OD Interventions

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					OD Interventions
    Sharon Glazer, Ph.D.
   San Jose State University
  Survey Collection
      Discussion
• Report from Teacher/Staff Team
• Report from Parent Team
• Data Collection Follow-Up: Last chance
  to complete survey
• Prepare for Simulation 10.1
• Submit HW Case Ch. 11
     What is an OD
     intervention?
A sequence of planned activities, actions,
and events intended to help an
organization improve its performance
and effectiveness
How does OD intervention
 fit into the OD process?



     Interventions purposely
      disrupt the status quo.
   Institutionalizing
     interventions
• Organization characteristics
• Intervention characteristics
• Institutionalization processes
• Indicators of Institutionalization
       Organization
      characteristics
• Congruence
• Stability of environment and technology
• Unionization
      Intervention
     Characteristics
• Need/Goal specificity
• Scope/Level of change target
• Focus/Purpose
• Internal support
• Requirements, Specifications, Constraints
• Programmability
• Costs/Benefits
  Institutionalization
        processes
• Socialization: transmit info.
• Commitment
• Reward allocation: link rewards to new behaviors.
• Diffusion: transfer interventions from one system to
  another (behaviors become normative)
• Sensing and calibration: detect deviations from
  desired intervention behaviors and take corrective
  action
    Indicators of
institutionalization
• Knowledge
• Performance
• Preferences
• Normative consensus
• Value consensus
   Effective interventions can be
       determined by 3 criteria
① The extent to which it fits the needs of the
  organization
 a. Valid information
 b. Free and informed choice
 c. Internal commitment
② The degree to which it is based on causal knowledge
  of intended outcomes
③ The extent to which it transfers change-management
  competence to organization members
Designing Effective Interventions
       is contingent upon

1. Individual differences among organizational
   members, organizational factors, and
   dimensions of the change process itself
2. Situational factors
   Readiness for Change
   Capability to Change
   Cultural Context
   Capabilities of Change Agent
  Contingencies Related to
     Target of Change
• Strategic Issues – transforming company
  Strategic Interventions
• Technology and Structure Issues – divide work into
  depts & coordinate
  Techno-structural Interventions
• Human Resources Issues – A-S-R organizational
  members
  Human Resources Management Interventions
• Human Process Issues – socializing organizational
  members
  Human Process Interventions
          Strategic
        Interventions
• Integrated Strategic Change
• Transorganization Development
• Mergers & Acquisitions
• Culture Change
• Self-designing Organizations
• Organization Learning & Knowledge
  Management
   Techno-Structural
      Interventions
• Structural Design
• Downsizing
• Reengineering
• Employee Involvement
• Work Design
   HRM Interventions

• Goal Setting
• Performance Appraisal
• Reward Systems
• Career Planning & Development
• Coaching and Counseling Activities
• Managing Work Force Diversity
• Employee Wellness
         Human Process
         Interventions
• T-Groups
• Process Consultation
• Intergroup activities/Relationships
• Team Building
• Third-party Peacemaking Interventions (Conflict
  Resolution)
• Organization Confrontation Meeting
• Large-group Interventions
• Grid Organization Development
     Advice for Structuring
         Interventions
1.   Relevant
2.   Problem oriented or opportunity oriented
3.   Clear goals
4.   Realistic expectations
5.   Experience-based learning and
     conceptual/cognitive/theoretical-based learning
6.   Easy-going climate
7.   Learn how to learn
8.   Task and process
9.   Total situation should come into play
  Advice for sequencing
  intervention activities
1. Maximize diagnostic data
2. Maximize effectiveness
3. Maximize efficiency
4. Maximize speed
5. Maximize relevance
6. Minimize psychological & organizational
   strains
Interventions based on
  causal mechanisms
1.   Discrepancy intervention
2.   Theory intervention
3.   Procedural intervention
4.   Relationship intervention
5.   Experimentation intervention
6.   Dilemma intervention
7.   Perspective intervention
8.   Organizational structure intervention
9.   Cultural intervention
Results expected from
    Intervention
  1. Feedback
  2. Awareness of norms
  3. Increased interaction
  4. Increased communication
  5. Confrontation
  6. Education
  7. Participation
  8. Increased accountability
  9. Increased energy
  10.Optimism
         Evaluation

• Feedback to practitioners and
  organization members about progress
  and impact of interventions
      Research Design

Quasi-experimental research designs
• Longitudinal measurement
• Comparison unit
• Statistical analysis
  Quasi-Experimental
        Designs
• 3 Un-interpretable Designs
A.One Group Post-Test (X O1)
  WHY?
B.One Group Pretest-Posttest design (O1X O2)
     WHY?
C.Post-test only with nonequivalent groups
  (X O)
  ( O)
  WHY?
    Untreated Ctrl Group
      Designs w/Pretests
With dependent pretest & posttest samples (most
  common)                O1 X O 2
                         O1     O2
5 ways data can turn out (and their problems)
  1. No change in control group
  2. Both groups grow apart in same direction
  3. Pretest differences diminished
  4. Compensatory treatment case without a crossover
  effect
  5. Outcomes that cross-over: these are great results,
       Other Designs

• Untreated Control Group Design with
  Independent pretest and samples
• Untreated control group design with a
  double pretest
• Cohort Designs: O1
                    X     O2
       Other Designs

• Switching replications design
• Reversed-treatment control group design
  with pretest & posttest
• Untreated Control group with double
  pretest and both independent and
  dependent samples
• Designs without pretests
                  Break

• 15 min. break
Human Process
Interventions
 Intergroup Interventions
Process Consultation
       (Review)
• A set of activities on the part of the
  consultant that helps the client to
  perceive, understand, and act upon the
  process events which occur in the client’s
  environment.
     Group Processes

• Communications among group members
• Functional roles of group members
• Problem-solving and decision-making
• Group norms and growth
• Leadership & Authority
          Work roles

• Intergroup relationships require
  understanding of roles, responsibilities,
  boundaries.
• Who is in one’s role set?
• Role stressors
       Role Stressors

• Role Overload
• Role Ambiguity
• Role Conflict
  Strategies for
Conflict Resolution
• Prevent conflict through mandate or
  separation of the parties
• Set limits on the timing and extent of the
  conflict
• Help the parties to cope differently with the
  conflict
• Attempt to eliminate or resolve the basic
  issues in the conflict
    Resolving Intergroup
          Conflict
• Groups and consultant convene to address issues
• Groups are asked to address 3 questions
   1. What qualities/attributes best describe our group?
   2. What qualities/attributes best describe their group?
   3. How do we think the other group will describe us?
• Groups exchange and clarify answers
• Groups analyze the discrepancies and work to
  understand their contribution to the perceptions
• Groups discuss discrepancies and contributions
• Groups work to develop action plans on key areas
  Microcosm Groups

• Small groups that solve problems in the
  larger system
• Small group member characteristics must
  reflect the issue being addressed (e.g., if
  addressing diversity, group must be
  diverse)
• Primary mechanism for change is
  “parallel processes”
   Microcosm Group
        Process
• Identify an issue
• Convene the microcosm group
• Provide group training
• Address the issue in the group
• Dissolve the group
      Quality Circles

• 12-20 members
• Formed to resolve a particular problem
• Disband when resolution is
  institutionalized
     Organizational
       mirroring
• Representatives from different groups
• Observed by hosts
• Resembles a Fishbowl