Mis chap 6 by malikzaka


									Data hierarchy:

    1. Field: mis 308
    2. Record:           mis 308         Ali      38
    3. File:             mis 308         Ali      38
                         mis 308         Zaka     37

    4. Database:         File 1          File 2          File 3

Problems in data hierarchy:

    1. Data redundancy and inconsistency: duplication of data. Inconsistency means that data should
       be in systematic and according to specific order.
    2. Program data dependence
    3. Lack of flexibility: Ad hoc reports.
    4. Poor security
    5. Lack of data sharing & avability

Types of DBMS:

    1. Relational DBMS: association that is establishing between two tables. (one-one), (one-
    2. Hierarchy database
    3. Network database
    4. Object oriented database: images, videos E.T.C… uses in large organizations.

Designing database:

    1. Normalization
    2. ERD

Distributing database:

    1. Portioned database: master file is the main on which all updates done.
    2. Duplicated database/ replicated database: make, as it is copy.

Data ware house: store current and historical data.

Data marts: subset of data warehouse and Data is place in separate databases for specific population of

Business intelligence (BI): tools for consolidating, analyzing and providing access to help users make
better business decisions.

Online analytical processing (OLAP): provide user multi-dimensional data analysis.
Data Mining: helps in finding hidden patterns and relationships in large databases. The patterns are
used to make decisions and forecast those decisions.

    1. Association: flour products compare or sugar products compare.
    2. Sequences: plasma TV buy from insurance company they said to first make house then TV.

    3. Classification: classify the customers those can give huge profit.
    4. Cluster: similar to classification. Customers grouping in demographics. Uses in banks.
    5. Forecasting: historical data view and analyze it.

                                             CHAPTER # 7
HUB: simple connection to computer.

SWITCH: filter the packets.

ROUTER: recognize the faulty links, maintain root channel.


1). Application layer.

2). Transport layer.

3). Internet layer.

4). Network interface layer.

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