Data hierarchy: 1. Field: mis 308 2. Record: mis 308 Ali 38 3. File: mis 308 Ali 38 mis 308 Zaka 37 4. Database: File 1 File 2 File 3 Problems in data hierarchy: 1. Data redundancy and inconsistency: duplication of data. Inconsistency means that data should be in systematic and according to specific order. 2. Program data dependence 3. Lack of flexibility: Ad hoc reports. 4. Poor security 5. Lack of data sharing & avability Types of DBMS: 1. Relational DBMS: association that is establishing between two tables. (one-one), (one- many),(many-many). 2. Hierarchy database 3. Network database 4. Object oriented database: images, videos E.T.C… uses in large organizations. Designing database: 1. Normalization 2. ERD Distributing database: 1. Portioned database: master file is the main on which all updates done. 2. Duplicated database/ replicated database: make, as it is copy. Data ware house: store current and historical data. Data marts: subset of data warehouse and Data is place in separate databases for specific population of users. Business intelligence (BI): tools for consolidating, analyzing and providing access to help users make better business decisions. Online analytical processing (OLAP): provide user multi-dimensional data analysis. Data Mining: helps in finding hidden patterns and relationships in large databases. The patterns are used to make decisions and forecast those decisions. 1. Association: flour products compare or sugar products compare. 2. Sequences: plasma TV buy from insurance company they said to first make house then TV. 3. Classification: classify the customers those can give huge profit. 4. Cluster: similar to classification. Customers grouping in demographics. Uses in banks. 5. Forecasting: historical data view and analyze it. CHAPTER # 7 HUB: simple connection to computer. SWITCH: filter the packets. ROUTER: recognize the faulty links, maintain root channel. TCP/IP: 1). Application layer. 2). Transport layer. 3). Internet layer. 4). Network interface layer.