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									              American Association of State Colleges and Universities

               Teacher Education
                           Scan of Issues, Roles,
                          Activities, and Resources

AASCU developed this report to promote greater understanding of underlying teacher
education issues, in connection with continuing state-level activity and the pending
reauthorization of the Higher Education Act.


Scan of Issues, Roles, Activities, and Resources

      Teacher Preparation.................................................................................................................................................... 2

      Licensure and Certification ......................................................................................................................................4

      Employment Issues ..................................................................................................................................................... 5

      Professional Development........................................................................................................................................ 7

      Accountability ............................................................................................................................................................... 8

Appendix A: Guide to Organizations ......................................................................................................................... 10

Appendix B: Checklist of Organizations by Topic................................................................................................ 20

Appendix C: Reports on Teacher Education ............................................................................................................21

AASCU Contact:
Alene Russell
State Policy Scholar

     delivering America’s Promise
                               Teacher Education
                 Scan of Issues, Roles, Activities, and Resources

This paper offers a brief overview of five interrelated topics pertaining to teachers: teacher
preparation, licensure and certification, employment issues, professional development, and
accountability. Organized by topic, it provides some background and context, outline of
the policy-related issues, governmental roles, examples of organizational activities, and key
resources offering 50-state data. Three appendices serve as companion pieces, organizing
the material for ready reference. Appendix A: Guide to Organizations offers greater detail
on organizations mentioned in this scan; it describes organizational purposes and activities
in a more holistic way, crosscutting the five topics. Appendix B: Checklist of Organizations,
a one-page table, offers a concise summary of organizational activity by topic. Appendix C:
Recent Reports on Teacher Education highlights selected reports on these topics published
in recent months.

          Teacher Preparation                        resources to states and partnerships (involving
                                                     higher education institutions and K-12 schools)
Context                                              to improve teacher preparation programs.
In recent years, there has been growing              However, resources have primarily been
consensus that teacher quality is the biggest        directed toward improving K-12 instruction, not
school factor affecting student learning, and        teacher preparation. It is likely that the pending
that developing a highly qualified teaching force    reauthorization of HEA will provide funds for the
is central to achieving greater student learning     improvement of teacher preparation programs.
and, ultimately, a more competent, competitive
U.S. workforce. Education policy is set primarily    Issues
at the state level. State agencies responsible       Key teacher preparation issues include:
for teacher preparation program approval—            • Implementing reform of traditional, college-
state departments of education or specialized          based teacher preparation programs, using
credentialing boards—exert primary influence           best practices such as:
over teacher preparation policy and use this
authority to address key issues. State higher         • Making the whole institution responsible for
                                                        teacher preparation, not just colleges of education.
education agencies increasingly play a significant
                                                      • Promoting closer contact between higher
role, particularly as policymakers recognize the        education faculties and school district personnel.
interdependence of P-12 and postsecondary             • Recognizing the need for more field experience
education and as P-16 relationships have been           earlier on, as well as the importance of sequencing
forged in many states. Within the context               of courses.
set by state policy, institutions develop their       • Improving technology skills for teachers.
                                                      • Connecting programs to state student content
own policies and practices related to teacher
                                                        standards, so that teachers are equipped to teach
preparation.                                            what students need to know.
                                                      • Establishing induction programs as essential
Finally, the federal government has a potential         components of teacher preparation.
role in this area, but one not yet realized. One
                                                     • Assessing and ensuring program quality,
objective of the 1998 Amendments to the
                                                       including how to assess the impact of programs
Higher Education Act (HEA) was to provide
                                                       on teacher quality.

2 • AASCU                              delivering America’s Promise
                               Teacher Education
                 Scan of Issues, Roles, Activities, and Resources

• Developing and disseminating best strategies         academic standards. The Holmes Partnership,
  for alternative routes to certification.             a network of universities, schools, community
• Determining appropriate roles for community          agencies, and national organizations, focuses
  colleges: in the first two years, transfer and       on the reform of schools of education and has
  articulation issues, newest role in granting         promoted the Professional Development School,
  baccalaureate-level teaching degrees.                a new setting to serve professional education
• Gauging the growth and impact of alternate           the way teaching hospitals serve medical
  providers, e.g., for-profit providers.               education. Others include the Center for the
• Reviewing the role of accreditation and how it       Study of Teaching and Policy at the University
  shapes programs.                                     of Washington, and the Southeast Center for
• Recognizing teacher preparation as                   Teaching Quality are advancing research and
  component of state P-16 initiatives (i.e. need for   policy analysis related to teacher preparation.
  collaborative work among different entities in
  the state).                                          A number of organizations offer comprehensive
                                                       web resources containing 50-state information
Organizations/Resources                                on teacher preparation. Described in Appendix A,
An abundance of associations has developed             these include AACTE, the Education Commission
over the years to support state and institutional      of the States (ECS), the National Conference
policymaking related to teacher preparation.           of State Legislatures (NCSL), and the National
These organizations track and analyze legislation      Governors Association (NGA). ECS also offers
and policies, conduct research, develop                TQ Source, a 50-state database on traditional
collaborations and convene meetings, and               and alternative preparation policies, with state-
provide resources and technical support, both for      by-state information on program requirements,
their own constituencies, narrowly defined, and        special community college roles, and program
for the wider community. Appendices A and B            approval/accountability. Additionally, the
provide background and details on organizations        National Association of State Directors of
involved in teacher preparation efforts. A few         Teacher Education and Certification’s (NASDTEC)
examples are provided here for purposes of             Manual on the Preparation and Certification
illustration.                                          of Educational Personnel is a comprehensive
                                                       resource on teacher preparation institutions and
The National Commission on Teaching and                approved programs, including:
America’s Future (NCTAF), formed in 1994,
                                                       • Standards used by states for the approval
presented a seminal report challenging the
                                                         of teacher education institutions and/or
nation to provide qualified teachers for every
                                                         certification programs.
student by 2006 (What Matters Most: Teaching
                                                       • Approved teacher education institutions, types
for America’s Future); it offered a blueprint for
                                                         of accreditation, and types of programs.
change and has developed a state partnership
                                                       • Performance-based standards.
network through which it now works with 22
                                                       • Costs associated with program approval.
states. The Standards-based Teacher Education
                                                       • Beginning teacher support systems.
Project (STEP), supported by the American
                                                        • Components
Association of Colleges of Teacher Education            • Policies and practices pertaining to selection and
(AACTE), assists institutions in preparing                evaluation of teachers, and funding of programs
teachers who can help P-12 students meet                • Status (e.g. state mandates)

   delivering America’s Promise                                                               AASCU • 3
                               Teacher Education
                 Scan of Issues, Roles, Activities, and Resources

    Licensure and Certification                      by some form of regular license and/or
                                                     master certification, based on demonstrated
Context                                              performance as a teacher. National efforts to
Every state has the responsibility of licensing      define these stages have occurred, and some
beginning teachers, and licensure requirements       states are accepting national certification in lieu
are set either by the state department of            of state standards for experienced teachers.
education or by a separate credentialing agency.
The traditional process generally requires           The federal government has influence in this
completion of a bachelor’s degree, completion        area through state grants to reform teacher
of teacher preparation program requirements,         licensure requirements, as part of Title II of HEA
and passage of tests of subject matter and/or        and the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). These
pedagogical skills. In response to the need for      two programs allow states to use grant funds
more teachers, the concept of alternative routes     to reform licensure requirements to ensure that
to certification has emerged and expanded            teachers have the necessary teaching skills and
considerably over the past 20 years. Candidates      academic content knowledge in subject areas in
in these programs generally begin with a             which they teach.
bachelor’s degree, engage in on-the-job training,
and pick up required courses while teaching.         Issues
A long-standing, related process has been the        Major discussions related to licensure and
issuance of emergency licenses for hard-to-fill      certification focus on the following issues:
positions; emergency credentials may lead to         • Examining the degree to which licensure
permanent licensure.                                   equates to competency—are we getting high
                                                       quality teachers?
Licensure requirements vary across states, and        • Are states setting cutoff scores too low?
individuals wanting to teach in a new state must      • Is there a proper balance between subject matter
meet the receiving state’s licensure requirements.      and pedagogical competencies?
There is growing interest in finding ways to         • Assessing program quality (traditional vs.
promote licensure reciprocity across states to         alternative routes).
reduce attrition stemming from these obstacles.       • Traditional: Too much emphasis on pedagogy?
                                                        Adequate grounding in subject matter? Too many
To foster teacher mobility, some states, on a
case-by-case basis, have worked out systems for       • Alternative: Too little emphasis on pedagogy?
recognizing other states’ licenses. Moreover, in        Inability to relate to level of student?
2001, the U.S. Department of Education awarded          Underqualified?
funding to launch a national effort to establish     • Determining whether licensure is aligned with
a new pathway to state licensure; this route           program approval, standards-based curricula,
is based solely on passage of a standardized           and professional development.
national test. To date, a few states have formally   • Identifying and remedying inconsistencies in
adopted this national test as an alternative route     requirements and pass rates across states (e.g.
to a state license.                                    need for license reciprocity and/or national
There is also growing interest in systems of         • Promoting the concept of staged licenses—
staged licensure in which the initial, sometimes       beginning, regular, advanced.
provisional, teaching license is followed

4 • AASCU                             delivering America’s Promise
                              Teacher Education
                Scan of Issues, Roles, Activities, and Resources

Organizations/Resources                               whether evaluations must be tied to student
Many organizations address teacher licensure          achievement, and whether the state provides
policy as part of a broad perspective on teacher      incentives for National Board certification.
quality while others have a more specialized        • The NASDTEC Manual, a comprehensive
focus. Described in Appendices A and B, a few         resource on state licensure requirements and
examples are presented here. The Interstate New       interstate mobility, contains state-by-state
Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium             information on certification agencies, stages
(INTASC) takes a broad approach, arguing that         and titles of certificates, requirements for each
the teacher licensing system should be aligned        (academic, assessment, field experience, and
with the state’s P-12 student standards, program      student teaching), and brief statistical profiles
approval process, and professional development        of the states. This includes requirements for
requirements. INTASC works to develop model           the initial teaching certificate, as well as for
policy that states can use as a resource as they      the second stage of teacher certification. Also,
design their own licensure systems. For its part,     for each state that has signed the NASDTEC
the National Board for Professional Teaching          Interstate Contract, it indicates those states for
Standards (NBPTS) focuses more narrowly on            which the contract applies.
standards for what accomplished teachers should     • The National Center for Education Information’s
know and be able to do and has developed a            Alternative Teacher Certification: A State-
national voluntary system for certifying teachers     by-State Analysis, includes a listing of state
who meet these standards. To the extent that          requirements for different types of alternative
state policies embrace NBPTS certification, it        routes to certification and provides 50-state
offers individuals opportunities for more pay and     trend data on alternative certification (number
greater mobility across states. Other initiatives     of licenses, by race/ethnicity, gender, and age;
promoting greater interstate mobility are the         primary activity before entering alternative
Mid-Atlantic Regional Teachers Project (MARTP)        program; types of community; number of
and NASDTEC’s Interstate Contract. Finally,           emergency licenses; etc.).
where it has been adopted, the American Board
for Certification of Teacher Excellence (ABCTE),
funded by a grant from the U.S. Department of       Employment Issues: Recruitment,
Education, offers individuals an alternative path
                                                      Retention, Compensation,
to licensure that is portable across states.
                                                         Working Conditions
Important 50-state resources on licensure and
certification include the following:
                                                    Traditionally, local school districts have been
• Education Week’s annual Quality Counts report,    responsible for the terms and conditions of
  which contains 50-state summary data on:          employment of school personnel, and state and
  whether the state requires minimum degree/        federal governments have not been significantly
  coursework in subject area for beginning          involved in these matters. In recent years,
  license, percent who majored in subject they      however, finding better ways to attract and retain
  teach, whether/how much clinical experience       teachers has become a front-burner issue for
  is required, alternative routes, types of         policymakers at all levels, due to:
  required written tests for beginning-teacher
                                                    • Public awareness of the importance of having
  license and second state of certification,
                                                      more highly qualified teachers.

   delivering America’s Promise                                                          AASCU • 5
                               Teacher Education
                 Scan of Issues, Roles, Activities, and Resources

• The well-documented need for more classroom          efforts to increase the number of teachers from
  teachers, due to enrollment increases, class-        underrepresented and non-traditional teaching
  size reduction, high attrition rates, and an aging   populations (Title II), loan forgiveness for
  teaching force.                                      teachers (Title IV), and state grants to develop
• Difficulties in staffing large urban school          policies related to merit pay (Title II).
  districts and remote rural schools.
• Inequities in the way schools are staffed,           Organizations/Resources
  negatively impacting schools serving low-            A significant number of associations are
  income, minority, and non-English speaking           addressing issues related to employment of
  students.                                            teachers, with a wide range of activities that
• Shortages in certain subject areas—math              include analyzing and advocating policies,
  and science, special education, and bilingual        conducting research, developing collaborations,
  education.                                           and providing resources and technical support;
• Limited contract options due to collective           following is a sample. The Southern Regional
  bargaining and other teacher union issues.           Education Board (SREB), for example, has
                                                       developed a methodology for analyzing supply
Issues                                                 and demand. Also on a regional basis, MARTP
Entities beyond local districts are increasingly       addresses supply and demand and pension
focused on:                                            portability. The National Association of State
                                                       Boards of Education (NASBE) has studied the
• Gathering and using better supply and demand
                                                       effectiveness of state recruitment programs. The
                                                       Urban Network for the Improvement of Teacher
• Identifying ways to attract more high school
                                                       Education (UNITE) focuses on conditions in
  students to teaching careers.
                                                       urban schools, and ECS has projects on hard-
• Attracting more underrepresented groups to
                                                       to-staff schools. Recruiting New Teachers has a
  teaching careers.
                                                       National Teacher Recruitment Clearinghouse that
• Improving teacher compensation; exploring
                                                       links prospective teachers with districts through
  alternative compensation systems (e.g. pay-for-
                                                       over 850 job banks. Teachers-Teachers.com,
                                                       whose partners include AACTE and NEA, offers
• Linking prospective teachers with employers
                                                       a similar online recruitment service. Finally,
  (e.g. online job databases).
                                                       the American Association for Employment in
• Increasing pension portability to promote
                                                       Education (AAEE) and the American Association
  teacher mobility.
                                                       of School Personnel Administrators (AASPA)
• Finding means to support teachers to reduce
                                                       have started Project Connect, a web-based job
  attrition and raise the professionalism of
                                                       placement system linking school districts, teacher
                                                       preparation institutions, and teachers.

For example, state legislatures have developed
                                                       In terms of data resources, ECS’s TQ Source
scholarship and loan forgiveness programs
                                                       contains 50-state information on state policies
for teachers, signing bonuses, programs to
                                                       related to recruitment and retention. Education
recruit minority teachers, and some actions to
                                                       Week’s Quality Counts annually provides 50-state
support pension portability. For its part, the
                                                       summary data on average teacher salaries, states
federal government has gotten involved through
                                                       with policies on pay-for-performance, and related
the Higher Education Act. Support includes
                                                       information. Another resource on alternative

6 • AASCU                              delivering America’s Promise
                               Teacher Education
                 Scan of Issues, Roles, Activities, and Resources

compensation systems is the Consortium for            Additionally, colleges and universities have
Policy Research in Education’s (CPRE) Teacher         important roles to play as primary providers
Compensation Project; in addition to conducting       of continuing education. School districts also
research, CPRE maintains a clearinghouse on           can make the commitment to create better
state and district compensation reform initiatives.   opportunities and incentives for teachers to seek
Finally, the National Education Association’s         further learning. Finally, the federal government
Rankings and Estimates provides annual 50-state       provides resources for professional development
comparisons on salaries, student-teacher ratios,      through HEA and NCLB; this money is awarded
financial resources, and other information related    to partnerships involving K-12 districts and higher
to teaching conditions.                               education institutions.

     Professional Development                         Policy discussions related to professional
                                                      development center around the following:
Context                                               • Improving commitment and capacity of
With growing consensus about the role of                teaching institutions to provide high-quality
teachers in affecting student learning, serious         professional development.
attention is finally being paid to the importance     • Determining appropriate roles for community
of professional development to achieving                colleges and alternate providers.
a highly qualified teaching force. Although           • Finding adequate resources for professional
nearly all states have traditionally required           development.
continuing education for license renewal, there       • Providing incentives for teachers to seek
has heretofore been little attention paid to the        professional development and/or advanced
content or usefulness of that education; often,         certification.
it has taken the form of one-shot continuing          • Aligning professional development programs
education courses or district-sponsored                 with K-12 standards.
seminars. Now, however, there is a growing body       • Increasing collaboration between higher
of research on and developing commitment to             education and K-12.
the idea that professional development must           • Improving district capacity to implement
be an integral part of the teacher development          policies that meet local needs; need for data-
continuum, from beginning teacher preparation,          driven plans.
through induction and mentoring, to ongoing
development of working professionals. AASCU,          Organizations/Resources
for example, endorses the National Staff              It has become more common for organizations
Development Council concepts of best practices        to address professional development issues
for professional development; the council             in conjunction with other aspects of teacher
supports results-driven, standards-based, job-        preparation and support. Appendix A describes
embedded, and content-rich practices.                 these interrelationships, and Appendix B
                                                      identifies involved organizations. For example,
Different state agencies—licensing boards,            the Education Trust, believing that student
departments of education, and higher education        achievement will rise to the level of teacher
agencies—all have a role to play in improving         assignments, has developed the Standards in
professional development in their states.             Practice (SIP) approach for teacher professional

   delivering America’s Promise                                                           AASCU • 7
                               Teacher Education
                 Scan of Issues, Roles, Activities, and Resources

development. SIP offers an onsite, team-based         inputs and others reflecting outputs. Although
approach, and serves as a quality-control tool to     not a primary focus, information on pass rates
ensure a high level of classroom activity.            of professional licensure exams became one
                                                      component of some state higher education
Regarding data, the NASDTEC Manual contains           report cards. The reauthorization of Title II of the
information on professional development               Higher Education Act in 1998 took this to the
requirements in the states, including whether         federal level with a set of reporting requirements
the state has such a requirement, its purpose,        imposed on states, including the reporting of
whether the state issues a permanent or life          institutional pass rates on each assessment used
certificate, and whether there are professional       by states for licensing teachers. Discussion is
development requirements to renew the second-         currently underway pertaining to the pending
stage certificate. Education Week’s Quality           reauthorization of the Higher Education Act;
Counts annual report provides 50-state summary        some expect that federal accountability efforts
data on ways that states encourage professional       will move further in the direction of mandating
development, including the existence of state         value-added assessments of programs. Such an
professional development standards, the               approach goes beyond just pass rates on tests
existence of state requirements for districts/        and entails holding institutions accountable
schools to set aside time for professional            for how much the students of their graduates
development, and the existence of state               actually learn.
financing for professional development.
                                                      On the second strand (K-12-focused), the
                                                      1990s saw the growth of state student content
              Accountability                          standards, assessments, and accountability
                                                      reports for the K-12 sector. Today, state
Context                                               department of education websites contain
There are multiple layers of accountability related   detailed state, district, and school-level
to teachers, and these accountability systems         information on student assessments, but
are not necessarily in sync with one another. The     everything is state-specific and data cannot be
two primary strands relate to: (1) accountability     compared across states. NCLB expanded the
of higher education institutions for the teachers     federal role in these matters and required schools
they produce, and (2) accountability of schools       and districts to be more accountable. Specifically,
and districts for the teaching and learning           by 2005-06, all teachers must be “highly
that occurs at the K-12 level. In both cases,         qualified” as defined in the act, and school
data can be aggregated to the state level, but        districts must address the disproportionate
comparisons across states are problematic due         assignment of inexperienced, unqualified, and
to lack of comparable definitions and measures.       out-of-field teachers to disadvantaged students.
                                                      Furthermore, “Adequate Yearly Progress” in
On the first strand (higher education-focused),       student learning must be reported, and specific
the 1980s saw the emergence of and the 1990s          levels of disaggregation are required. Currently,
saw the expansion of state higher education           states and districts are scrambling to meet these
report cards, brought about through state             new requirements, and numerous resources to
legislative action or initiatives of state higher     help them are emerging. While this act addresses
education agencies. These reports contain a           accountability at the school/district level, it
variety of indicators, some reflecting educational    has major implications for higher education

8 • AASCU                              delivering America’s Promise
                               Teacher Education
                 Scan of Issues, Roles, Activities, and Resources

institutions that provide pre-service preparation   help in developing their accountability systems,
and professional development for teachers.          including those related to NCLB. Additionally,
                                                    the Education Commission of the States and
Issues                                              the National Governors Association do the
Focusing on the higher education institutional      same for their constituencies. In a sense, the
strand, current issues related to accountability    associations provide a middle ground and a place
include:                                            for discussion between the entities imposing
                                                    the accountability requirements and the entities
• Determining what “pass rates” really mean and
                                                    upon which they are imposed, and help articulate
  the absence of comparable information across
                                                    for the public what all the numbers mean.
• Developing data systems that link K-12,
                                                    Fifty-state information related to accountability
  postsecondary, and other data systems to
  answer important questions.
• Promoting collaboration to develop more data      • Education Week’s annual Quality Counts,
  consistency across states.                          providing 50-state summary data on types of
• Establishing ways to measure the contributions      teacher information included in school/district
  of teaching to learning at both the K-12 and        report cards and means by which states hold
  higher education levels (i.e. methodologies for     teacher education programs accountable.
  “value-added” assessments).                       • CCSSO’s annual State Education Accountability
• Exploring potential uses for value-added            and Indicator Reports, providing 50-state
  assessments.                                        information and links on K-12 state report cards,
                                                      AYP links, and school/district report cards.
Organizations/Resources                             • A National Center for Educational
As accountability demands have grown,                 Accountability (NCEA)/CCSSO collaboration
associations have engaged in many activities          that has identified nine key data elements that
to address members’ interests. These include          all states need to have in place to meet federal
analyzing policies and providing information          and state reporting requirements, and has
on what others are doing, promoting                   collected state-by-state data on the availability
collaboration and collective problem-solving,         of each.
and providing technical assistance to enhance       • ECS’s No Child Left Behind website, which
data and reporting capacities. AASCU, for             includes a national grid on how each state is
example, addressed the issue of 100 percent           doing on all requirements, and links to state
pass rate scores arising from HEA reporting           materials for all states.
requirements to minimize the necessity for          • The U.S. Department of Education’s Title II
a federally-mandated study of the issue. The          website, containing 50-state data required
Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO)        under Title II of HEA.
provides a number of resources to states to

   delivering America’s Promise                                                         AASCU • 9
                                                Appendix A
                                            Guide to Organizations

This guide offers brief descriptions of               each year, promoting high quality preparation
organizations involved in one or more of the          and professional development for all personnel.
following topics: teacher preparation, licensure      It gathers and disseminates data, proposes and
and certification, employment, professional           analyzes public policy, supports professional
development, and accountability. It includes          advancement, and represents the teacher
organizations that track and analyze legislation      education community before state and federal
and policies, provide policy leadership,              governments. AACTE is one of the partners in
conduct research, convene meetings and                the Teachers-Teachers.com website, an online
work collaboratively, and provide resources           recruitment service linking job candidates with
and technical support. The guide emphasizes           school systems. The Standards-based Teacher
organizations that are national in scope and          Education Project (STEP) assists institutions in
involved in policy discussion; it excludes higher     preparing teachers who can help P-12 students
education institutions, state-level organizations,    meet academic standards. The AACTE Education
and government agencies. It includes both             Policy Clearinghouse contains brief summaries
organizations that are wholly focused on teacher      and links on education policy and teacher quality,
issues and those that address them as part of         including daily news articles, new research,
a broader policy agenda. Though the guide             teacher quality research, legislative tracking,
attempts to be comprehensive, it is by no means       state information, research relevant to No Child
exhaustive.                                           Left Behind (NCLB), and research relevant to
                                                      testing. www.aacte.org
American Association for Employment
in Education (AAEE)                                   American Association of State Colleges
AAEE is a professional association that addresses     and Universities (AASCU)
the staffing needs of education; members              AASCU represents more than 430 public
include colleges and universities (career services    colleges, universities, and systems of higher
officers) as well as school districts (personnel      education in the U.S. AASCU institutions enroll
administrators). Project Connect, begun in 1993       56 percent of students at all public institutions,
and jointly sponsored by AAEE and the American        and a majority of undergraduate students
Association of School Personnel Administrators,       preparing for a teaching career. Teacher
is a web-based job placement system linking           Preparation, Development, and Support is one
school districts, teacher preparation institutions,   of eight policy areas where AASCU attempts to
and teachers. www.aaee.org                            lead and to shape public policy at the state and
                                                      federal levels. The association’s Public Policy
American Association of Colleges                      Agenda addresses HEA, Title II reauthorization;
for Teacher Education (AACTE)
                                                      federal student loan forgiveness for teachers;
AACTE represents institutions that prepare over
                                                      federal appropriations; state performance
two-thirds of the nation’s new school personnel
                                                      standards; teacher recruitment/retention; and

10 • AASCU                             delivering America’s Promise
                               Teacher Education
                 Scan of Issues, Roles, Activities, and Resources

professional development. AASCU provides             and provides resources for teachers and
support for members involving the preparation        policymakers on its teacher quality website. Its
and professional development of teachers and         website addresses what is currently being done
supports collaborative efforts to improve teacher    in relation to: teacher recruitment, preparation,
preparation. AASCU recently completed a report       licensure, induction, professional development,
to Congress on the validity of 100 percent pass      evaluation and compensation, and National
rate scores on teacher licensure exams, reported     Board certification. www.aft.org
as required under Title II of the Higher Education
                                                     Business Roundtable (BR)
Act. www.aascu.org
                                                     The Business Roundtable is an association
American Board for Certification of Teacher          of the chief executive officers of leading U.S.
Excellence (ABCTE)                                   corporations, advocating public policies that
Funded by the U.S. Department of Education,          promote economic growth, a dynamic global
ABCTE was created in 2001 to increase the            economy, and a well-trained and productive
supply of highly qualified teachers to help          workforce. Emphasizing the role of business
meet the requirements of NCLB. It offers an          leadership in promoting education reform
alternative certification process (Passport          efforts, its Education and the Workforce Task
to Teaching Certification) that is nationally        Force works to improve education performance
recognized, portable from state to state, and        and workforce competitiveness. BR supported
based on passing two ABCTE tests: professional       passage of NCLB and is now actively involved
teaching knowledge and subject area knowledge.       in its implementation. In recent years, BR has
Master Teacher Certification is also available;      also developed position statements and reports
ABCTE believes that state bonus programs             on issues related to teaching, such as pay-for-
and other incentives should be directed to           performance. www.businessroundtable.org
exemplary teachers with a proven record. While
                                                     Carnegie Corporation of New York
this program is too new to assess outcomes,
                                                     Founded in 1911 as a grant-making foundation,
it is noteworthy that ABCTE requests that all
                                                     the corporation has maintained a focus on efforts
individuals certified in its program participate
                                                     to improve teaching and learning; currently,
in a three-year longitudinal study of student
                                                     education is one of its four main program areas.
academic achievement. www.abcte.org
                                                     Within the education program, teacher education
American Federation of Teachers (AFT)                reform is one of three areas of focus, and the
AFT is a trade union representing one million        corporation supports major restructuring of
workers, including teachers, school support          teacher education. Teachers for a New Era (TNE)
staff, higher education faculty and staff, and       is a major long-term initiative involving 11 higher
others. Initially pioneering collective bargaining   education institutions chosen to be standard-
for teachers, it has since supported a number of     bearers for this teacher education reform effort.
education reforms designed to strengthen the         www.carnegie.org
teaching profession. In particular, it promotes
union-sponsored professional development,            Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement
                                                     of Teaching
and it has developed a set of principles for its
                                                     Founded in 1905, the Carnegie Foundation for
affiliates to use to help improve professional
                                                     the Advancement of Teaching is a major national
development programs. AFT conducts research
                                                     and international center for research and policy
(e.g. annual teacher salary survey), tracks
                                                     studies about teaching. Its primary mission is to
legislation on issues of concern to members,

   delivering America’s Promise                                                         AASCU • 11
                               Teacher Education
                 Scan of Issues, Roles, Activities, and Resources

address how teachers can best succeed in the         including teacher turnover, shortages, and out-
classroom, how best to achieve lasting student       of-field teaching.
learning, and how to assess the impact of            www.wcer.wisc.edu/cpre (Wisconsin)
teachers on students—in public schools, colleges,    www.cpre.org/index_js.htm (Pennsylvania)
and universities. Programs include the Carnegie
Academy for the Scholarship of Teaching and          Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO)
Learning (CASTL) K-12 Program for Teachers and       CCSSO is an organization of public officials
Teacher Educators, and the Carnegie Initiative on    who head state departments of education
Teacher Education. www.carnegiefoundation.org        around the country. As part of its support of
                                                     standards-based education systems, it supports
Center for the Study of Teaching and Policy,         high quality professional teacher preparation
University of Washington (CTP)                       and development programs. CCSSO is heavily
CTP is a consortium of several major universities    involved in working with state education
that focuses on the system-wide improvement          agencies on data and accountability issues,
of teaching and learning, and the development        and conducts an annual survey tracking state
of a highly capable, committed teaching force.       accountability and indicator reports for the
In particular, CTP examines how the quality          50 states. CCSSO has expanded its resources
of teaching and learning are shaped by the           and technical assistance to states to help meet
environments in which they take place, including     accountability requirements under No Child
the working environment of the school, the           Left Behind. The organization’s Interstate New
professional environment for teachers, the           Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium
community environment, and the policy                (INTASC) is a consortium of state education
environment. Many policy briefs, research            agencies and national organizations dedicated
reports, and other papers are available from the     to the reform of the preparation, licensing, and
CTP website. www.ctpweb.org                          ongoing professional development of teachers.
                                                     Specifically, it argues that the teacher licensing
Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE)
                                                     system should be aligned with the state’s P-12
CPRE is a consortium of five research institutions
                                                     student standards, and that the state’s program
(Harvard University, Stanford University,
                                                     approval process, licensing assessments, and
the University of Michigan, the University of
                                                     professional development requirements should
Pennsylvania, and the University of Wisconsin-
                                                     be aligned with teacher licensure standards.
Madison) aiming to improve student learning
                                                     INTASC works to develop model policy that
in elementary and secondary schools through
                                                     states can use as a resource as they design their
practical research; over the years, several
                                                     own licensure systems. www.ccsso.org
projects have addressed teacher issues. At the
University of Wisconsin-Madison, a focal point is    Education Commission of the States (ECS)
the Teacher Compensation Project that explores       ECS works to improve public education by
alternatives to traditional teacher compensation     bringing together key state policymakers and
systems. Many studies and policy papers are          education leaders from all levels—governors,
available, and CPRE at Wisconsin maintains a         state legislators, chief state school officers,
clearinghouse on state and district compensation     state and local school board members,
reform initiatives, searchable by state. At the      superintendents, higher education officials, and
University of Pennsylvania, CPRE researchers         business leaders. ECS addresses a wide set of
have looked at a number of teacher issues,           policy issues, with teaching quality as one focus

12 • AASCU                              delivering America’s Promise
                                Teacher Education
                  Scan of Issues, Roles, Activities, and Resources

area; it gathers, analyzes, and disseminates          Educational Testing Service (ETS)
information about issues, trends, and innovations     ETS, a private educational testing and
in policy and system designs. ECS has a               measurement organization, plays a primary role
particular focus on hard-to-staff urban and           in the teacher preparation process through the
rural schools. ECS’s Teaching Quality website is      administration of the Praxis Series, assessments
a comprehensive resource on teaching quality          used by the majority of state education agencies
overall, and on sub-issues including certification/   to license teachers. These tests are used by
licensure, compensation, evaluation, hard-to-         states in varying ways (i.e., different cutoff
staff schools, induction/mentoring, professional      scores) and are used to facilitate both traditional
development, professional standards boards,           and alternative forms of certification. ETS also
recruitment/retention, and teacher preparation/       conducts research related to assessments and
education. TQ Source is a new 50-state database       is involved in policy analysis; many studies are
containing details on teacher preparation policies    available on the ETS website. www.ets.org
(traditional and alternative) and recruitment
                                                      Holmes Partnership
and retention policies. Finally, ECS offers many
resources on its No Child Left Behind website,        The Holmes Partnership is a network of
including a NCLB database which provides              universities, schools, community agencies, and
a national grid on how each state is doing            national organizations working to create high
on all requirements and offers more detailed          quality professional development and significant
information and links to state materials for all      school renewal to improve teaching and learning.
states. www.ecs.org                                   Its origins are in the Holmes Group, a consortium
                                                      of 96 research universities, who noted in the
Education Trust (Ed Trust)                            1980s the decline of schools of education
Ed Trust works for the high academic                  relative to other professional schools, and set
achievement of students at all levels, from           out to construct a true profession of teaching.
kindergarten through college, with a focus on         They emphasized the need to reform schools
low-income students and students of color. Ed         of education (curriculum, faculty, pedagogy,
Trust widely disseminates data on achievement         students, instructional settings and groups,
patterns among different groups of students,          research and scholarship, and partnerships),
and provides advocacy, analysis and expert            and designed the Professional Development
testimony, research and writing, and technical        School (PDS), a new setting designed to serve
assistance. Believing that student achievement        professional education the way teaching
will rise to the level of teacher assignments,        hospitals serve medical education. The Holmes
Ed Trust has developed the Standards in               Partnership calls for simultaneous renewal
Practice (SIP) approach for teacher professional      of public K-12 schools and teacher education
development: this on-site, team-based approach        programs. www.holmespartnership.org
is used to align assignments to content standards
                                                      Mid-Atlantic Regional Teachers Project (MARTP)
and to increase the rigor of assignments, thereby
increasing student achievement. Ed Trust offers       MARTP is a regional collaboration among the
publications related to teacher issues, as well as    mid-Atlantic states to address data-driven policy
resources on No Child Left Behind.                    impacting teacher quality and the region’s
www.edtrust.org                                       teacher supply and demand. MARTP addresses
                                                      issues such as regional license reciprocity,
                                                      mentoring programs, common regional standards

   delivering America’s Promise                                                           AASCU • 13
                               Teacher Education
                 Scan of Issues, Roles, Activities, and Resources

for alternative certification, and regional pension   recruitment programs; support of quality
portability. Formerly housed at the Council for       alternative certification programs; and building a
Basic Education (CBE), it is now managed by the       coherent teacher preparation system.
American Association of Colleges for Teacher          www.nasbe.org
Education (AACTE). www.martp.org
                                                      National Association of State Directors of Teacher
Milken Family Foundation (MFF)                        Education and Certification (NASDTEC)
Founded in 1982, MFF aims “to discover and            NASDTEC represents the professional standards
advance inventive and effective ways of helping       boards, commissions, and state departments of
people help themselves and those around them          education that are responsible for preparation,
lead productive and satisfying lives.” Education      licensure, and discipline of educational
is one of two program areas through which             personnel in the states. NASDTEC promotes
MFF advances its mission. (The other is medical       high standards for teachers and mobility across
research.) Among its education initiatives,           state lines, and specifically encourages states
the Teacher Advancement Program (TAP) is a            to include performance-based standards in
school-based improvement program to attract,          the program approval process. The annual
retain, and motivate teacher talent. TAP is built     NASDTEC Manual is a comprehensive manual on
on five principles: multiple career paths, market-    certification requirements and practices in the
driven compensation, performance-based                states, and contains information on professional
accountability, ongoing applied professional          development requirements, examinations and
growth, and expanding the supply of high quality      assessments, interstate mobility, and support
educators. www.mff.org                                systems for beginning teachers. The NASDTEC
                                                      Interstate Contract is an agreement that
National Association of Community College             facilitates the movement of teachers among
Teacher Education Programs (NACTEP)                   member states. The contract makes it possible
Founded in 2002, NACTEP promotes the                  for a teacher who completed a program or who
community college role in the recruitment,            holds a certificate or license in one state to earn
preparation, retention, and renewal of preK-12        a certificate or license in another. Receiving
teachers and advances quality teacher education       states may impose special requirements that
programs in the community college.                    must be met in a reasonable period of time.
www.nacctep.org                                       www.nasdtec.org

National Association of State Boards                  National Board for Professional
of Education (NASBE)                                  Teaching Standards (NBPTS)
NASBE represents the nation’s state boards            NBPTS’ mission is to advance the quality of
of education and works to strengthen state            teaching and learning by maintaining high and
leadership in education policymaking. NASBE           rigorous standards for what accomplished
provides public policy updates for its members,       teachers should know and be able to do,
conducts original research, speaks on behalf          providing a national voluntary system certifying
of its members to influence education                 teachers who meet these standards, and
policymaking, and provides technical assistance       advocating related education reforms. To date,
on policy issues such as No Child Left Behind.        NBPTS has developed standards in 27 fields and
Recent reports have addressed a variety of            a process for assessing accomplishments for
teacher topics, including attracting, preparing,      each. National Board certification complements,
and retaining teachers; effectiveness of state        but does not replace, state licensing, and

14 • AASCU                             delivering America’s Promise
                               Teacher Education
                 Scan of Issues, Roles, Activities, and Resources

depending on state and district policies, offers      rewards. NCTAF defines its stakeholders as
individuals opportunities for more pay and            members of the business community, federal
greater mobility across states. NBTPS also            and state government, teacher preparation
collects data related to Board certification and      institutions, classroom teachers, national and
supports a research program that investigates         state education organizations, and parent and
the impact of National Board certification            community groups. www.nctaf.org
on teachers, students, public policies, and
educational reform. www.nbpts.org                     National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL)
                                                      Funding education is a primary activity of
National Center for Education Information (NCEI)      state legislatures. NCSL’s Education Standing
For many years, NCEI has been tracking                Committee is one of 15 standing committees,
alternative routes to teacher certification, and      and its Education Program collects and analyzes
in 1991 developed a classification system to          information on education policy and provides
distinguish among the types of routes states          resources for legislators. NCSL also provides
have identified as alternatives to traditional        technical assistance to states regarding Title
certification. Alternative Teacher Certification: A   II grants. NCSL maintains a Teacher Quality
State-by-State Analysis is an annual compilation      website with information on recruitment
of detailed state requirements and summary            and compensation, preparation, licensure
statistics on alternative teacher certification.      and certification, induction, and professional
www.ncei.com                                          development. Its Legislative Information
                                                      Summary Service (LESS) tracks a variety of
National Commission on Teaching                       teacher issues, searchable by issue, jurisdiction,
and America’s Future (NCTAF)
                                                      date, bill type, and other means, with brief
NCTAF was formed as a blue ribbon panel
                                                      descriptions of bills. www.ncsl.org
in 1994; its first report What Matters Most:
Teaching for America’s Future, was a seminal          National Council for Accreditation
work challenging the nation to provide qualified      of Teacher Education (NCATE)
teachers for every student by 2006. Arguing           Authorized by the U.S. Department of Education,
that what teachers know and can do has the            NCATE is a national accrediting body for
greatest influence on what students learn, it         schools, colleges, and departments of education;
offered a blueprint for recruiting, preparing, and    NCATE-accredited schools produce over two-
retaining good teachers as a central strategy for     thirds of the nation’s new teacher graduates.
improving schools. Additional research-based          Through 2000, accreditation was largely based
reports have followed, most recently, No Dream        on curriculum quality and delivery. Since then,
Denied (2003), addressing the crisis in teacher       NCATE has developed performance-based
turnover and attrition. In order to implement its     accreditation standards. NCATE also promotes
goals, NCTAF has developed a state partnership        the Professional Development School (PDS) as a
network that currently has 22 state partners.         model of good practice for teacher preparation
NCTAF offers resources to partners who, in            and professional development; it has developed
turn, agree to fulfill certain expectations such      standards for PDSs and offers resources on its
as undertaking a policy inventory and analyzing       PDS website. NCATE’s State Partnership Program
a common core of information related to               is designed to integrate state and national
recruitment, preparation, selection, induction,       professional teacher preparation standards and
evaluation, professional development and              reduce the duplication of effort when states and

   delivering America’s Promise                                                            AASCU • 15
                               Teacher Education
                 Scan of Issues, Roles, Activities, and Resources

NCATE conduct separate reviews. Currently,             teacher ratios, financial resources, etc. across 50
NCATE has partnerships with 48 states.                 states. The NEA Foundation for the Improvement
www.ncate.org                                          of Education (NFIE) has produced a number
                                                       of policy reports focusing on supporting and
National Council on Teacher Quality (NCTQ)             improving teacher induction programs and
NCTQ recognizes the growing body of evidence           professional development. www.nea.org
that teacher quality greatly affects student
achievement, and it notes that disadvantaged           National Governors Association (NGA)
students are most likely to be assigned the            The NGA Center for Best Practices Education
most poorly educated, unqualified teachers.            Division, one of five divisions, is designed to
Therefore, it advocates for reforms in a broad         support governors as they address education
range of teacher policies at the federal, state, and   issues at all levels. The Center provides technical
local levels, including raising standards for entry    assistance, policy analysis and reports, and
into the profession and eliminating obstacles          information on best practices related to teacher
that keep many from considering a career               quality, addressing recruitment, preparation,
in teaching. NCTQ urges a market-sensitive             licensure and certification, induction, professional
approach to encourage a more equitable                 development, and compensation, and linking
distribution of the most qualified teachers.           with higher education and K-16 partnerships.
NCTQ aims to foster public understanding of a          Currently, NGA has two projects in this area, one,
“common sense” approach to teacher quality by          in conjunction with NCSL, addressing teacher
measuring success in terms of improved student         quality primarily through teacher preparation,
achievement. Its policy reports and Teacher            and the other designed to improve teacher
Quality Bulletin examine teacher preparation           recruitment and retention. These projects involve
and licensure, evaluation and compensation, the        working with a small number of states as they
teaching career, NCLB, and other issues, and a         take policy action to improve teacher quality.
searchable archive of state news and activities is     NGA also provides resources to governors to
available on its website. www.nctq.org                 help implement No Child Left Behind, including
                                                       information on best practices from some states.
National Education Association (NEA)                   Resources and publications are available from
NEA is a trade union representing 2.7 million          the NGA Center for Best Practices Education
workers at every level of education; its mission       Division website. www.nga.org
includes promoting the cause of public
education and advancing the interests of the           National Partnership for Excellence and
profession of teaching. NEA conducts research,         Accountability in Teaching (NPEAT)
engages in lobbying at the state and national          NPEAT is a partnership of nearly 30
levels, supports innovative projects, works with       organizations dedicated to the improvement of
other organizations, and provides training and         teaching as “what matters most” in improving
technical assistance. For example, NEA is one          schools. NPEAT aims to develop a knowledge-
of the partners in the Teachers-Teachers.com           based consensus on effective policies and
website, an online recruitment service linking         practices and to facilitate their implementation.
job candidates with school systems. Also, it           It addresses a wide range of issues, including
offers resources on No Child Left Behind. NEA          standards and assessments for teacher
Research produces the annual Rankings and              preparation and professional development, the
Estimates report comparing salaries, student-

16 • AASCU                             delivering America’s Promise
                               Teacher Education
                 Scan of Issues, Roles, Activities, and Resources

teacher career continuum, and recruitment and        Network consists of 10 educational research
retention. ed-web3educ.msu.edu/npeat                 and development organizations serving
                                                     specific geographic areas of the country.
Public Education Network (PEN)                       These organizations work as resources for
PEN is a national association of local education     and partners with state and local educators,
funds (LEFs)—community-based organizations           community members, and policymakers to
that work with, but are independent of, their        improve education. Teacher topics are among
local school systems—working to advance public       the varied education issues addressed by the
school reform in low-income communities.             labs through conducting research and policy
PEN views public engagement as the basis for         analysis; information, training, and technical
education reform, and it brings the community        assistance; community events; collaboration; and
voice into local, state, and national debates        publications. The Mid-Continent Research for
on quality public education. Teacher quality         Education and Learning (McREL), for example,
is one of PEN’s three major initiatives, each of     has done policy work on teacher quality,
which incorporates data collection, coalition        alternative routes to certification, teacher supply
building, community organizing, and strategic        and demand, alternative pay structures, and No
communications. This initiative addresses teacher    Child Left Behind, and has developed a guide
compensation, working conditions, and skills and     for transforming teacher preparation. The North
capacities. www.publiceducation.org                  Central Regional Education Laboratory (NCREL)
                                                     has looked at the impact of alternative routes
Recruiting New Teachers (RNT)
                                                     to certification in the Midwest, recruitment and
Established in 1986, RNT works to raise esteem
                                                     retention strategies, professional development,
for teaching, expand the pool of qualified
                                                     teacher mobility, and teacher quality.
teachers, and promote strategies for effective
teacher recruitment, development, and retention.
It conducts research; serves as a resource for       The Renaissance Group
research, data, trends, and programs; educates       The Renaissance Group is a national consortium
the public; informs prospective teachers; helps      of colleges and universities that have made
districts learn about promising recruitment and      a significant commitment to the preparation
induction practices; and advises community           of America’s teachers. The group strives to
leaders, educators, and decision makers about        achieve quality and develop best practices in
policies and practices that make a difference.       teacher education by affirming a set of guiding
The National Teacher Recruitment Clearinghouse       principles. These principles include: recognizing
links prospective teachers with districts hiring     that teacher education is a campus-wide
personnel through over 850 job banks; it also        responsibility; fostering a campus culture that
provides information on how to become a              values and models quality teaching; creating
teacher, licensure and certification requirements,   partnerships with classroom teachers; stressing
teacher shortage areas, financial aid, alternative   the importance of diverse field experiences;
routes, and background information.                  adhering to high standards and accountability;
www.mt.org                                           focusing on student learning; utilizing technology
                                                     effectively; and developing teachers as creative
Regional Education Laboratories Network
                                                     and innovative leaders.
With support from the U.S. Department of
Education, the Regional Education Laboratories

   delivering America’s Promise                                                         AASCU • 17
                               Teacher Education
                 Scan of Issues, Roles, Activities, and Resources

Southeast Center for Teaching Quality (SECTQ)         it conducts policy analysis and implements
Established in 1999 at the University of North        projects focusing on the role of the state higher
Carolina and an independent entity since              education agency in improving teacher quality.
2003, the Center was launched in conjunction          In many cases, this role is conceptualized as part
with the efforts of NCTAF and was informed            of the P-16 agenda of states. SHEEO recently
by NCTAF’s initial report What Matters Most.          completed a major initiative on Enhancing
By conducting research, informing policy, and         the Teaching Profession: The Importance
engaging leadership, the Center aims to enhance       of Mobility to Recruitment and Retention,
opportunities for students to have competent,         resulting in several products. The Compendium
caring, and qualified teachers. The Center’s          of Resources on Teacher Quality (2003) is an
current cutting-edge research includes a national     online searchable guide to national, regional, and
study of alternative certification and a study of     state resources related to teacher supply and
the impact of National Board certification on         demand, preparation, compensation, hiring and
low-performing schools in three states. Policy        recruitment, induction, professional development,
work has included initiatives related to pay for      licensure requirements and credential reciprocity,
performance, the impact of NCLB teacher quality       pension portability, and general teacher quality
mandates, teacher mobility, teaching quality          resources. Data Systems to Enhance Teacher
indicators, teacher working conditions, and           Quality (2003) examines the capacity of state
recruitment and retention strategies. The Center      data systems to address teacher pipeline issues.
also supports a teacher leadership network to         www.sheeo.org
give a voice to accomplished teachers in shaping
teaching policy. www.teachingquality.org              Teacher Education Accreditation Council (TEAC)
                                                      TEAC, founded in 1997, is a nonprofit
Southern Regional Education Board (SREB)              organization dedicated to improving academic
SREB, the nation’s first multi-state compact for      degree programs for professional educators;
education, works to improve every aspect of           its primary work is accrediting undergraduate
education—from early childhood to doctoral            and graduate professional teacher education
degrees and beyond. SREB compiles information,        programs. TEAC’s unique approach to
shares resources, develops demonstration              accreditation is based on the questions each
programs, and convenes meetings. One of its           program’s faculty asks about the program and its
goals is to assure that every child is taught         performance within the context of the program’s
by qualified teachers, and activities related to      mission. TEAC’s academic audit verifies evidence
teacher quality crosscut many of its activities. In   that student learning meets high expectations
particular, SREB has worked on teacher supply         and that the program is following processes that
and demand issues, teacher salaries, integrating      produce quality. TEAC also conducts meetings to
technology into the classroom, and No Child Left      share information about innovation in program
Behind. www.sreb.org                                  design and effectiveness, and is an advocate
                                                      for improvements in professional education
State Higher Education Executive Officers (SHEEO)
                                                      programs based on research. www.teac.org
SHEEO is an association of the chief executive
officers serving statewide coordinating and           Teacher Education Council of State Colleges
governing boards of postsecondary education.          and Universities (TECSCU)
As part of its broader mission to enhance             TECSCU represents over 180 public institutions
state capacities to improve higher education,         with teacher preparation programs, providing

18 • AASCU                             delivering America’s Promise
                                Teacher Education
                  Scan of Issues, Roles, Activities, and Resources

policy development, direction, and services            it espouses alternative paths to certification,
for its institutional representatives—the              scrapping tenure, differential compensation
chief administrators of schools, colleges,             and pay for performance, and evaluations that
and departments of education. It offers a              emphasize knowledge and performance rather
communications system and networking                   than college transcripts. The foundation also
opportunities for members, addresses issues            offers a number of publications that support its
and problems related to teacher preparation            philosophy. www.edexcellence.net
programs, produces position papers and
proposes recommendations, and represents the           Urban Network for the Improvement
                                                       of Teacher Education (UNITE)
teacher preparation community before policy-
                                                       This confederation of schools and colleges of
making groups. muweb.millersv.edu/-tecscu
                                                       education located in urban settings is dedicated
Thomas B. Fordham Foundation                           to recruiting, educating, and retaining competent
The Fordham Foundation supports research,              and caring teachers for urban schools. Now an
publications, and action projects in elementary/       integral part of the Holmes Partnership, this
secondary school reform, espousing a free              expanded network acknowledges that stronger
market approach to the “re-invention” of K-12          teacher preparation programs by themselves
education. It is critical of the traditional teacher   will not greatly improve the quality of teaching
certification system, with what it describes           and learning unless constraining practices
as low entrance standards, poor certification          and conditions in P-12 schools are addressed
procedures, and bureaucratic hurdles. Instead,         simultaneously. www.urbannetworks.net

   delivering America’s Promise                                                          AASCU • 19
                                                                                 Appendix B
                                                          Checklist of Organizations by Topic

                                                                          Teacher      Licensure/     Employment   Professional
                                                                        Preparation   Certification     Issues     Development    Accountability

American Association for Employment in Education                                                          X
American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education                       X             X              X             X               X
American Association of State Colleges and Universities                      X             X              X             X               X
American Board for Certification of Teacher Excellence                                     X              X
American Federation of Teachers                                              X             X              X             X               X
Business Roundtable                                                                                       X                             X
Carnegie Corporation of New York                                             X
Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching                          X                                          X
Center for the Study of Teaching and Policy, University of Washington        X                            X             X
Consortium for Policy Research in Education                                                               X
Council of Chief State School Officers                                       X             X              X             X               X
Education Commission of the States                                           X             X              X             X               X
Education Trust                                                                                                         X               X
Educational Testing Service                                                                X
Holmes Partnership                                                           X                            X             X
Mid-Atlantic Regional Teachers Project                                       X             X              X             X
Milken Family Foundation                                                                                  X             X               X
National Association of Community College Teacher Education Programs         X                            X             X
National Association of State Boards of Education                            X             X              X             X               X
National Association of State Directors of Teacher
   Education and Certification                                               X             X              X             X
National Board for Professional Teaching Standards                                         X                            X
National Center for Educational Information                                                X
National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future                         X             X              X             X
National Conference of State Legislatures                                    X             X              X             X               X
National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education                      X             X              X             X               X
National Council on Teacher Quality                                          X             X              X             X               X
National Education Association                                               X             X              X             X               X
National Governors Association                                               X             X              X             X               X
National Partnership for Excellence and Accountability in Teaching           X             X              X             X               X
Public Education Network                                                     X                            X                             X
Recruiting New Teachers                                                                                   X
Regional Education Laboratories Network                                      X             X              X             X               X
Renaissance Group                                                            X                            X             X               X
Southeast Center for Teaching Quality                                        X             X              X             X               X
Southern Regional Education Board                                            X                            X             X               X
State Higher Education Executive Officers                                    X             X              X             X               X
Teacher Education Accreditation Council                                      X             X
Teacher Education Council of State Colleges and Universities                 X                                          X
Thomas B. Fordham Foundation                                                 X             X              X                             X
Urban Network for the Improvement of Teacher Education                       X                            X             X

20 • AASCU                                                           delivering America’s Promise
                         Appendix C
            Reports on Teacher Education

This appendix highlights recent reports that address     Is it fair to teachers? How can value-added
teacher education issues. These reports are presented    data improve the way we prepare teachers and
as illustrative of key policy analysis currently being   support them once they’re in the classroom?
done, and AASCU does not endorse the specific            This report reviews existing research on teacher
content of any report.                                   effectiveness—often referred to as “value-added,”
                                                         offering answers to these questions. It lays out
Alliance for Excellent Education, Tapping the            an ambitious policy agenda, identifying actions
Potential: Retaining and Developing High-                for state policymakers, higher education, district
Quality New Teachers, June 2004. American                policymakers and administrators, teachers, and
schools spend more than $2.6 billion annually            federal policymakers.
replacing teachers who have dropped out                  www2.edtrust.org/NR/rdonlyres/5704CBA6-CE12-46D0-
of the teaching profession. This report cites            A852-D2E2B4638885/0/Spring04.pdf
comprehensive induction, especially in a
teacher’s first two years on the job, as the single      The Finance Project, The Delivery, Financing,
most effective strategy to stem the rapidly              and Assessment of Professional Development
increasing teacher attrition rate.                       in Education: Pre-Service Preparation and In-
www.all4ed.org/publications/TappingThePotential/         Service Training, April 2004. The context in
TappingThePotential.pdf                                  which pre-service preparation and in-service
                                                         training are delivered and financed has changed
Education Commission of the States, ECS                  significantly in recent years, but there remains
Report to the Nation: State Implementation               a disjuncture between discussions in policy and
of the No Child Left Behind Act, July 2004.              research circles and what is actually happening
This report examines the progress states made            in the field. This report synthesizes information
between March 2003 and March 2004 on                     on what pre-service and in-service professional
40 requirements of the No Child Left Behind              development is required and how it is delivered,
Act (NCLB). It also explores the issues and              financed, and assessed, aiming to help reconcile
remaining challenges, examines some of the               policy, research, and practice.
policy approaches states are using to meet               www.financeprojectinfo.org/Publications/ProfDev_
requirements, and offers recommendations for             ExecSum.pdf
fine-tuning the law.
www.ecs.org/ecsmain.asp?page=/htm/special/nclb/          Mathematica Policy Research, Inc., The Effects
reporttothenation/reporttothenation.htm                  of Teach for America on Students: Findings from
                                                         a National Evaluation, June 2004. Students of
Education Trust, “The Real Value of Teachers:            Teach For America (TFA) teachers outscored
If Good Teachers Matter, Why Don’t We Act                their schoolmates on math achievement tests,
Like It?” Thinking K-16, Volume 8, Issue 1,              and matched their average performance in
Winter 2004. How does “value-added” work?                reading, according to this first national evaluation

   delivering America’s Promise                                                                  AASCU • 21
                                Teacher Education
                  Scan of Issues, Roles, Activities, and Resources

of the impact of TFA teachers on student              recommendations for the federal government,
learning. The large-scale study, which compared       state government, and local school districts,
the performance of TFA corps members to that          essential to help ensure high quality teaching in
of other novice and veteran teachers in the           every classroom.
same elementary schools, also found differences       www.teachingquality.org/resources/pdfs/NCLB_

in classroom management and teacher                   PublishedReport.pdf

www.mathematica-mpr.com/publications/PDFs/teach.pdf   Southern Regional Education Board, Resolve
                                                      and Resources to Get A Qualified Teacher in
Southeast Center for Teaching Quality, Unfilled       Every Classroom, July 2004. Every student
Promise: Ensuring High Quality Teachers for Our       deserves qualified teachers, but states do not
Nation’s Students, August 2004. Based on a            have enough qualified teachers for every subject
study of high-need schools in four southeastern       in every school. This report documents SREB
states, this study offers evidence of the potential   states’ progress toward getting a qualified
of No Child Left Behind, as well as its current       teacher in every classroom, highlighting the
shortcomings in design and implementation,            essential policies that SREB states should
as described by classroom teachers, school            resolve to develop and to support with adequate
principals, and district administrators. It offers    resources.
three primary findings, as well as a series of

                       The American Association of State Colleges
                           and Universities represents more than
                    430 public colleges and universities and systems
                                of higher education throughout
                             the United States and its territories.

                               1307 New York Avenue, NW • Fifth Floor
                                     Washington, DC 20005-4701
                     202.293.7070 • fax 202.296.5819 • aascu.org/publications/

                                              September 2004

22 • AASCU                              delivering America’s Promise

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