovenia                                          51                            0.3
          TFYR Macedonia                                    59                            0.8
          Turkey                                            66                            2.5

          Cyprus                                            69                           1.7
          France                                            76                           0.7
          Greece                                            61                           0.8
          Italy                                             67                           0.2
          Malta                                             92                           1.0
          Spain                                             76                           0.5
          For the exact definition of "Urban population", please refer to the Glossary

          Source: The State of the World's Children, UNICEF, 2005




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               10.1 Migration



               Migrant and refugees stock estimation, 2000

                                                 Number of immigrants (including refugees) (1)
                                                                                                     Number of refugees (2)
                          Country
                                                                                   (as % of total       (thousands)
                                                  Number (thousands)
                                                                                    population)
               Bahrain                                     254                         39.8                    0
               Iran                                       2,321                         3.3                  1,868
               Iraq                                        147                          0.6                   128
               Kuwait                                     1,108                        57.9                    3
               Oman                                        682                         26.9                   n.a.
               Qatar                                       409                         72.4                    0
               Saudi Arabia                               5,255                        25.8                    5
               United Arab Emirates                       1,922                        73.8                    1
               Yemen                                       248                          1.4                   61

               Israel                                     2,256                         37.4                   4
               Jordan                                     1,945                         39.6                 1,611
               Lebanon                                     634                          18.1                  383
               Occ. Palestinian Terr.                     1,665                         52.2                 1,429
               Syrian Arab Republic                        903                           5.6                  391

               Algeria                                      250                          0.8                  170
               Egypt                                        169                          0.2                   7
               Libyan Arab Jamahiriya                       570                         10.8                  12
               Morocco                                       26                          0.1                   2
               Tunisia                                       38                          0.4                   0

               Albania                                      12                          0.4                    1
               Bosnia and Herz.na                           96                          2.4                   38
               Bulgaria                                    101                          1.3                    1
               Croatia                                     425                          9.1                   22
               Romania                                      94                          0.4                    2
               Serbia and Montenegro                       626                          5.9                   484
               Slovenia                                     51                          2.6                    3
               TFYR Macedonia                               33                          1.6                    9
               Turkey                                     1,503                         2.3                    3

               Cyprus                                       49                           6.3                   0
               France                                     6,277                         10.6                  133
               Greece                                      535                           5.0                   7
               Italy                                      1,634                          2.8                   7
               Malta                                        9                            2.2                   0
               Spain                                      1,259                          3.2                   7
               (1) For most countries, the mid-year estimate of the number of people who are born outside the country. For
               countries lacking data on place of birth, the estimated number of non-citizens.
               (2) data refer to end of year; zero indicates that there are les than 500 refugees.


               Source: UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 2002




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                10.2 Migration



                Net migration, 1995 - 2000

                                                                      Net migration (average annual) (1)
                            Country
                                                           Number (thousands)                   Rate per 1,000 people (2)
                Bahrain                                            4                                       6.6
                Iran                                              91                                      -1.4
                Iraq                                               8                                       0.4
                Kuwait                                            20                                      11.1
                Oman                                               4                                       1.7
                Qatar                                              2                                       3.7
                Saudi Arabia                                      80                                       4.3
                United Arab Emirates                              20                                       8.1
                Yemen                                              2                                       0.1

                Israel                                                52                                      9.1
                Jordan                                                3                                      -0.7
                Lebanon                                               16                                      4.8
                Occ. Palestinian Terr.                                4                                       1.4
                Syrian Arab Republic                                  2                                      -0.2

                Algeria                                               52                                     -1.8
                Egypt                                                 80                                     -1.2
                Libyan Arab Jamahiriya                                2                                      -0.4
                Morocco                                               44                                     -1.5
                Tunisia                                               8                                      -0.8

                Albania                                               60                                    -19.0
                Bosnia and Herz.na                                   100                                     27.0
                Bulgaria                                              40                                     -4.9
                Croatia                                               0                                       0.0
                Romania                                               12                                     -0.5
                Serbia and Montenegro                                 20                                     -1.9
                Slovenia                                              1                                       0.5
                TFYR Macedonia                                        1                                       0.5
                Turkey                                                54                                     -0.8

                Cyprus                                                3                                      3.9
                France                                                39                                     0.7
                Greece                                                35                                     3.3
                Italy                                                118                                     2.0
                Malta                                                 1                                      1.4
                Spain                                                 37                                     0.9
                (1) Net average annual number of migrants, that is, the annual number of immigrants less the annual number of
                emigrants, including both citizens and non-citizens.

                (2) The net number of migrants, divided by the average population of the receiving country. It is expressed as the
                net number of migrants per 1,000 people.

                Source: UN Department of Economic and social Affairs, 2002




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               11 Divorces



               Divorces and crude divorce rates, 1997 - 2001


                            Country                         Number of divorces         Divorces rate per 1,000 people

               Bahrain                                               769                              n.a.
               Iran                                                 51,044                            n.a.
               Iraq                                                 28,800                            n.a.
               Kuwait                                               3,649                             1.67
               Oman                                                  n.a.                             n.a.
               Qatar                                                 566                              n.a.
               Saudi Arabia                                         18,583                            n.a.
               United Arab Emirates                                  n.a.                             n.a.
               Yemen

               Israel                                               11,164                            1.73
               Jordan (1)                                           6,317                             1.25
               Lebanon                                              4,220                             n.a.
               Occ. Palestinian Terr.                               3,687                             n.a.
               Syrian Arab Republic                                 13,077                            n.a.

               Algeria                                               n.a.                             n.a.
               Egypt (2)                                            73,414                            n.a.
               Libyan Arab Jamahiriya                               1,662                             0.31
               Morocco                                               n.a.                             n.a.
               Tunisia                                              8,915                             n.a.

               Albania                                               n.a.                             n.a.
               Bosnia and Herz.na                                   1,436                             0.54
               Bulgaria                                             10,268                            1.30
               Croatia                                              4,670                             1.05
               Romania                                              31,135                            1.39
               Serbia and Montenegro                                8,511                             0.80
               Slovenia                                             2,274                             1.14
               TFYR Macedonia                                       1,448                             0.71
               Turkey                                               34,862                            n.a.

               Cyprus                                                1,197                            1.52
               France                                               114,003                           1.94
               Greece                                                9,500                            0.95
               Italy                                                 37,573                           0.65
               Malta                                                  n.a.                            n.a.
               Spain                                                 38,973                           0.98
               (1) Excluding data for Jordanian territory under occupation since june 1967. Excludind foreigners, including
               registered palestinian refugees.

               (2) Including 'revocable divorces' (among Moslem).



               Source: World Development Report, WB 2003




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