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					    Q1: explain the vertical structure the horizontal structure and organizational


    Vertical structure:
    In order to under stand this issue such as reporting relationships, authority response and
    the like we need to be with the vertical dimension off a firm structure.

    Now the vertical structure include the following things

    1) Authority in organization:
                                 Authority is actually the legitimate right to make decision and
    to tell the other people what to do is a fundamental to the functioning of every
    organization for example. A boss has the authority to give order to a subordinate.

    And traditionally authority resides in position rather than in people and in private
    business the owner has the ultimate authority and in most small structure the owner act as
    a manager and here comes the formal and informal authorities the people with the
    particular expertise experiences or personal qualities may have considerable informal

    In addition, it basically includes the followings.

       The board of directors
       The chief executive officer
       The top management team

    2) Hierarchical levels:
                    As we have discuss the three board levels of the organization
pyramid, commonly called as the hierarchy. The eco occupies the top position and is the
senior member of the top management and the top managerial level is also includes the
presidents and vice presidents and these are the strategic managers in the charge of the
entire organization and the second board level is the middle management at this level
manger are in charge of plants of department. The lowest level is made up of low
management and workers it include the officer manager sale manger supervisor and other
first line managers as well as the employee who report directly to them this level is also
called the operational level of the organization.

3) Span of control:
                  The number of report directly to an executive or supervisor is called as
the span of control. The implication of difference in span of control for the shape of an
organization are straight forward holding size constant narrow spans build a tall
organization that has many reporting levels.
people under the manager is an important feature of the organization structure and the
number of subordinates who

4) Delegation:
             Delegation is the assignment of authority and responsibility to sub oridinates
at a low level delegation is perhaps the most fundamental feature of management because
it entails getting work through others.

5) Decentralization:
                  The delegation of responsibility and authority decentralized decision
making in centralized organization important decision are made at the top level but in
decentralized organization most of the decision are made at the low level.
(Thomas S. Bateman & Scott A. Snell).

Horizontal structure:
                      The horizontal organizational structure is the processes of
evolution, decision‐making, and resource allocation shift toward continuous
performance improvement. Information and training occur on a just‐in‐time basis
rather than “need to know,” while career progression occurs within the process rather
than the function, making individuals generalists rather than specialists     In traditional
vertical organizations, work is divided into functions, then departments, and finally tasks.
The primary building block of performance is the individual, with the chain of command
rising through the function, and the manager's job is concerned with assigning individuals
to tasks and then measuring, controlling, evaluating, rewarding, and sanctioning
performance. Time and cost pressures have forced a reconsideration of the vertical
structure and a move toward horizontal structures, organized around the core process. In
the horizontal form of organization, work is primarily structured around a small number
of core processes or work flows, as shown in figure 1. These link the activities of
employees to the needs of suppliers and customers, so as to improve the performance of
all three. Work, and the management of work, is performed by teams rather than
individuals. While still hierarchical, the structure tends to be flatter than traditional
functional systems. (Ostroff and Smith, 1992)

The Horizontal Organization:
The principal benefit of horizontal management is that it facilitates smooth transition of
intermediate products and services through the different functions to the customer. This is
achieved by empowering employees, improving communication, and eliminating
unnecessary work.
Instead of the multi-layer reporting structure, the pure form of horizontal organization
consists of two core groups. A group of senior management responsible for strategic
decisions and policies, and a group of empowered employees working together in
different process teams . The objective is to change the staff's focus from coordinating
and reporting, to the flow and nature of work, and to spend more time on activities that
add value for customers. Information in the horizontal organization is processed at the
local level by process teams. Team members are typically empowered personnel from the
respective functions working in the process. Local problems can be resolved quickly by
the process team, permitting the company to operate with flexibility and responsiveness
in a continuously changing business environment.
Increased interaction of employees from the different departments fosters close working
relationships and better communication. Employees from the different functions can
obtain better understanding of each other's responsibilities, thus reducing costly conflicts
arising because of misunderstanding and disagreement among the different departments.
The horizontal structure eliminates the need to devote resources to vertical
communication and coordination. The internal machine of a flatter organization uses
fewer resources.
Payoff for such cooperation goes beyond efficiency, improved work culture, and satisfied
customers. Formulated correctly, it can become a strategic advantage for the company.
Imagine the impact of a well-designed program to effectively minimize customer
disputes. Thorough investigation of the causes of customer disputes may uncover hidden
problems in the production, delivery, or invoicing process. The early identification of
problems in the upstream process is a feedback tool that helps to control these problems.
This mechanism facilitates the continuous flow of strategic information among
departments. The company can fully exploit the potential of the horizontal organization
structure. When implemented properly, the horizontal organizational structure promises
the dividend of a lean and responsive organization with better coordinated efforts along
the production process, more responsive decision cycles and savings from a more
effective, flatter organization structure.
(By Chung, Ronald K.)

Organizational integration:
Until recently, the integration of firms' processes and functions was relatively limited in
scope and occurred across few units or processes of single organizations. However, partly
due to recent advances in information technologies and to heightened competition,
today's firms are engaging in unprecedented levels of large-scale integration endeavors
that take a variety of forms (Markus 2001, Porter 2001).
Past research has generally found a positive relationship between integration and
different measures of organizational performance (Barney 1991, Chalmette et al. 2001,
Ettie and Reza 2001, Mukhopadhyay and Kekre 2002, Truman 2000).

It is also clear that increasing an organization's integration level requires significant
implementation efforts and resources. However, the exact nature of the relationships
among integration, organizational performance, and implementation effort is currently
poorly understood, and moderating and mediating factors remain largely unexplored.
The objective of this paper is to develop a model linking organizational integration,
performance, and implementation effort. The rest of the paper is organized in four
sections. The first section summarizes the research on integration in different fields and
proposes a definition of organizational integration (OI).
The second section presents a research framework and a model, and it develops 14
propositions that link OI to interdependence, barriers to OI, and mechanisms for
achieving OI, implementation effort, organizational configurations, environmental
turbulence, complexity reduction mechanisms, and performance. This extends the
research of Lawrence and Lorsch (1969) and Thompson (1967) by explaining the
relationship between different OI types, implementation effort, and organizational
performance. Then, the model is used to formulate propositions for ERP implementation
research. Finally, a discussion section situates the model within the organization theory
literature and describes how it can explain the findings of recent research on integration.

Vertical structure:
1) Management leading &collaborating in a competitive world by Thomas S.bateman &
Scott A. Snell
Horizontal structure:
Organization integration:

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