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A p r i l/M a y 20 0 6                  Guide

                             Moving Into CM:
                             A Company’s Story

                             What Content
                             Belongs in a CMS?

                             Information and Systems

                             Integrating Globalization
                             Into Content Life Cycle

                             Multilingual Web
                             Content Management

                         ®   ROI Considerations

                         ®   Authoring Technology
      Guide: G E T T I N G S T A R T E D

      Getting Started:                      Now, more than ever, managing online and print infor-
                                           mation is critical for organizations. Throw multiple lan-        Editor-in-Chief, Publisher Donna Parrish
      Content Management                   guages into the mix and you have a recipe for disaster                    Managing Editor Laurel Wagers
                                           — that is, unless you have a system for managing your           Translation Department Editor Jim Healey
      content. In this guide, we have collected valuable information on what questions to ask and                         Copy Editor Cecilia Spence
                                                                                                                   News Kendra Gray, Becky Bennett
      how to implement the answers in your content strategy.                                                                   Illustrator Doug Jones
                                                                          Donna Parrish, Publisher                       Production Sandy Compton
                                                                                                                                       Editorial Board
      Moving Into CM: A Company’s Story                                                                          Jeff Allen, Henri Broekmate, Bill Hall,
                                                                                                                   Andres Heuberger, Chris Langewis,
      page 3                                                                  Sandi Castle                                   Ken Lunde, John O’Conner,
                 Sandi Castle is director of marketing and communications at SiberLogic, Inc.                             Mandy Pet, Reinhard Schäler
                                                                                                               Advertising Director Jennifer Del Carlo
      What Content Belongs in a CMS?                                                                        Advertising Kevin Watson, Bonnie Merrell
      page 4                                                                 Bret Freeman                                     Webmaster Aric Spence
                         Bret Freeman is eastern regional sales manager for Vasont Systems.                              Assistant Shannon Abromeit
      Understanding Information and Systems                                                                                          208-263-8178
      page 5                                  Markus Romberg and Sacha Fedier
                                                                                                       Subscriptions, customer service, back issues:
             Markus Romberg is an information analyst at STAR AG in Switzerland.
              Sacha Fedier (far right) is marketing director at STAR Group America.
      Integrating Globalization Into Content Life Cycle                                                       Submissions:
      page 8                                                              Dave Rosenlund                         Editorial guidelines are available at
                                          Dave Rosenlund is vice president of marketing and          
                                          new business development at Idiom Technologies.
      Multilingual Web Content Management                                                                   This guide is published as a supplement to
      page 11                                                                    David Terry               MultiLingual, the magazine about language
                                                    David Terry is vice president of sales and         technology, localization, web globalization and
                                                     marketing at Hot Banana Software, Inc.             international software development. It may be
                                                                                                            downloaded at
      ROI Considerations
      page 13                                                                  Kevin Bolen
                                         Kevin Bolen is chief marketing officer at Lionbridge.

      Authoring Technology
      page 14                                                     Shannon Zimmerman
                                                   Shannon Zimmerman is CEO of Sajan, Inc.

      page 2                                                                                                             The Guide From MultiLingual
                                                                       CONTENT MANAGEMENT
                                                                      G E T T I N G S T A R T E D : Guide

                                                                                                                                           CONTENT MANAGEMENT
                                                                                 Moving Into CM:
                                                                               A Company’s Story
                                                                                                                            SANDI CASTLE

    n the early 1990s I worked at the United   I remember being asked to translate the       to the point where substantial organiza-
    Kingdom-based satellite offices of a        Gettysburg Address so that examples and       tions with sufficient funding and commit-
    succession of North American software      training material for a word processing       ment could see a return on their investment,
vendors as they began to make their sales      product wouldn’t have to be devised from      especially in the retranslation of material for
push into the lucrative European market-       scratch.                                      new versions of products.
place. The job of the European subsidiary         Translation was done manually, tools          Tools, techniques and best practices
was generally to ensure the acceptability      were home grown and pretty wobbly, the        all have made inexorable progress over
of these software products to European         learning curve was steep and frustrating      the years. Documentation translation has
users. Our main tasks were to:                 — and local-language product releases         become a mature process, and localiza-
   ■ port the software onto the hardware       were considered a major success if they       tion and globalization and all the similar
platforms popular in Europe at that time       happened within six months of an English      “ations” are not big scary black holes, but
— SG Indigo, ACT Apricot, Apple Mac, ICL                                                     businesslike activities that are supported
and so on.
   ■ make sure the product worked with
the relevant local language system soft-
ware and customs. Depending on the
                                                 Localization and
                                                                                             by recognized best practices, professional
                                                                                             tools and even industry standards such as
                                                                                             the translation subcommittee of the OASIS
                                                                                             DITA technical committee, where the DIR
software, this could be as varied as word                                                    attribute is currently being debated to
hyphenation rules for office automation        and all the similar                           better support Hebrew, Arabic and other
software or charts of accounts for finan-                                                    differently directioned languages. Con-
cial packages.                                 ‘ations’ are not big                          tent management systems (CMSs) offer
   ■ ensure that all user-facing material                                                    specific translation support, and the holy
— screens, prompts, user documentation,          scary black holes,                          grail of simultaneous release of products
marketing material and so on — was pre-                                                      in both English and local languages can
sented in the relevant local language or         but businesslike                            be pretty much achieved without trans-
languages.                                                                                   continental nervous breakdowns.
   The United Kingdom was of course not             activities.                                 CM is invaluable for managing the
considered a translation necessity, sepa-                                                    translation activity for organizations that
rated though we were — and still are, to                                                     need to generate the same product docu-
some extent — by the same language.            launch. We couldn’t translate software        mentation in many languages. Especially
But to be successful in Europe, there was      strings nor documentation until the English   when the underlying product is evolving
a requirement to translate both software       version was complete and frozen because       and/or complex, documentation teams
and user documentation into local lan-         of the huge effort to continue work in par-   need to manage the tracking of which
guages — generally starting with French        allel. When a new version of an existing      translated content goes with which origi-
and German, then moving to Spanish, Ital-      translated product was scheduled, every-      nal language content, and which original
ian, Swedish, Dutch, and with some trepi-      one’s hearts sank because it was such a       language content matches which version
dation and fingers crossed, a move into        complex task to identify — in each local      of the described product. When multiple
Japanese.                                      language — what had changed from one          products are involved and content is
   Software localization was truly a night-    version to another and where. Highlighter     reused across different product docu-
mare because the software developers           pens were often the best tool we had avail-   ments, keeping track of the content, the
had no idea how to make life easier for us,    able. Eventually we gave up translating in-   relationships between the different con-
and we initially had no idea how to advise     house and outsourced our projects, paying     tent elements, and the documents where
them how they could help us save time and      dearly for the privilege of having someone    they are used quickly becomes more than
effort and therefore money. I remember         else take over these headaches.               one person can or should have to track in
trying to tell one US-based business unit         I remember looking at automated transla-   his or her head.
manager why it wasn’t possible to keep         tion systems when they started to emerge.        CM has long been viewed as part of
the same user guide page numbering in          Many companies were hoping for miracles,      the authoring process for teams produc-
German as in English. I remember trying        which of course did not happen. We scoffed    ing material in XML. With built-in support
to explain to the development team in the      at first because the output was more often    for workflow, collaboration and remote
United States why it was so challenging for    hilarious than useful. But companies bigger   contribution, most large XML authoring
us when they tried to save space by dis-       than those I worked for were able to perse-   teams have recognized the benefits in
playing dynamically-generated messages.        vere with them and they steadily improved     terms of cost and time savings offered by

April/May 2006 •                                                                                       page 3
Guide: G E T T I N G S T A R T E D

a CMS. Teams who need to use outside                 a file system to store their documentation.         original and translated content. When
translation agencies can now also enjoy              With a growing number of products and               updated content appears in the original
the benefits of lower translation costs              variants, they became increasingly aware            content, the translated content for each
by ensuring that static content only gets            of the restrictions of this editing platform,       changed element will switch back to
translated once.                                     mainly with respect to text reuse, transla-         the original language so the translation
   Here is an example. ICOS Vision Sys-              tion management, print and web output               office can immediately find the changed
tems Corporation NV (ICOS) is a Belgian              and customer-specific manual generation.            content. ICOS finds XML and DITA to be
public company and a worldwide devel-                They knew they wanted to migrate to XML.            better than a standard word proces-
oper and supplier of inspection equip-               Eventually, in discussions with CMS ven-            sor for technical documentation, due to
ment, primarily for use in the electronics           dors, they learned of DITA and immedi-              functionality such as WYSIWYG model-
assembly and back-end semiconductor                  ately liked the concept of topic-oriented           ing, context-sensitive element display,
markets. ICOS manufactures and sells                 documentation development and the high              attribute display, conditions support and
inspection systems for the semiconduc-               reuse factor.                                       so on.
tor packaging industry as well as inspec-               Their specific DITA CMS lets them create            Of course, it is not just translation sup-
tion systems for the final outgoing visual           an exact linked copy of the original manual,        port that makes a CMS good for transla-
control of chips before they are used in             replace the images by the translated ver-           tion. Workflow control ensures an efficient
various applications such as PCs, cars,              sions (while keeping the original xrefs) and        process even when documentation devel-
mobile telephones, digital cameras, flat             will only allow them to change the content          opers are in one location and translators
panels and so on.                                    of the elements. Content creators cannot            in another (or many more). And translated
   Until 2005, ICOS team members used                remove or add elements, which guarantees            material is never presented unnecessar-
Microsoft Word as their text editor and used         a one-to-one equivalency between the                ily for retranslation, thereby saving time,
                                                                                                         effort and cost in both the original lan-
                                                                                                         guage and all future language variants for
                  What Content Belongs in a CMS?                                                         future product releases. ICOS creates 20
                                                                                                         different variants of each of its manuals in
   A common question regarding content management (CM) is “What content belongs in a                     each of the languages supported. A CMS
content management system (CMS)?” My answer is “What kind of content do you have?” It                    makes this type of version control much
stumps people every time, but the answer is crucial. To understand your CM needs, you must               easier.
understand your content.                                                                                    The ICOS team can manage the trans-
   Start by analyzing what your organization publishes. Most content can be categorized as               lation of content into other languages
cost-reducing or revenue-generating content. For example, a manufacturer publishes a user’s
                                                                                                         while minimizing translation costs by
manual and an online help desk for each product. This is cost-reducing content because it helps
                                                                                                         allowing the assembly of documents that
customers use the products safely, thus reducing the manufacturer’s customer service and
legal costs.                                                                                             only include content to be translated.
   The manufacturer also publishes parts catalogs and fee-based training materials. This is revenue-     The document manager can elect to cre-
generating content because it generates sales for the manufacturer.                                      ate a translation stream when he or she
   Are you surprised by the volume of content your organization generates? Most people are. Cost-        feels that the document is sufficiently
reducing and revenue-generating content is ideal for CM because there are large amounts of it to be      mature to start the translation effort.
organized and shared.                                                                                    As work continues on the original docu-
   Once you know how much and what kinds of content your organization has, ask:                          ment, translation can start in the trans-
   Do I have duplicate (or almost duplicate) content? As much as 90% of the content an organiza-         lation stream. Then, once the document
tion publishes is often duplicate content or is similar enough that it should be the same content. A     is ready for final release in the develop-
product description in a user’s manual may be the same as the description in the product catalog. A      ment stream, a new translation stream
safety warning may be repeated in multiple sections of an installation manual. Content that is used
                                                                                                         is created that merges the content from
in multiple ways is ideal for a CMS because it allows you to store content “chunks” one time and
reuse them many times, thereby making content messaging accurate across publications.
                                                                                                         the first translation stream and from
   Do I publish in different languages? Publishing content in multiple languages greatly increases       the development stream. The resulting
the amount of content you must manage. One product manual may need to be translated into eight           translation stream contains only valid
different languages – generating eight times more content! This content is ideal for a Unicode-          translations and content that needs to be
compliant CMS that integrates with translation memory systems.                                           translated.
   Is my content used across multiple channels? Do you publish your content as printed manuals?             Translation has therefore been assimi-
To the web? On a CD-ROM? In PDF files? To mobile devices? A CMS quickly repurposes and delivers          lated as a mainstream process and is
content for multiple media channels.                                                                     now viewed as part of the documenta-
   Do I use this content often? You probably have many old files. Many organizations find it is only     tion process, rather than an addition or
worthwhile to store frequently used content in a CMS. A CMS is different than an archive; it organizes   afterthought once the English version
content so that it can be used quickly and efficiently.
                                                                                                         has been produced. Teams can manage
   Is compliance an important issue? For organizations with compliance needs, version tracking
                                                                                                         the translation effort as part of the docu-
and content security are important issues. Content that must meet specific regulations is ideal for
a CMS because the system can eliminate the paperwork and time associated with compliance by              ment development process by using CMS
automating processes, such as automatically tracking changes to content and controlling authorized       support for translating whole lines of
user access.                                                                                             development.
   Analyze and understand your content. If you answer “Yes” to any of these questions, you have             We’ve come a long way in the last ten
content appropriate for a CMS. — BRET FREEMAN                                                            years. G

page 4                                                                                                                     The Guide From MultiLingual
                                                                            CONTENT MANAGEMENT
                                                                           G E T T I N G S T A R T E D : Guide

                                                                                                                                                CONTENT MANAGEMENT
                                                              Information and Systems
                                                                                                         MARKUS ROMBERG & SACHA FEDIER

       basic “quality” principle states that       This places certain demands on the               conceived, created and formatted for use
       the quality of output from any sys-       system:                                            by a person. The content can then only
       tem is a direct reflection of the qual-      • Ensure that an item of information can         be analyzed in more detail by a person.
ity of understanding that went into the          only be logically stored in one place.             To that end, specific elements of the
implementation of the system.                      • Ensure that information can be stored          document, such as headings, are visually
    A strategic approach to a documenta-         and retrieved systematically, even by peo-         highlighted by formatting. A computer,
tion production system will establish goals      ple other than the originator.                     however, cannot discern on the basis of
such as the highest level of quality docu-         • Prevent the storage of redundancies,           formatting alone whether the content
mentation on demand in any format and            which reduces the volume of data.                  describes a function or a component des-
media; maximized reuse of information;             • Finally, the information should be             ignation. So, a computer cannot analyze
minimized redundancy and translation             managed in a shared database so that ev-           the actual content of a document. At the
costs; and long-term cost minimization.          ery user accesses the same, current data           same time it is evident that the following
   Achieving these goals requires an in-         source — and every change is logged.               constituents of a document are insepara-
depth understanding of the existing informa-                                                        bly linked and can only be reused in the

                                                 Tto publish in any
tion to be documented. It is also necessary                                                         particular form in which they exist:
to understand the value of separating infor-
mation from layout and understanding how
                                                   he flexibility                                      • Content — the message to be com-
to separate the two. Consider that it takes                                                            • Structure — the order of and hier-
20% more characters to describe a concept                                                           archical relationship among the items of
in Spanish than it does to describe it in Eng-
lish — yet companies want to use the same
                                                  format can only be                                information.
                                                                                                       • Format — the presentational attri-
layout for both documents.                         guaranteed if                                    butes of the content identifiable by human
   Developing and leveraging this level of                                                          readers.
understanding for a company’s documen-               information is                                    With an information management sys-
tation require discipline. Those compa-                                                             tem, however, individual content constitu-
nies that have developed this discipline         stored and managed                                 ents (items of information) are managed
are reaping substantial rewards.                                                                    within a structural component — an IU.
   Characteristics of information. Informa-      independently                                      At this point there is no formatting in-
tion is the only production factor that is                                                          volved. The aim is to present information
easy to duplicate, can be used simultane-         of the final layout.                              in a versatile and, above all, automati-
ously at multiple locations and does not                                                            cally analyzable form — in other words,
wear out with use. However, information                                                             a form in which the constituents of an IU
can easily be altered on its passage from           In the end, it is the quality of the database   can be interpreted (for example, identifi-
the originator to the user — a feature that      that determines the quality of the output.         able function and component designa-
can call its reliability into question.             Discipline. Task-based multiuser data           tion), handled and manipulated (such as
   Availability and reliability of informa-      input and the precisely detailed system            physical measurement units converted)
tion. The problem of a lack of information       structure allow high levels of productiv-          by a computer. This enables different pub-
has been overshadowed by one of locat-           ity when essential process stages such as          lication mechanisms to produce different
ing or retrieving the correct information at     translation and publication are partially          documents from the same information
the required time. The constantly growing        or fully automated. This requires that the         with the actual degree of detail and con-
deluge of information has to be organized        information needs to be distilled into the         tent of a document being determined by
by means of an intelligent and effective         smallest reusable, discrete elements or            the publication algorithm. An appropriate
system so that each individual can distin-       units (from now on referred to as “informa-        level of duplication can then be produced
guish information that is reliable and rel-      tion units,” abbreviated as IUs). From this        in the published document, thereby sim-
evant to his or her specific needs.              it is clear that the originator of an item of      plifying handling for the user.
   System requirements. Ensuring that in-        information, such as the editor, has a large          As an example, a list of required tools is
formation is reliable and up-to-date re-         responsibility and must work in a disci-           provided for each operation in a sequence.
quires a system that assists the originator      plined fashion when creating and manag-            In addition, an overall list of tools can be
with the production of the information           ing content.                                       produced at the end of the document. All
and compiles the information in a manner            Information management. A document              of this information is generated from the
suited to the needs of the user.                 is a usable collection of information              same data source.

April/May 2006 •                                                                                            page 5
Guide: G E T T I N G S T A R T E D

   System’s concept. The system’s concept
should be characterized by a transparent
management system for storing self-con-
tained IUs according to the single-source
principle, that is, in a single data source.
The IUs can be managed and used more
than once by linking them together. By
linking IUs, redundancies can be avoided
and information-related interconnections
documented whereby the linked IU more
precisely defines the content of the refer-
ring IU.
   This concept enables on-demand, auto-
matic production of derivative documenta-
tion. For example, a Quick Start Guide may
be a derivative of an owner’s manual, which
again is a derivative of a maintenance and
repair manual, which is a derivative of the
original engineering documentation and
so on.

A typical example in the automotive world
                                                                    Editor with terminology and sentence proposal
   The IU that describes an assembly se-
quence is linked to the IU for a tool that     should be even more support. Besides          difference between two versions to be
is required for a specific assembly op-        data entry and spellchecking, the system      identified at any time. In addition, you
eration. Each of the two IUs is self-con-      should make context-sensitive terminology     should be able to view the actual content
tained in terms of content. The assembly       and sentence proposals simultaneously         of an IU at a previous processing stage or
instructions describe all the required op-     while writing. “Editor with terminology and   temporarily reset the entire database to
erations in the assembly sequence, and         sentence proposal” shows an editor built      a time in the past. This will enable you to
the tool description contains all the tech-    for this purpose.                             republish a document with precisely the
nical details of a particular tool. Linking       Note the sentence and terminology pro-     same information that it contained at
enables the tool data to be accessed           posals on the bottom of the screen, which     that time.
from the assembly instructions, and in         are based on the existing content within         Design similarities. In many products,
the tool description there is a reference      the system’s database. Terminology pro-       design solutions are often used many
to a practical use for the tool showing        posals are either from the database or        times. For example, a particular assem-
what it is used for.                           taken from a terminology management           bly may be used in several places in a
   From this example it can be seen that       tool interfaced to the system. As a result,   product and in different product ver-
IUs can be subdivided into different           consistency throughout the whole enter-       sions. Oftentimes a product within a
classes (such as assembly instructions         prise can be increased while translation      product family may be 70% to 90% the
and tool descriptions). Each class then        costs can be minimized due to reuse of        same as another product in the product
represents what is referred to as an in-       previous translations.                        family. These design similarities normal-
formation type, which has characteristic          History management. A high-quality doc-    ly lead to significant redundancies in the
content components that are necessary          umentation passes through a number            documentation.
for understanding. That means that all         of refinement stages from data entry             In such cases, the adapted system
IUs of a particular information type have      through the checking of linguistic and        should enable the information to be pro-
the same content structure. This principle     technical accuracy to the point at which      jected or virtually copied with the aid
assists the originator with the processes      it is finally approved for publication. All   of links so as to minimize duplication.
of research and production and guaran-         changes at all stages must be automati-       As a result, that link describes identi-
tees the user completeness of content          cally documented.                             cal design features in the product mod-
of an IU, for example, in a publication.          The system should have an auditing or      els which are documented at one point
Content-related identification of the indi-    history management facility allowing each     and automatically available at all other
vidual information components gives the        individual IU to be traced from its incep-    points of the information model in all lan-
database intelligence, without which au-       tion to publication and translation. Even     guages. If there are differences in detail
tomated subsequent processing (such as         if an IU is deleted, all previously created   that require documentation in particular
analysis or intelligent publication) would     versions of it should be retainable.          places (such as different versions for dif-
not be possible.                                  It should document who (such as            ferent countries), you need to be able to
   Data entry. With the above-mentioned        what user or system) makes what content       break the individual link and enter the
information structures and benefits in         changes or sets which processing statuses     specific information.
mind, the technical writer will be greatly     when and at which workstation. A differen-       Consequently, you will spend your time
assisted with a good editor. But there         tial comparison function should allow the     not creating a document from scratch, but

page 6                                                                                                        The Guide From MultiLingual
                                                                            CONTENT MANAGEMENT
                                                                          G E T T I N G S T A R T E D : Guide

working only on the difference between
current and previous versions. This sig-
nificantly reduces the time and effort nec-
essary to document subsequent products
while at the same time increases the over-
all quality of the documentation.
   Publication process. The IUs created          TripleInk: Translations                              15 Years of Well-managed
and translated can then be automatically
output with the aid of various publication         for Global Markets                                   Brazilian Translations
mechanisms. Each publication mechanism           TripleInk is a multilingual communications agency
is defined within a publication type. A                                                                  This is what you get:
                                              that provides industrial and consumer products
publication type defines a particular or-     companies with precise translation and multilingual        • Quality in customer service, deliverables and
ganization of the content according to the    production services for audio-visual, interactive and          open communication
target medium and the communication tar-      print media. From technical documentation to               • Responsiveness and ability to adapt to ever
get (such as a specific target readership).   advertising, we offer complete, integrated                     changing requirements
That means that not only the formatting is    communication solutions. Employing a total quality         • Customized service with no compromise to
adapted, but also that the structure of the   management process along with state-of-the-art                 translation quality, even in challenging volumes
content is rearranged.                        technology resources, our knowledgeable project
   Thus, for example, from the same se-                                                                  • Promptness to raise issues and prevent any
                                              managers and international communication                       disruptions to project quality
lected IU one publication type might pro-     professionals deliver the comprehensive services
duce a comprehensive printed document                                                                    This is what we get:
                                              you need to meet your global business objectives
such as an instruction manual, while an-                                                                 • Extremely satisfied customers
                                              — on target, on time and on budget.
other might produce browser pages in XML                                                                 If you’re not one of them yet, experience the difference!
or HTML arranged according to topic, and
yet another a data pool for a CD and so on.
   Because the publication process takes
                                                                 TripleInk                                               Follow-Up
                                                       60 South 6th Street, Suite 2600                    Av. Presidente Wilson 165 / Sala 1308
place automatically, standardized docu-
                                                          Minneapolis, MN 55402                            Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil 20030-020
mentation in terms of level of information,
                                                    612-342-9800 • Fax: 612-342-9745                    55-21-2524-2994 • Fax: 55-21-2210-5472
layout, handling and corporate design is
                                         •    •
ensured. This increases quality while elim-
inating time-consuming and error-prone
desktop publishing work.
   This approach enables unprecedented
flexibility to produce from a single source
any kind of publication, including any cur-
rent or even yet-to-be-established indus-
try standard, which then can be exchanged
with other databases. For example, today a
company could publish ATA 100 (Air Trans-           Multilingual Online
portation Association Standard for Mainte-
nance Manuals)-compliant documentation              Publishing Solutions                               Content Management
and tomorrow publish the same data to the
                                                  Quadralay Corporation is the market leader in
AECMA Spec 1000D (European Associa-
tion of Aerospace Industries Standard) or     online publishing and content-review solutions for      With Translation Capability
into the emerging standard DITA (Darwin       Microsoft Word and Adobe FrameMaker users.                 Others are still talking about ultimate integration.
Information Typing Architecture, OASIS        Quadralay’s WebWorks ePublisher Pro allows
Standard).                                                                                            Heartsome is well into it — a cross-platform CMS fully
                                              developers, writers and groups to easily create
   The flexibility to publish in any format                                                           integrated with translation productivity software. The
                                              professional content for the web, professional online
can only be guaranteed if you store and       Help systems, portable devices, and enterprise-ready    Heartsome Content Manager efficaciously combines
manage your information absolutely in-                                                                a multilingual content server, a versatile translation
                                              XML, directly from Word or FrameMaker. Robust mul-
dependent of the final layout. Otherwise,                                                             memory server and a complete set of translation tools.
you have to produce redundant informa-
                                              tilingual support includes most European and many
                                              double-byte languages, enabling the efficient delivery   Translators, translation vendors and corporate teams
tion while rewriting your content and giv-
ing it a new structure and format, which      of localized content for every major online format.     are free to work in Linux, Mac or Windows interface.
ensures ever-increasing quality problems
and additional significant translation and
publication expenses.
                                                   Quadralay Corporation                              Heartsome Holdings Pte. Ltd.
                                                       9101 Burnet Road, Suite 105                                   190 Middle Road
   In the end, it’s all about understanding
                                                            Austin, TX 78758                                      #19-05 Fortune Centre
your information, your goals and how to
                                                         512-719-3399 ext. 501                                      Singapore 188979
achieve them. G
                                        •           •

April/May 2006 •                                                                                                         page 7
              Guide: G E T T I N G S T A R T E D

                                                                         Integrating Globalization
                                                                             Into Content Life Cycle
                                                                                                                                          DAVE ROSENLUND

                  t’s not unusual to find global organiza-       stored in a repository or file system. Gen-     the management of a particular type of
                  tions that have a number of content           erally speaking, a CMS is a software ap-        content (web CM, document management,
                  management (CM) strategies and solu-          plication that allows people to more easily     digital asset management, software con-
               tions that have emerged within the orga-         change and update content. Leading CMS          figuration management and so on), these
               nization over time. Taken individually, each     vendors include EMC Documentum, Hum-            systems helped companies manage the
               may help achieve the CM and single-source        mingbird, IBM, Interwoven, Microsoft and        life cycle associated with their content
               publishing goals of the product or func-         Vignette.                                       assets. More recently, enterprise con-
               tional team they support. More often than           Used broadly, the term globalization can     tent management (ECM) solutions have
               not, however, the result of these collective     mean many different things to different         emerged. These systems use one or more
               investments is a distributed, disparate as-      people. In this case, according to Byte Level   of the CMSs listed above to help compa-
               sortment of CM platforms and approaches          Research, globalization refers to the pro-      nies manage all of their content assets in
               that make the adoption of a cohesive and         cess of adapting a business and its prod-       a single platform. In order to maximize CM
               comprehensive content globalization strat-       ucts and promotions to a new audience,          investments, globalization efforts must
               egy a nightmare.                                                                                 leverage these existing systems.

                                                                Gno longer be can
                  Many companies have traditionally con-                                                           The globalization industry is experienc-
               sidered investments in content globalization
               a luxury, akin to investing in personalization
                                                                  lobalization                                  ing explosive growth. Not surprisingly, one
                                                                                                                of the most significant market forces driv-
               and other enterprise CM extensions. Global
               companies are under increasing pressure to
                                                                               an                               ing this growth is the internet. A primary in-
                                                                                                                fluencer of the new “global economy,” the
               protect and expand their customer base in
               order to drive revenue increases and protect           afterthought                              internet continues to dissolve traditional
                                                                                                                boundaries between companies and new
               their bottom line. As such, they need to refo-
               cus on how to efficiently and cost-effectively        to broader                                 international markets, causing the demand
                                                                                                                for globalization to skyrocket. The resulting
               communicate with audiences in different lan-                                                     globalization pressures felt by today’s glob-
               guages, both within their own country and                CM strategies.                          al enterprise take many different forms.
               with others around the world. This global                                                           • Top-line growth. Companies must ex-
               business pressure has helped shine the           typically one that is in a different country.   pand their global presence to meet revenue
               spotlight on globalization software, with        Globalization encompasses internation-          and growth objectives.
               companies realizing globalization can no lon-    alization, translation and localization. As        • Increased competitive pressures. As
               ger be an afterthought to their broader CM       such, globalization software solutions en-      more and more companies offer products
               strategies.                                      able efficient management of translation        and information in local languages, other
                  For companies looking to better under-        and localization cycles as well as the ongo-    companies in the same industry feel the
               stand the relationship between CM and            ing synchronization of “source” (the origi-     competitive pressures to do the same.
               content globalization, this article will serve   nal) and “target” (translated) content. An         • Increasing global demand for prod-
               to define the two categories, discuss the        effective globalization solution maximizes      ucts and services. As more and more
               roots of the technologies and address how        global content reuse, improves global con-      international consumers learn about a
               the two can be integrated within an en-          tent quality and accelerates new content        company’s products and services, demand
               terprise to drive more effective, targeted       into global markets while containing or         is stimulated in new, global markets.
               global business communication.                   even reducing the cost of globalization.           • Shorter product and content life cy-
                                                                   The globalization industry is comprised      cles. Product life cycles are shrinking in al-
               Defining the market                              of software vendors such as Idiom Tech-         most every industry, and this in turn results
               and available solutions                          nologies, TRADOS (recently acquired by          in a higher frequency of globalization.
                 Let’s start with basic, industry-accepted      language service provider SDL), STAR               • Real-time or on-demand business.
               definitions for what we are addressing.          Group and Transware; and language ser-          The days of batch processing are largely
                 According to the CM Pros website, a            vice providers (LSPs) including iSP, Lion-      behind us. Today, companies strive to de-
               content management system (CMS) is a             bridge, Localize Technologies, One Planet,      liver products and information when and
               software tool designed to help content           SDL, VistaTEC and Welocalize.                   where they are needed, instantaneously.
               managers create, manage and publish
               their content. The CMS uses a database or        Market history and industry trends              The globalization process and automation
               other mechanisms to track the location of          The late 1980s marked the rapid emer-           When it comes to globalization, orga-
               and relationships among content elements         gence of CM solutions. Often tailored to        nizations are learning to strike the right

               page 8                                                                                                              The Guide From MultiLingual
                                                                          CONTENT MANAGEMENT
                                                                         G E T T I N G S T A R T E D : Guide

balance between using internal resourc-             Business process automation solutions        by the translator. Automation can be used
es, external resources and software to           attempt to accelerate well-defined, labor-      to greatly reduce the time and human re-
optimize their efforts. As enterprises           intensive processes through software.           sources required for this process.
extend their reach around the world, de-         In the context of this article, this means         Translation. While humans are generally
mand for globalization services increas-         automating the time-consuming and la-           required to perform actual translations,
es dramatically, and the balance shifts.         bor-intensive aspects of globalization as       systems based on machine translation
As a result, many have had to rethink            outlined above. At a high level, here are       (MT) and translation memory (TM) can be
their approach to content globalization          the areas of globalization that are ripe for    used to greatly accelerate the process.
by more closely analyzing their goals,           automation.                                        Project management and workflow.
such as to meet the increasing demand               Internationalization. While it is not pos-   The larger the globalization initiative, the
for information; to reuse and repurpose          sible to remove humans from the inter-          more complex the project management
existing content; to deliver information         nationalization process, automation can         and workflow requirements. As globaliza-
more efficiently; and/or to contain or re-       be used to enforce adherence to interna-        tion efforts grow, so too will the required
duce costs.                                      tionalization best practices, thereby mini-     number of project managers, translators
   So, how does a company meet the seem-         mizing the amount of human intervention         and localization specialists. Automation
ingly conflicting globalization goals of in-     required to ensure that content is ready for    can be used to streamline and accelerate a
creased demand, faster turn-around times         translation and localization.                   large number of the tasks that would oth-
and cost cutting and containment? There             Content preparation. One of the most la-     erwise be performed by these resources.
are three primary approaches, each of-           bor-intensive tasks in globalization is con-    It can also be used to automate workflow,
fering distinct advantages and disadvan-         tent preparation. Content is created using      significantly reducing the amount of manu-
tages. Choosing the right one will depend        myriad tools, and the list of file types and    al effort required to move content through
heavily on the particular organization’s cir-    formats generated by the typical global         the globalization content life cycle.
cumstances and plans. We briefly outline         enterprise can be enormous (documents,             Vendor management. Expanding global-
the options below, but for the purposes of       HTML, XML and so on). Unfortunately,            ization efforts also lead to fairly complex
this article, we will focus on the third, “au-   translators generally do not use the same       and time-consuming language-vendor man-
tomation.” The three approaches are:             tools to perform translation. They work         agement requirements. Whether a com-
   1. Status quo. Simply continue to do          with computer-aided translation (CAT)           pany outsources to a single multi-language
things the way you do them today.                tools to translate text that is extracted       vendor (MLV) or to a number of smaller lan-
   2. Increase capacity. Continue to do          from the original file — either by the glob-    guage vendors, the complexity and level of
things the way they’re done today, but ex-       al enterprise or by the global enterprise’s     effort required to effectively manage them
tend and expand your capacity so you can         LSP. Once the translation is complete, lo-      grows considerably as globalization re-
do more.                                         calization engineers or specialists must        quirements grow.
   3. Automate. Use software and global-         reassemble the content asset in question           CM integration. In order to preserve and
ization best practices to streamline and         using the newly translated text supplied        fully leverage previous investments in CM
automate the globalization effort wher-
ever possible.
   Many enterprises have a globalization
process today. However, the level of so-
phistication and expertise within an or-
ganization varies widely. Even the most
sophisticated and experienced organi-
zations tend to follow a process that can
best be described as a waterfall approach
to global content management.
   • Content is created.
   • Content is edited and finalized.
   • Content is managed.
   • Content is published in its original
(source) language.
   • Content is globalized.
   • Content is managed.
   • Content is published in its translated
(target) languages.
   This approach lends itself well to either
a decentralized or centralized globaliza-
tion effort. In both cases, globalization is
done only at or near the end of the content
life cycle, and more often than not, it is ac-
complished entirely through outsourcing
to LSPs.

April/May 2006 •                                                                                         page 9
          Guide: G E T T I N G S T A R T E D

          systems, globalization solutions must le-      required for project overhead will again
          verage these systems as much as possible.      grow unexpectedly.
            Here again, automation can provide a            Combine increasing volumes of content
          number of compelling advantages. For ex-       with increases in the number of languages,
          ample, it is significantly more efficient to   and project overhead will grow exponen-
          automatically detect changes in original       tially. Since globalization platforms can
          (source) content through software, and         automate large portions of globalization
          then automatically initiate the correspond-    workflow and project management, they
          ing globalization workflow that should en-     can have a correspondingly significant im-
          sue from those changes.                        pact in this area.
            But what factors will help you determine        3. Frequency of change. The more fre-
          whether or when automation will make           quent the changes to items being global-
          sense for your organization?                   ized, the more effort required. Here again,
            Four areas of globalization will have the    the “combination effect” can be dramatic.
          most significant impact on your decision.      Globalization solutions can be used to
                                                         automate change detection, initiate work-
                                                         flow and accelerate time-to-globalization.

           Combine                                          4. Number of systems. Few, if any, global
                                                         organizations have all of their content as-
                                                         sets in a single repository. Typically, those
              increasing                                 assets are found in a variety of ECM, CM,
                                                         WCM, SCM, database and other systems.
               volumes of                                   The complexity of the globalization effort
                                                         also grows as the systems accessed and
               content with                              used grow in number. Globalization plat-
                                                         forms can be used to automate the retrieval

                increases in                             of content assets for globalization, as well
                                                         as the submission of the derived (translat-
                                                         ed) assets, back into those systems.
              the number of                                 In summary, once a company has com-
                                                         mitted to automating the globalization
               languages, and                            process, the next step is to integrate the
                                                         chosen globalization solution with its ex-
                project overhead                         isting CMS. The number of ways in which
                                                         a CMS can be extended for globalization
                  will grow                              is extensive. Thoughtful preparation lead-
                                                         ing up to design and implementation
                                                         will ensure expected productivity gains
                   exponentially.                        and return-on-investment. Global orga-
                                                         nizations should ensure the framework
          Understanding your organization’s pres-        that is being built is scalable, facilitates
          ent and future needs in each area and          contribution from and expansion to mul-
          their combined impact on the level of ef-      tiple regions and addresses localization
          fort required to meet your organization’s      requirements.
          needs is key.                                     Companies that don’t take globaliza-
             1. Number of languages. As the number       tion requirements and processes into ac-
          or languages increases, so does the level      count during their CMS rollout typically
          of effort. Moreover, the increased project     experience a delay in the implementation
          overhead will very likely lead to unexpect-    of their globalization solution. That delay
          ed increases in the total cost of globaliza-   could result in significant lost revenue op-
          tion. A centralized globalization platform     portunities and declining competitive ad-
          that unifies TM and term database assets       vantage. By integrating globalization into
          can significantly reduce the number of         the content life cycle as early as possible,
          words requiring translation while simul-       companies can ensure that their CMS in-
          taneously streamlining and accelerating        frastructure is fully leveraged and that
          globalization workflows.                       they are armed with a powerful approach
             2. Volume of content. As the number of      to driving global demand for their prod-
          items requiring translation grows, so does     ucts and services, while effectively com-
          the level of effort required to complete       municating with partners and customers
          globalization. The effort and resources        around the world. G

page 10                                                                    The Guide From MultiLingual
                                                                                CONTENT MANAGEMENT
                                                                               G E T T I N G S T A R T E D : Guide

                                                                                                                                                     CONTENT MANAGEMENT
    t may have taken a few years longer than
    expected, but the global expansion of the
    internet is now truly underway with China,
                                                                                   Multilingual Web
India, Eastern Europe and many other devel-
oping countries recently coming on-stream.                                      Content Management
This web explosion is also validated by Ya-                                                                                            DAVID TERRY
hoo, MSN and Google quickly moving into
many overseas markets with specific search
engine languages and localization strategies
as a new way for profit growth.                       can’t compare to some up-and-coming, low-          been English. From there, you can then set up
    With this global expansion of web content        er-cost, mid-market WCM solutions.                 your additional language websites. So what
and internet surfers in mind, are you ready to                                                          do you need?
play the multilingual search engine optimi-          First things first — planning                         1. WCM software that follows multilingual
zation (SEO) game? Does your current web                 Let’s begin with business planning for the     website management best practices with an
content management system (WCM or CMS)               special requirements of managing search            easy-to-use interface for non-technical staff.
organically rank your multilingual content re-       engine friendly multilingual content and a lo-        2. An easy-to-set-up and flexible trans-
ally well — for example, at the top of the first     calization strategy. It’s absolutely critical to   lation workflow process built into the WCM
page of Google? Or are you losing out your           start planning the business rules, keywords        software. A good WCM will be able to mold to
organic search engine page rankings to your          and asset locations for translation workflow       the organization’s workflow structure.
competitors because they have a more flex-           at the initiation of the project. Not only does       3. A WCM that creates a multilingual,
ible WCM that is SEO friendly?                       this reduce risk, but it will save money. Also,    search engine friendly website that ranks
    In this article, I will look at the best prac-   think in terms of the desired and most effi-       high in Google, Yahoo and MSN.
tices for building search engine friendly, mul-      cient business process and outcomes. Think-           4. A W3C standards-based, generic archi-
tilingual websites using a WCM.                      ing locally has never been so relevant before,     tecture for multilingual websites that is easy
    The bottom line is that the design and           meaning that content authors, editors and          to design and maintain, providing compliant
maintenance of multilingual websites re-             translators may be in one region and manag-        usability and accessibility standards.
quires WCM software, processes and tech-             ers giving approvals may be in a completely
niques that are well beyond what is needed           different part of the world. The key to creat-     A few words on multilingual
for a normal “monolingual” website. And              ing a localized web presence, which is cost ef-    WCM best practices
without the suitable tools, multilingual web-        fective, is for the whole design, development          WCM is all about storing and managing
sites can be very expensive to create and            and content team to think “multilingual” and       content in one place and then dynamically
manage. So it’s a great idea to have the best        “what is search engine friendly” right from        delivering that content throughout the web-
SEO/WCM practices, processes and func-               the beginning.                                     site and across multilingual web locations.
tionality in place.                                      Once the structure of the multilingual         This saves an organization lots of money
    The standards to achieve these goals             website is established, how do the vari-           though efficiency and improved productivity
have to be high. Multilingual websites have          ous language versions of text, resources           and can facilitate the publishing of very com-
to be near perfect or very well put together         and graphics fit into the overall structure?       plex multilingual website content.
at least; otherwise, the risk is high that the       Moreover, anticipation that some localized             Many WCM systems exist to ease the
website may never be found by a search en-           pages may be created in different ways and         task of managing content for a website. Un-
gine. The old motto “The competition is just         sometimes have a different layout due to lan-      fortunately, many of these solutions are de-
a mouse click away” is very true in the mul-         guage constraints also needs to be planned         signed to build monolingual websites, and
tilingual website world. Forrester research          ahead. Where possible, define and organize         some have no regard for being search engine
mentions that customers who are addressed            the website having in mind a set of the mul-       friendly. One of the issues is that they don’t
in their own language will stay at a website         tilingual rules that facilitate the information    take into account the fact that the same page
twice as long, and they will spend three times       localization process and never forget which        will be present in different languages or that
as much money when they can use their own            local language the search engines are look-        the application should interact in different
language. Therefore, making sure you have a          ing for. Again, this will help to decrease the     ways with the same database in order to
multilingual web presence is essential, and          overall cost involved and minimize risk down       come out with a dynamically generated, lo-
making it search engine friendly is critical.        the road.                                          calized, language specific web page.
    When considering how to create a multilin-           So what are the main technology features           I recommend that these are some of the
gual website that will last for at least the next    to look for?                                       most important items to look out for in a mul-
five years, there are dozens of features worth           The great thing about a multilingual WCM       tilingual WCM:
looking at beyond what I can cover here.             is that it can seamlessly integrate with the           1. One of the most important require-
Some enterprise content management level             translation workflow process so content can        ments for a multilingual website is to store
software solutions and integrated global in-         be uploaded into the right location (digital       content in the database in the Unicode
formation management and document solu-              asset management). This significantly re-          Standard (
tions can do the job to the extreme, as they         duces the overhead of managing global con-         IsUnicode.html). Unicode is what allows the
have all the capabilities, but they can be cost      tent through the localization process. In our      system to handle languages with unique
prohibitive. Even at that level, some don’t ad-      experience, we recommend working from a            character sets, such as Japanese, Chinese or
dress the fundamentals of SEO and therefore          root language website which typically has          Arabic. If the system is not Unicode-enabled,

April/May 2006 •                                                                                               page 11
Guide: G E T T I N G S T A R T E D

then it is not able to handle multilingual         multilingual content is a complex process            If text is updated frequently and is lin-
content.                                           with many steps, so strong workflow capa-         guistically standard, then automatic trans-
   2. Website accessibility and compliance         bilities minimize mistakes and errors and         lation systems can produce sufficiently
via W3C standards are becoming more im-            increase site management efficiencies.            good translations. If these can be integrat-
portant in the not-for-profit and govern-             6. Digital asset sharing is the ability to     ed into the workflow of the WCM, then the
ment sectors around the world and are part         share assets such as flash movies, external       benefits of speed will pay off; however, we
of a wider compliance movement towards             hyperlinks, product images, banners, pdfs,        do advise that translation editors give the
universal usability and accessibility stan-        Microsoft Office documents and so on. Con-        final approval and that the translators are
dards. W3C standards also greatly enhance          siderable time can be saved by uploading          savvy enough in search engine keywords
the “searchability” of websites by the major       multilingual website assets and resources         that the text can at least hit the minimum
search engines and by the internal website         into one, well-organized digital asset man-       standards set for the site.
search tools.                                      ager so that they can be shared on multiple
   3. Themes, images, code, text, naviga-          websites.                                         What’s a search-engine-friendly
tion and campaigns should be separate,                7. Page layout/theme sharing — being           multilingual WCM?
stored once and reused multiple times. This        able to manage the look and feel of a site            Most CMSs are notoriously bad at generat-
is a critical process that will ensure that con-   centrally or as a group — will keep the global    ing pages which rank well in search engines.
tent is always accurate with no duplication.       brand and design integrity standards intact.      However, there area few WCMs out there that
Translation costs can therefore be signifi-           8. Analytic tracking by language site —        do a great job with multilingual websites and
cantly reduced through an effective content        by providing separate web analytics track-        they are also search engine friendly. SEO is
reuse strategy.                                    ing tags by language site — will open up a        all the buzz this year and has become a very
   4. The best multilingual websites need          new world of tracking and measurement of          important strategy for e-marketing profes-
to be able to switch back and forth between        website visitors’ behavior, and, most im-         sionals to adopt to drive targeted traffic and
languages at the page level (one-to-0ne            portantly, what works well on the site and        qualified leads to a website.
mapping). This is a tremendous usability           what is working badly so that corrective ac-          A search engine friendly WCM simply
feature as most multilingual websites are          tion can be taken.                                makes it easy to configure your website in
separate sites for each language. With a              Best practice for any website is to have an    a way that allows the search engine spi-
proper multilingual WCM you can build a            editorial policy in place for frequent updates    ders and robots to visit and crawl deep into
“one-to-many” language ability so that you         and additions to web content. Not only does       every web page. The search engines will
can switch, or toggle, between languages           this keep the content fresh for returning visi-   like what they find because search engine
from one web page.                                 tors, but it also keeps the search engines in-    friendly multilingual websites are well de-
   5. Workflow and approval process (mul-          terested in the site as they like to index new    signed, use quality W3C web standards of
tilevel configurations based on the section        content. This therefore becomes more dif-         design and code, and possess logical navi-
of the website) can be variable depending          ficult and complex for multilingual websites      gation. With these attributes, the robots
upon the page, section and language area of        that have to react quickly to content chang-      and spiders can then crawl deep inside the
the website. A WCM should allow workflow           es in other core languages. Updates in the        website, indexing practically everything as
groups, complex approval procedures and            source language need to be reflected in the       they move around.
high-level content change notifications to         other languages, preferably simultaneously,           The best WCM for your organization,
be applied to different sections or pages of       and this requires an extremely quick turn-        therefore, will not only be loaded with mul-
the website. And most importantly, you may         around time for translations. Therefore, the      tilingual content management features, but
need to coordinate different localized trans-      updating of multilingual web content often        will also allow the controlled optimization of
lation services for different sections and/        requires critical automation to manage com-       the website attributes in order to allow web
or different country websites. Managing            plex workflows.                                   page content to be organically indexed and
                                                                                                     ranked by major search engines in their na-
                                                                                                     tive language. Any adjustments that need
                                                                                                     to be made to improve the organic search
                                                                                                     engine rankings, such as title page names,
                                                                                                     URLs, meta tags, keyword copy, keyword
                                                                                                     and description tags, graphics titles and in-
                                                                                                     ternal/external hyperlinks, need to be easily
                                                                                                     changed and kept up-to-date within the WCM
                                                                                                     software. Again, the goal is to make this as
                                                                                                     simple a process for as many non-technical
                                                                                                     users as possible.
                                                                                                         Let’s not forget that our focus needs to
                                                                                                     be kept on the plan, and our goal is to have
                                                                                                     a multilingual website that is easy to design,
                                                                                                     code and manage. This just so happens to be
                                                                                                     what the search engine robots and spiders
                                                                                                     are looking for when they visit a website to
                                                                                                     index it for organic rankings.

page 12                                                                                                                 The Guide From MultiLingual
                                                                             CONTENT MANAGEMENT
                                                                            G E T T I N G S T A R T E D : Guide

    The most important WCM SEO controls to        design elements such as separating design,         Additionally, search engines are becoming
look out for in a multilingual website are na-    graphics, code, navigation and text.               the primary source of website traffic for many
tive language search engine friendly URLs;                                                           organizations, and therefore the ranking of
clean XHTML-compliant code; keyword and           Conclusion                                         website content in these search engines is of
key phrase analysis tools; robots.txt man-           The need for full SEO-friendly multilin-        equal importance to that of delivering a solid
agement on a page-by-page basis; metada-          gual capabilities in a WCM system is already       multilingual website.
ta formulation controls; page titles, browser     evident. Soon, the number of non-English              However, many multilingual CMSs are dif-
titles and window titles, navigation label,       speaking people who are connected to the           ficult to use, aren’t search engine friendly,
way finding and alt tags all with native lan-     internet will outnumber English speakers. It       are expensive to set up and maintain, and
guage naming controls; internal and exter-        has been shown that the large majority of in-      lack flexibility, standards and focus. It’s
nal link management; clean site navigation        ternet users prefer to be addressed in their       worth looking around for the one that follows
elements and site architecture; website ana-      native languages, and therefore the demand         the SEO/WCM standards and is just right for
lytics and behavior profiling; and website        for true multilingual websites is on the rise.     your organization. G

W       ith the increasing focus on global
        revenue generation for companies
of all sizes, information technology (IT)
                                                                                  ROI Considerations
managers and business unit managers                                                                                                  KEVIN BOLEN
alike are finding themselves involved in
the creation and deployment of content                SOLUTION: Reduce complexity by auto-           across projects can save as much as 30%
in multiple languages. Here are the five          mating transactions. Selecting and preparing       of the total translation costs. By opening up
key challenges in multilingual content            content for localization and then routing it to    your TM corporate-wide, that same 30% is
management and how to improve return              appropriate managers can take a worker from        multiplied by each translation project. The
on investment (ROI) in each case.                 30 minutes to several hours. For 20 handoffs       more expansive the TM, the greater return to
   Global IT infrastructure. If your organiza-    per week, tools that automatically identify,       you as your corporate lexicon is standardized
tion has already implemented a content            select and route content for localization          and available for your future projects. Look
management system, you are now consider-          would save US $60,000 to $90,000 per year,         for applications that integrate at source-level
ing if it will support your company’s multilin-   per project initiative, not counting the finan-    with your existing single-language content
gual content needs. While some vendors still      cial benefits of speeding up the process.          repository and become part of the automated
sell an entirely new system just to handle            Costly delays. If you miss six weeks in a      workflow.
multilingual content rollouts, adding new         nine-month sales cycle localizing content for         Hidden costs. Communication, logistics,
applications is not the quickest way to ROI.      your global channel (or three days in a 20-day     reporting and auditing are not easy when
In fact, add-on systems undermine the ROI of      sales cycle), you’ve lost 15% of your selling      you are managing employees and suppliers
your existing content platform.                   days and possibly 25% of your total revenue.       across multiple regions and time zones. Invis-
   SOLUTION: Move toward a single envi-           If your product is a web-based customer self-      ible costs of administering global programs
ronment for authoring, editing, localizing        help support site, and if critical information     such as productivity loss due to glitches in
and publishing global content. If content is      is “lost in translation,” you are suffering from   communication are high. Most companies
moved to and from the translation process         “reverse” call deflection, with per-call costs     cannot track translation expenses across
without loss of formatting or metadata, then      up to 50 times higher. If your in-country chan-    multiple business units because costs are
the multilingual content life cycle is managed    nel has the product but no training support        hidden in the line-item detail of project
as a unified process within a single system.      material because of delays in localization,        budgets across many departments.
This approach minimizes up-front cost and         that channel may sell a competitor’s product          SOLUTION: Use a knowledge portal for
deployment issues for the global system,          in the meantime.                                   globalization activities. It is critical for all
thereby enhancing the ROI of your original            SOLUTION: Shorten time to money by             participants to share information. Collabora-
content management investment.                    stamping out delays. Through translation           tion and information portals allow project
   Complex content management. From               workflow automation, multiple companies            managers to monitor schedules, translators
writers to designers, programmers to              have shortened their product release cycles        and publishers to collaborate, reviewers to
testers, editors to brand or product manag-       from nine months to three months by speed-         approve content, and executives to audit
ers, many disciplines serve as “actors”           ing the flow of content from source to each        cost performance.
during source content creation. Localizing        target language. Others have shortened the            Getting started. Whether your content
that content requires actors from just as         multilingual release of critical information       is printed manuals, packaging, web pages
many disciplines. Imagine in a given week         and technical updates to a matter of hours.        or even multimedia and software, the need
you have twenty different documents                   Translation costs. Translation and termi-      to carefully manage content from source-
needing translation. Each project visits          nology research are labor-intensive proces-        language creation through a translation
seven of these actors before it is approved       ses, both dependent upon highly trained            process to distributed, multilingual deploy-
for publication. You are localizing into          individuals. Translation memory (TM) and           ment is paramount. Streamlining and auto-
six languages. Single-language content            terminology management systems save real           mating processes where possible, opening
management would mean dealing with 140            money – one by recycling, the other by reduc-      up TMs company-wide, and thinking globally
transactions per week. But in your case,          ing the effort of terminology research.            from the beginning will have a dramatic
multilingual content management multi-                SOLUTION: Reduce volume by cross-lever-        impact on your company’s global effective-
plies that to 840 transactions per week.          aging existing translations. Sharing TMs           ness, operations and revenue. G

April/May 2006 •                                                                                             page 13
                CONTENT MANAGEMENT
                Guide: G E T T I N G S T A R T E D

                      egin with the end in mind is Habit 2
                      in Stephen Covey’s book The Seven
                      Habits of Highly Effective People. This
               same principle is true of global communica-
               tion management. You may note that I did                                                                  Technology
               not say language translation. That would be                                                                            SHANNON ZIMMERMAN
               taking too specific a view of the opportunity
               before us. Global communication manage-
               ment is a more accurate term because it ex-
               tends beyond language translation and ties       revealed itself as a key value component          Authoring memory
               together the traditionally disparate func-       to users. Enforcing global communication          meets translation memory
               tions of content creation and translation.       standards in an interactive manner was vir-          It sounds simple enough — take the
               Looking at the whole process, the greatest       tually nonexistent and became appealing.          same technology approach used to reuse
               value is realized when the right balance of      Interestingly, all of these benefits could be     multilingual content and apply it to the
               technology and service is fused.                 achieved, and we had not yet extended into        source language. Create small databases
                                                                the language translation process.                 of previously used source content and use
               What’s the problem?                                 All benefits seemed to explode once the        them just as translation memory (TM) files
                  Many language service providers (LSPs)        respondents began to evaluate these key           had been used in the past. This approach
               can attest that uncontrolled change and          opportunity points when distributed across        would offer the user a database of source
               inconsistency in the writing or authoring        numerous languages. If the source language        segments to draw from, but would only solve
               process can result in significant challenges     is the “one” to the “many” target languages,      a fraction of the problem.
               later, when content is translated. Specifi-      then it became critically apparent that de-          The research clearly noted that the role,
               cally, costs are often increased; deadlines      signing a solution to interactively enable a      function and methods used by a writer are
               may now be in jeopardy; and in many cases        writer to reuse source content would have         different from those used by a translator. To
               the explanation to the client is difficult be-   exponential gains later on.                       generically apply the same solution used by
               cause he or she views it as a simple single-        The opportunity was becoming more vis-         the translators would fall short.
               sentence change. The client forgets that the     ible, yet numerous complexities remained.            The concept of authoring memory made
               change may impact the multitude of lan-          The largest was the notion that a software        sense to the extent that it could be labeled
               guages currently being worked on and may         package would “tell” the writer what to           similarly to what is already well known — TM.
               trigger compound changes elsewhere in the        write. Stylistic approaches vary, but in gen-     This enabled users to immediately establish
               translation process.                             eral, the more rigid or strict the presenta-      a correlation from one concept to another,
                  This describes the first problem, looking     tion of previously used content, the more         but that is where the similarities stop.
               at it through the eyes of the LSP. A marketer    strongly the writer would revolt.                    Authoring memory would need to pres-
               or brand manager may have a different per-          For writers who have spent their lives         ent different search methods to be useful
               spective. Consistency in both source and tar-    creating technical content, consistency was       to writers. The logical storage and method
               get languages is important. A writer who can     not new. Many of the Fortune 500 compa-           of indexing the data would need to be done
               work with an authoring memory tool at the        nies’ technical writers have devised effec-       differently so that it could be more useful.
               segment level during the construction phase      tive ways to organize past content so they        Writers want to search in a variety of ways.
               generates benefits independent of those re-      can navigate through it to locate previously      They want to incorporate advanced rules
               alized later during translation.                 authored material.                                and terminology management when extract-
                  The time associated with creating new or         Last, but certainly not least, was the small   ing content.
               editing existing content also presents chal-     issue of the writer’s software tool of choice.       The solution would also require a common
               lenges to writers. Finding methods to ac-        Writers use a multitude of different software     ground for authoring data and translation
               celerate the content development process         packages to create new content or edit ex-        data to integrate. The Translation Memory
               would be a useful benefit.                       isting content. A range of products including     eXchange (TMX) standard was chosen. For
                  Sajan began research in late 2002 to de-      Microsoft Word, a variety of XML editors,         those who will not use the product for trans-
               termine if connecting authoring and trans-       graphic design and publishing software            lation, it can be exported in this XML format
               lation would generate enough value to            packages and virtually any other type of ed-      and repurposed as needed. For those who
               warrant investment in a technology prod-         iting package would make solution design          would be concerned with integrating this with
               uct; to verify the need; and to quantify the     challenging.                                      translation data, TMX was a logical choice.
               opportunity. The effort began with identifi-        The research results identified measur-           In 2003 Sajan developed the first release
               cation of a broad base of content produc-        able opportunity for a better way of creat-       of its authoring tool and filed patent appli-
               ers. Writers were solicited from several         ing source content. The isolated benefits         cations. A number of current clients and re-
               industries and departments: technical writ-      found at this point in the global communi-        search participants began using the tool in
               ing, product management, marketing com-          cation supply chain would warrant the in-         production environments.
               munications and legal. The collected data        vestment of time and money alone to solve            The first generation of the application
               validated many ideas and also revealed op-       it. When combined with the exponential            worked with specific editing software pack-
               portunities that had not been considered.        benefits found later in translation, how-         ages — Microsoft Word in most cases.
                  Consistency would prove to be one of          ever, connecting the two seemed to be the            As the writers constructed or edited docu-
               the greatest benefits. Production time also      best course to follow.                            ments, the authoring tool worked in the

               page 14                                                                                                              The Guide From MultiLingual
                                                                          CONTENT MANAGEMENT
                                                                         G E T T I N G S T A R T E D : Guide

background, seeking like matches based on       process. This number generally increased to       also beneficial. The process does not force
one of three search algorithms. Users speci-    plateau at nearly 25%. This measured only         writing methods but helps to remind writers
fied how they wanted the tool to notify them    the time associated in historically creating      of past segments.
of results found, and selected segments for     content. “Before” and “after” content was            For two years, the tool was not broadly
review. Appropriate segments were placed        then reviewed for consistency discrepan-          promoted or offered publicly. The technol-
in the working document directly and re-        cies. Content consistency rose on average by      ogy and surrounding methods were used by
placed the source segments entirely.            nearly 22%. Why not more? This was a mea-         clients along with a global communication
   Users searched with random key words to      sure of similar or like segments that were        management system to integrate authoring
locate and isolate content and save time min-   intended to be the same.                          and translation. Now, importing and export-
ing through past documents, subdirectories         The next assessment came with content          ing in TMX format, working with any Micro-
and network folders. Many users employed        that would then require translation. Using        soft Windows application, the tool is offered
the tool in conjunction with their existing     authoring technology on a document to             as a standalone product that may be used
content management systems (CMS). A             “clean it up” prior to translation versus pro-    with other industry TM applications that
CMS typically does a great job of converting    cessing that same document against a TM           support the TMX standard.
documents into searchable XML but is often      file resulted in a 22% reuse improvement.            Authoring for translation is the process
unstructured or uses minimal metadata for          In the past, these slight variances may        a writer uses to construct content so that
indexing. The new tool leveraged a reposi-      have been detected during the translation         translation will be easier, more consistent
tory of structured, well-organized segment-     process by the LSP or translator in a fuzzy       and in context with the original thought and
level content for specific use in assisting     search. The LSP or translator, however, often     intent. Use of authoring technology repre-
writers and other content producers.            did not have the authority to alter source con-   sents a new opportunity to create value and
                                                tent but had two options: to treat it entirely    also represents recognition of a single global
The results                                     as new content and perform translation or to      communication process — which, when in-
  Initial results showed an average of 15%      notify the client and request disposition.        tegrated, can remove difficulties that result
production time improvement when the               Systematic visibility into previously ap-      when the functions of content creation and
authoring tool was used during the writing      proved content during the creation stage is       translation are carried out in isolation. G

April/May 2006 •                                                                                         page 15
                         content supply chain
Orchestrate your gl obal

                     " To keep up with optimizingof change for our global
                       Web sites, we are
                                         the pace
                                                  our project management
                        and content supply chain using outsourced and
                        in-house processes managed by the SDL Translation
                        Management System. This gives us the flexibility to
                        automate or outsource part or all of the process to
                        achieve faster time-to-market for our global content.

                       Enterprise software isn't built overnight. With the new SDL
                       Translation Management System 2006, we've listened to
                       our customers and integrated the best of TRADOS and SDL
                       technologies. Now everyone in your content supply chain can
                       work in harmony with a fully integrated global information
                       management (GIM) solution.

                       • Web-based collaboration and system integration optimizes
              2006       global information workflows

                       • Unified ecosystem and integrated platform minimizes
                         global content transformations

                       • Complete flexibility for hosted, in-house, desktop or
                         web-based deployment

                       Successful global enterprises select SDL GIM solutions. Find out
                       how you can be in tune with the market at
                                                                          CONTENT MANAGEMENT
                                                                          G E T T I N G S T A R T E D : Guide

                                                                                                                                                CONTENT MANAGEMENT
     An invitation to subscribe to

   This guide is a component of the newly redesigned MultiLin-            Managing Content
gual, formerly MultiLingual Computing & Technology. With a new               How do you track all the words and the changes that occur in
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our twenty-first-century world.                                           more than just a good idea. How does an international developer
   Four of our annual issues include Getting Started Guides like          prepare a product for multiple locales? Will the pictures and col-
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municating ideas and information between speakers of different            Localization
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such as manuals for computer hardware and software, industrial            choose a localization service vendor? Developers and localizers of-
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Translators and people who use translation services track new devel-
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                                                                             Authors with in-depth knowledge summarize changes in the
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— language technology is changing day by day. And this technol-           localization training programs; the uses of language technology in
ogy is also changing the way in which people communicate on a             specific industries — a wide array of current topics from the world
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April/May 2006 •                                                                                          page 17