IPv6 in host systems and applications by dsp14791


									    IPv6 in host systems
      and applications
               Tim Chown
     University of Southampton, UK
UKERNA IPv6 Seminars, 12th February 2003
  The IETF IPv6-related WGs
• Has many IPv6-related working groups
   –   IPv6 WG (formerly IPng)
   –   V6 Ops WG (successor to the ngtrans WG)
   –   Mobile IP (for Mobile IP, and Mobile IPv6)
   –   DHC WG (includes DHCPv6)
   –   DNSEXT (includes IPv6 DNS)
   –   …
• Core standards have been available for 2-3 years
• MIPv6 and DHCPv6 now finalising to RFC status
• The IETF is now pushing IPv6 into all WGs
                Host platforms
•   Windows 2000/XP/.NET, including WinCE
•   *BSD (including the KAME stack)
•   Linux (including PDA‟s, e.g. iPAQ + Familiar Linux)
•   Solaris 8+
•   Symbian OS (e.g. present in new Ericsson mobiles)
•   Mac OS/X (based on BSD)
•   HP Tru64 (developed by Compaq)
•   HP/UX 11.0+ (should benefit from Compaq merger)
•   AIX 4.3+ (one of the early stacks)
•   Irix (in early stages)
•   +others, e.g. Windows stacks such as Trumpet
•   IPv6 present by default in *BSD
     – e.g. FreeBSD 4.7
     – Excellent platform for host or router, includes Mobile IPv6
     – As a router, use zebra on top of KAME kit

•   Can add KAME “snap” kit for latest features (www.kame.net)
     – Look under or in /usr/local/v6/etc/rc.net6 on system
     – IPv6-enabled by default, includes IPv6 transport DNS lookups

•   Includes multicast code
     – PIM-SM and MLD
     – PIM-SSM and MLDv2
     – Being used on m6bone – see www.m6bone.net
• See Peter Bieringer HOW-TO
   – IPv6 is EXPERIMENTAL option in Linux 2.4 kernel
   –   www.bieringer.de/linux/IPv6/IPv6-HOWTO/IPv6-HOWTO.html

• USAGI Linux
   – www.linux-ipv6.org
        • Developed by part of KAME team
• Out of the box support in distributions:
   – Includes
        • RedHat 7 and 8 (typically with IPv6 as a module)
        • SUSE 7 and 8
        • Debian (can install additional IPv6 features via apt)
   – Linux MIPv6 code/modules available from MIPL project
                        Solaris 8/9
• Includes IPv6:
   – As an option during installation
   – See www.sun.com/software/solaris/ipv6/
• Files to watch for:
   – /etc/hostname6.<interface> exists?
      • If so, reboot and IPv6 autoconfiguration takes effect
   – /etc/inet/ipnodes
      • Contains at least and ::1
   – /etc/nsswitch.conf
      • Add entry for “ipnodes: files dns”

• Sun offers “socket scrubber” porting aid
             Windows 2000/XP
• IPv6 is supported by Microsoft in Windows XP
   – A “hotfix” is also available for Windows 2000
• Just run
   – „ipv6 install‟ at a command prompt
• Then
   – „ipv6 if‟ to see IPv6 features
   – Includes 6to4 and ISATAP transition tools
   – Also includes RFC3041 IPv6 privacy extensions
• Future functions available in .NET
   – Includes support in Pocket PC operating systems
              Basic applications
• Basic applications/services available now:
   –   BIND9, sendmail, Apache, ssh(d), ftp(d), OpenLDAP
   –   Most Linux/BSD commands enabled out of box
   –   Enough to run common services using IPv6
   –   Snooping tools such as tcpdump, Ethereal
   –   Commercial firewalls still missing, but have netfilter6, ip6fw
• Media applications include
   – MICE tools: vic & rat for videoconferencing
   – ISABEL collaborative working suite
   – VideoLAN: MPEG-2 streaming (DVDs)
• The 6NET project is porting Globus Toolkit to IPv6
   – The VOCAL VoIP package also ported to IPv6
       Future IPv6 Applications
• Cannot predict novel future IPv6 applications
• By deploying IPv6 we hope to promote
   –   Peer-to-Peer (p2p) applications
   –   e2e transparency (see RFC2775)
   –   Reduced usage of NAT and other “smart” middleboxes
   –   New Grid and distributed computing functionality
   –   New mobile services,with location awareness
   –   (Pervasive) device to device communication
   –   New classes of devices, e.g. remote sensor networks
• There is no killer IPv6 application (yet…)
   – But the Web came many years after IPv4 was deployed
                         IPv6 APIs
• C:
  – Use advanced API (RFC2553, RFC2992 + bis)
  – For AF/IP-independent code use:
       • getaddrinfo() – map host name to address
       • getnameinfo() – map address to host name
  – See
       • www.kame.net/newsletter/19980604
       • www.sun.com/software/solaris/ipv6/porting_guide_ipv6.pdf

• Java:
  – JDK 1.4.1 supports IPv6 now
       • www.sun.com/java
                Deploying IPv6?
• Network components – hosts and routers – available
   – Application development and porting is progressing
• Where are the IPv6 deployment scenarios?
   – Full campus?
   – Wireless networks?
   – Student halls? (Already many use NAT)
• Should deployment be IPv6-only, dual-stack or both?
   – A growing number of new devices IPv6-only
   – Old IPv4 devices can be made dual-stack, to be able to
     communicate to new IPv6-only devices
   – Translation can be used to communicate between protocols
      • At network layer (NAT-PT)
      • At application layer (e.g. a dual-stack web proxy or email server)
    Understand new features
• Implications of new IPv6 features? For example…
   – Autoconfiguration
      • Less use of managed DHCP, but DHCPv6 does exist
   – IPv6 Privacy Extensions
      • Allows “randomised” host part of the IPv6 address
      • Affects IP-based (host) authentication
   – IPv6 Mobility support
      • Addressing devices by same IP address wherever they are
   – Site topologies
      • Can subnet more deeply, e.g. one per office, per student room
   – Security and firewalls
      • Enabling end-to-end encryption through firewalls
Wireless campus deployment
• Growing numbers of students own laptops
• PDA devices have Wireless LAN adaptors
   – Some now have WLAN (and GPRS) built-in
• Opportunity to deliver WLAN in campuses
   –   Easy access to information
   –   New channels to deliver material, location-aware
   –   Ability to chat, or receive notifications
   –   Enrich the learning environment for staff and students
• Mobile IPv6 enables campus-wide roaming
   – Much improved features over Mobile IPv4
   Access into student homes
• Many student homes now have ADSL
   – And many of those homes have Wireless LAN
• Many student halls have Ethernet
   – Although services may be restricted, and may use NAT
• Can consider broadband applications
   – Direct conferencing between tutor and student
   – Delivery of multimedia data, (legal!) p2p applications
   – Enable IPv6 into creative staff & student environments
• IPv4 home networking invariably uses NAT
   – Makes it hard to run applications into the home
   – IPv6 enables remote access for many applications
   User/site IPv6 connectivity
• The basics for an end user/site…
   – Certainly a host that supports IPv6
   – And ideally a router supporting IPv6
   – Can run IPv6-only, but most likely dual stack
• An IPv6 connection to wider IPv6 Internet
   – Need an upstream provider
   – Link probably tunnelled in IPv4, possibly native
   – Or can use the tunnel broker approach
• IPv6 address space
   – Inherited from/allocated by upstream provider
• All the above now becoming easy to
   – Desirable to build a UK IPv6 community

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