Writing by tyndale


									Grade 1

Selecting Purpose and Genre
Narrative: To tell a story
Memoir (personal narrative, autobiography)                                   Memoir (con’t)
Understanding the Genre                                                      Writing in the Genre (con’t)
  Learn from mentor texts how to craft personal narratives and memoirs        Provide some descriptive details
  Understand that a story from your life is usually written in first person    Use dialogue as appropriate to add to the meaning of the story
  (using /)                                                                   Use simple words that show the passage of time (then, after)
  Understand that writers tell stories from their own lives                   Use details when telling a story
  Understand that the writer looks back or thinks about the memory or         Develop voice as a writer through telling own stories or memories from
  experience                                                                  own life
  Understand that the story should be one that is important to the writer     Usually write in first person to achieve a strong voice
                                                                              Tell a story across several pages in order to develop the story or idea
Memoir (con’t)                                                                Tell events in order that they occurred in personal narratives
Writing in the Genre                                                          Think of topics from own life that are interesting to write about
 Write an engaging beginning and a satisfying ending to stories
 Understand that a story can be a small moment

Informational: To explain or give facts about a topic
Literary Nonfiction                                                           Literary Nonfiction(con’t)
Understanding the Genre                                                      Writing in the Genre (con’t)
  Learn how to write literary nonfiction from mentor texts                     Use features (for example, headings, labeled pictures, charts, table of
  Understand literary nonfiction as writing that engages and entertains        contents, or others) to guide the reader
  readers but teaches them about a topic                                      Write about a topic keeping the audience and their likely background
  Understand that the writer works to get readers interested in a topic       knowledge in mind
                                                                              Provide interesting information about a topic
Writing in the Genre
 Write books that are enjoyable to read and at the same time give
 information to readers about a topic

Poetic: To express feelings, sensory images, ideas, or stories
Poetry (free verse, rhyme)                                                   Poetry (con’t)
Understanding the Genre                                                      Writing in the Genre
  Use familiar poems as mentor texts                                          Notice line breaks and white space as they are used in poetry
  Understand poetry as a way to communicate in sensory images about           Closely observe the world (animals, objects, people) to get ideas for
  everyday life                                                               poems
  Understand poetry as a unique way to communicate about and describe         Use line breaks and what space to write poems
  feelings                                                                    Shape words on the page to look like a poem
  Understand the way print and space work in poems and demonstrate            Write poems that convey feelings or images
  knowledge by reading them as the writer intended them to be read            Use language to describe how something looks, smells, tastes, feels, or
  Understand that poems can be created from other kinds of texts              sounds
  Understand the importance of specific word choice in poetry                  Write poems from other kinds of texts
  Understand that there are different kinds of poems                          Sometimes take specific words or phrases from writing and make them
  Understand that poems do not have to rhyme                                  into a poem
  Understand the difference between poetic language and ordinary

26 The Continuum Of Literacy Learning: A Guide for Teaching Grade 1
   Grade 1

Selecting Purpose and Genre
Functional: To perform a practical task
Labels                                                                       Friendly Letters (con’t)

                                                                                                                                                               Grade 1
Understanding the Genre                                                      Writing in the Genre
  Understand that a writer or illustrator can add labels to help readers      Write notes, cards, invitations, and emails to others
  Understand that labels add important information                            Write to a known audience or a specific reader
                                                                              Write with the specific purpose in mind
Writing in the Genre
                                                                              Include important information in the communication
 Write labels for objects in the classroom
 Add words to pictures
                                                                             Lists and Procedures (how-to)
 Create labels for illustrations that accompany written pieces
                                                                             Understanding the Genre
 Create labels for drawings or sketches
                                                                               Understand that the form of a list is usually one item under another and it
 Make label books
                                                                               may be numbered
                                                                               Understand procedural writing (how-to) as a list of sequential directions for
Friendly Letters (notes, cards, invitations, email)                            how to do something with lists of what is needed
Understanding the Genre
                                                                               Understand lists are a functional way to organize information
  Learn how to write notes, cards, and invitations from noticing examples
  Understand that the receiver and sender must be clearly shown              Writing in the Genre
  Understand notes, cards, invitations, and email as written communication    Place items in the list that are appropriate for its purpose or category
  among people                                                                Make lists in the appropriate form with one item under another
  Understand that invitations must include specific information                Write captions under pictures
  Understand that the form of written communication is related to the         Use lists to plan activities or support memory
  purpose                                                                     Write procedural or how-to books

                                                                             Writing About Reading (all genres)
                                                                               (See the Writing About Reading continuum.)

                                                                                                                                              Writing    27
Grade 1

Selecting Goals:                              Behaviors and Understandings to Notice, Teach, and Support

    Organization                                                                   Idea Development
    Understanding Text Structure                                                   ■   Clearly communicate main points
    ■ Understand that informational writing has facts and details                  ■   Provide supportive description or detail to explain ideas
    ■ Understand that the details on a topic should be together in a text
    ■ Understand that the writer puts the facts or information in order            Language Use
    ■ Understand that stories have a beginning, a series of things happening,      ■   Use a variety of sentences
      and an ending                                                                ■   Show evidence of using book languages or language from other texts
    ■ Understand that a story has a title and an author, and that they are         ■   Understand that the writer is using language to communicate meaning
      written on the cover
    ■ Understand that a text can have an author page at the beginning or           Word Choice
      end of a book that tells details about the author                            ■   Show ability to vary the text by choosing alternative (more precise)
    ■ Understand that the writer can dedicate a story to someone and that              words (for example, shouted for said)
      the dedication is written inside the cover, on the title page or copyright   ■   Learn new words or phrases from reading and try them out in
      page, or on a page of its own.                                                   writing
    ■ Understand that one kind of writing is a picture book                        ■   Select and write appropriate words to convey intended meaning
                                                                                   ■   Use vocabulary appropriate for the topic
    Beginning and Ending
    ■ Use a variety of beginnings to engage the reader
                                                                                   ■   Vary word choice to create interesting description and dialogue
    ■ Select an appropriate title for a poem, story, or informational book
    Presentation of Ideas                                                          ■   Write with a unique perspective
    ■ Group ideas together in a logical way                                        ■   Use punctuation to make the text interesting and effective
    ■ Present ideas in logical sequence                                            ■   State information in a unique or surprising way
    ■ Introduce ideas followed by supportive details and examples                  ■   Write about what is known and remembered
    ■ Show steps in enough detail that a reader can follow a sequence
    ■ Use time appropriately as an organizing tool
    ■ Bring a piece to closure through an ending or summary statement
    ■ Tell one part, idea, or group of ideas on each page of a book

    Text Layout                                                                    Grammar
    ■   Place titles and headings in the appropriate place on a page               Sentence Structure
    ■   Use underlining and bold print to convey meaning                           ■ Use conventional sentence structure (noun + verb)

    ■   Understand that layout of print and illustrations are important in con-    Parts of Speech
        veying the meaning of a text                                               ■ Use noun and verb agreement (I can)
    ■   Place words in lines, starting left to right, top to bottom                ■ Use prepositional phrases (to the bus, on the bus)
    ■   Use spaces between words                                                   ■ Use modifiers (red dress; ran fast)
    ■   Understand that the print and pictures can be placed in a variety of
        places on the page within a book                                           Tense
                                                                                   ■ Write in past tense (I went home yesterday.)
                                                                                   ■ Write in future tense (I’m going to go . . . )

28 The Continuum Of Literacy Learning: A Guide for Teaching Grade 1
 Grade 1

Selecting Goals:                          Behaviors and Understandings to Notice, Teach, and Support

 Capitalization                                                               Spelling (con’t)
 ■   Use a capital letter for the first word of a sentence                     ■   Represent short and long vowel sounds in words
 ■   Use capital letters in the beginning position in a few familiar, known   ■   Spell words correctly with regular consonant-sound relationships and

                                                                                                                                                                Grade 1
     proper nouns                                                                 with regular short vowel patterns
 ■   Capitalize I                                                             ■   Understand that letters represent consonant sounds or vowel sounds
 ■   Demonstrate knowledge of the use of upper- and lowercase letters of      ■   Attempt unknown words using known word parts
     the alphabet                                                             ■   Construct phonetic spellings that are readable
 ■   Show awareness of the first place position of capital letters in words    ■   Include a vowel in each word
                                                                              ■   Represent consonant blends and digraphs with letter clusters in words
 Punctuation                                                                  ■   Use conventional symbols to write words
 ■   Use an ellipsis to show a brief pause                                    ■   Use simple resources to check spelling (word walls, word cards, per-
 ■   Use periods, exclamation points, and question marks as ending                sonal word lists)
 ■   Notice the use of punctuation marks in books and try them out in own     Handwriting/Word-Processing
     writing                                                                  ■   Access and use simple programs on the computer (easy word process-
 ■   Read a text aloud and think where punctuation would go                       ing, games)
                                                                              ■   Locate letter keys on a computer keyboard to type simple messages
 Spelling                                                                     ■   Leave appropriate space between words
 ■   Spell one hundred or more high-frequency words conventionally            ■   Hold pencil or pen with satisfactory grip
 ■   Break words into syllables to spell them                                 ■   Return to the left margin to start a new line
 ■   Use phonogram patterns to generate words                                 ■   Use a preferred hand consistently for writing
 ■   Attempt unknown words through sound analysis                             ■   Write left to right in lines
 ■   Say words slowly to hear sounds                                          ■   Write letters and words that can be easily read
 ■   Write words with consonant letters appropriate for sounds in words       ■   Write letters in groups to form words
     (beginning and ending)
                                                                              ■   Form upper- and lowercase letters efficiently in manuscript print
 ■   Represent several sounds, including beginning and ending and multi-
     ple syllables                                                            ■   Form upper and lowercase letters proportionately in manuscript print

 Writing Process
 Rehearsing/Planning                                                          Rehearsing/Planning (con’t)
 Purpose                                                                      Audience
 ■ Understand that writers write for a specific purpose                        ■ Understand that most writing is meant to be read by others
 ■ Understand how the purpose affects the kind of writing                     ■ Understand that writers think about the people who will read their writ-
 ■ Choose type of text to fit the purpose (for example, poem, factual            ing and what they will want to know
   book, alphabet book, photo book, label book, story with pictures)          ■ Think about the people who will be reading the text
 ■ Think about the purpose for writing each text                              ■ Include information that the readers will need to understand the text
 ■ Choose paper to match genre and organization
                                                                              Oral Language
 ■ Understand that writers write true stories or imaginary stories            ■ Generate and expand ideas through talk with peers and teacher
 ■ Understand that writers write to inform or entertain readers               ■ Look for ideas and topics in personal experiences, shared through talk
 ■ Write name and date on writing                                             ■ Use talk and storytelling to generate and rehearse language (that may
 ■ Tell whether a piece of writing is true or imaginary                         be written later)
 ■ Tell whether a piece of writing is a story or an informational text        ■ Tell stories in chronological order
                                                                              ■ Retell stories in chronological order

                                                                                                                                               Writing     29
Grade 1

Selecting Goals:                           Behaviors and Understandings to Notice, Teach, and Support

    Rehearsing/Planning (con’t)                                                  Drafting/Revising
    Gathering Seeds                                                              Producing a Draft
    ■ Begin to collect ideas in a notebook or folder                             ■ Uses words and pictures to compose a story
    ■ Make lists to plan for writing                                             ■ Write a continuous message on a simple topic
    ■ Understand that writers gather information for their writing
    ■ Understand that writers record information in words or sketches            ■ Identify or mark the most important part of a piece of writing
    ■ Understand that ideas come from a variety of places                        ■ Reread writing each day before continuing to write
    ■ Use drawings to share thinking                                             ■ Reread stories to be sure the meaning is clear

    Content, Topic, Theme                                                        ■ Reread the text to be sure there are no missing words or information
    ■ Observe carefully (objects, animals, people, places, actions) before
                                                                                 Adding Information
      writing about them                                                         ■ Add words, phrases, or sentences to make the writing more interesting
    ■ Select own topics for informational writing and state what is important
                                                                                   or exciting
      about the topic                                                            ■ Add words, phrases, or sentences to provide more information
    ■ Stay focused on a topic
                                                                                 ■ Add dialogue to provide information or provide narration (in quotes or
    ■ Understand that writers choose topics that are important to them
                                                                                   speech balloons)
    ■ Understand that writers choose topics that are interesting to them
    ■ Understand that writers choose topics that they know something about
                                                                                 Deleting Information
                                                                                 ■ Delete words or sentences that do not make sense
    ■ Select details that will support the topic
                                                                                 ■ Delete extra words or sentences
    ■ Ask questions and gather information on a topic
                                                                                 Reorganizing Information
                                                                                 ■ Move sentences from one part to another to make the sequence better
    ■ Take notes or make sketches to help in remembering information
                                                                                 ■ Reorder a piece by cutting apart or laying out pages
    ■ Remember important information about a topic in order to write about
      it                                                                         Changing Text
    ■ Participate actively in experiences and remember details that contribute   ■ Mark parts that are not clear and provide more details or explanation
      to writing and drawing                                                     ■ Change words to make the writing more interesting
    ■ Remember important labels for drawings
                                                                                 Using Tools and Techniques
    ■ Gather information (with teacher assistance) about a topic from books
                                                                                 ■ Add letters, words, phrases, or sentences using a caret or sticky note
      or other print and media resources while preparing to write about it       ■ Add words, phrases, or sentences using spider legs or an extra piece of
    Genre/Form                                                                     paper glued, taped, or stapled to the piece
    ■ Select from a variety of forms the kind of text that will fit the purpose   ■ Add pages to a piece
      (books with illustrations and words; books with illustrations only; al-    ■ Cross out words or sentences with pen, pencil, or marker
      phabet books; label books; poetry books; question and answer books;        ■ Reorder a piece by cutting it apart or laying out the pages
      illustration-only books)
                                                                                 Understanding the Process
                                                                                 ■ Understand the role of the writing conference
                                                                                 ■ Understand that writers can get help from other writers
                                                                                 ■ Change writing in response to peer or teacher feedback

30 The Continuum Of Literacy Learning: A Guide for Teaching Grade 1
 Grade 1

Selecting Goals:                           Behaviors and Understandings to Notice, Teach, and Support

 Editing and Proofreading                                                       Sketching and Drawing
 Editing for Conventions                                                        ■   Use sketches and drawing to plan, draft, and publish writing
 ■ Check and correct letter formation or orientation                            ■   Sketch to capture images quickly

                                                                                                                                                                  Grade 1
 ■ Edit for spelling errors by making another attempt                           ■   Understand the difference between drawing and sketching and use
 ■ Edit for spelling errors by circling words that do not look right and try-       them to support the writing process
   ing to spell them another way                                                ■   Use sketching to create quick representations of images
 ■ Edit for conventional spelling of important words (for publication)          ■   Create sketches and drawings that are related to the written text and
 ■ Edit for the spelling of known words (should be spelled                          increase readers’ understanding and enjoyment
   conventionally)                                                              ■   Use drawings and sketches to represent people, places, things, and
 ■ Understand that the teacher is the final editor who will make the edits           ideas
   the writer has not yet learned how to do prior to publishing                 ■   Add details to sketches or drawings to add information

 Editing and Proofreading (con’t)                                               Viewing Self as a Writer
                                                                                ■   Take risks as a writer
 Using Tools
 ■ Use simple spell check programs on the computer
                                                                                ■   View self as writer
 ■ Use beginning reference tools (for example, word walls, personal word
                                                                                ■   Have a list of topics in mind to write about
   lists, or word cards to assist in word choice or checking spelling)          ■   Think about what to work on next in writing
                                                                                ■   Notice what makes writing effective and name the technique the writer
 Understanding the Process                                                          used
 ■ Understand that the writer shows respect to the reader by applying
                                                                                ■   Select best pieces of writing from own collection
   what is known to correct errors
 ■ Understand that the better the spelling and space between words, the
                                                                                ■   Self-evaluate own writing and talk about what is good about it and
                                                                                    what techniques were used
   easier it is for the reader to read it
                                                                                ■   Produce a quantity of writing within the time available (for example,
                                                                                    one or two pages per day)
 ■   Create illustrations for pieces of writing                                 ■   Keep working independently rather than waiting for teacher
 ■   Share writing by reading it to the class
 ■   Put several stories or poems together
                                                                                ■   Make attempts to solve own problems
 ■   Select a poem, story, or informational book to publish
                                                                                ■   Take on writing independently
 ■   Use labels and captions on drawings that are displayed
                                                                                ■   Try out techniques other writers used

                                                                                                                                                   Writing   31

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