Study Guide for Chapter 28 AP Art History Terms: Be able to identify these by sight, explain these in relation to art, and know an example of each in relation to a work of art… hotels Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres (1780- Rococo 1867) salon odalisque Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) Romanticism fête galante exoticism Rubénistes Francisco Goya (1746-1828) Poussinistes May 3, 1808 The Enlightenment Goya’s “Black Paintings” “doctrine of progress” Thèodore Gèricault (1791-1824) Age of Revolutions (American, French…) great rivals (Ingres v. Delacroix) The “natural” style Eugène Delacroix (1798-1863) Élizabeth Louise Vigée LeBrun (1755-1842) landscape painting Grand Manner Portraiture “picturesque” Neoclassiciam Industrial Revolution Grand Tour Joseph Mallord William Turner (1775-1851) Excavation of Herculaneum/Pompeii Hudson River School Jacques-Louis David (1748-1825) photography French Revolution (begins in 1789) camera Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821) daguerreotype classical revival in architecture calotype Antonio Canova (1757-1822) documentary photography Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) Identifications: Know these works by sight, title, artist (if known), date. Be able to explain and analyze these in relation to any concept, term, element, or principle… Rococo Antoine Watteau, L’Indifférent, c. 1716, oil on canvas Antoine Watteau, Return from Cythera, 1717-1719, oil on canvas François Boucher, Cupid a Captive, 1754, oil on canvas Jean-Honoré Fragonard, The Swing, 1766, oil on canvas Rise of the “Natural” in France Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin, Grace at Table, 1740, oil on canvas Élizabeth Louise Vigée-Lebrun, Self-Portrait, 1790, oil on canvas Rise of the “Natural” in England William Hogarth, Breakfast Scene, from Marriage à la Mode, c. 1745, oil on canvas Rise of the “Natural” in Colonial America Benjamin West, The Death of General Wolfe, 1771, oil on canvas John Singleton Copley, Portrait of Paul Revere, c. 1768-70, oil on canvas Neoclassicism Angelica Kauffmann, Cornelia Presenting Her Children as Her Treasures, c. 1785, oil on canvas Neoclassicism in France Jacques-Louis David, Oath of the Horatii, 1784, oil on canvas Jacques-Louis David, The Death of Marat, 1793, oil on canvas Jacques-Louis David, The Coronation of Napoleon, 1805-1808, oil on canvas Antonio Canova, Paulina Borghese as Venus, 1808, marble Neoclassicism in England Lord Burlington and William Kent, Chiswick House, near London, begun 1725 Neoclassicism in the United States Thomas Jefferson, Monticello, Charlottesville, Virginia, 1770-1806 Transitional Works between Neoclassicism and Romanticism Antoine-Jean Gros, Napopleon at the Pesthouse at Jaffa, 1804, oil on canvas Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Grande Odalisque, 1814, oil on canvas Beginnings of Romanticism Henry Fuseli, The Nightmare, 1781, oil on canvas Romanticism in Spain: Goya, the Spanish master Francisco Goya, The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters, c. 1798, etching and aquatint Francisco Goya, The Family of Charles IV, 1800, oil on canvas Francisco Goya, The Third of May, 1808, 1814, oil on canvas Francisco Goya, Saturn Devouring one of His Children, 1819-1823, wall painting in oil detached on canvas Romanticism in France during the first half of the 19th century Théodore Géricault, The Raft of the “Medusa”, 1818-19, oil on canvas Théodore Géricault, Insane Woman (Envy), 1822-23, oil on canvas Eugène Delacroix, Liberty Leading the People, 1830, oil on canvas François Rude, La Marseillaise, 1833-36 The Romantic Spirit of a German Caspar David Friedrich, Abbey in the Oak Forest, 1810, oil on canvas Romanticism in England John Constable, The Haywain, 1821, oil on canvas Joseph Mallord William Turner, The Slave Ship, 1840, oil on canvas The American Landscape Thomas Cole, The Oxbow, 1836, oil on canvas The Beginnings of Photography Eugène Durieu and Eugène Delacroix, Draped Model (back view), c. 1854, albumen print Timothy O’Sullivan, A Harvest of Death, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, July 1863, photo Concepts: Understand these concepts and be able to cite works of art that explain these concepts. Remember that all background information that we cover should be explained in relation to formal appearances of a work of art and for what reasons it was created to look that way. 1. When does the Rococo begin in France? What historical events help influence the rise of Rococo style? What effect does the death of Louis XIV have upon the development of the Rococo? 2. Watteau is the painter that best represents the Rococo. By the time he comes around, there are some established “types” of paintings (such as history or genre paintings). But Watteau invents a new category of painting. What is it and how does it typify the Rococo? To take a further step, Watteau’s Return from Cythera is a painting that best represents the Rococo. What is the subject of this work? What class of people is shown in this work and where are they? How does this work represent the Rococo? 3. When Watteau entered the Royal French Academy, it marked the triumph of the Rubénistes over the Poussinistes. What did each of these factions champion as most important in painting? How does Watteau’s L’Indifférent and Return from Cythera show him as a true Rubéniste? How does the divide between the Poussinistes and Rubénistes compare to the differences between disegno and colore in Renaissance Italy? Be aware that most Rococo painting may be seen as dominated by the Rubénistes. 4. What are some general characteristics of Rococo painting? 5. Some major changes occur during the 18th century. One is an intellectual revolution called the Enlightenment. What is the Enlightenment, what are some Enlightenment ideas, and what does it accomplish? What effect does the Enlightenment have upon culture and society in general? 6. There was an interesting reaction to the frivolities of the Rococo… this was the desire for that “natural” in painting. How does Chardin’s Saying Grace and Vigée-LeBrun’s Self Portrait stand as examples of this desire to represent the “natural”? How does its subject and the way in which it is painted vary from works such as Return from Cythera? 7. The paintings of Hogarth were very popular and were known for their witty satires. Be prepared to discuss his Marriage à la Mode in terms of how it makes fun of some of the social aspects of the wealthy. 8. What is being shown in West’s The Death of General Wolfe? How has the artist combined the Grand Manner of history painting with reality? 9. What is “American” about Copley’s Paul Revere? 10. How do the ideals of the Enlightenment tie in with Neoclassicism? 11. How did the Neoclassical style embody, at different stages, the ideals of the French Enlightenment and Revolution? 12. Jacques-Louis David was not only a prominent artist of the late 18th and early 19th centuries, he emerged as the leader of the Neoclassical style in France. In what positions did David serve during the Revolution? What purpose and role did he think art should serve? 13. Who commissioned David’s Oath of the Horatii? What is the subject of the work? How does it visually represent the ideals of Neoclassical painting? What was the significance and symbolism of the painting to the emerging French Revolution? 14. For what purpose did David paint The Death of Marat? Who was Marat and what circumstances surrounded his death? What other artworks, and in what ways, are referenced in this work? Also be prepared to discuss this artwork as propaganda and/or as a political statement. 15. How does David’s Coronation of Napoleon serve as propaganda for Napoleon? 16. Canova’s statue, Pauline Borghese as Venus, represents Napoleon’s sister personified as the goddess of love. What about this is Neoclassical? What aspects reveal the intentions of the subject, Pauline Borghese? 17. What other structure closely influenced the Chiswick house? What makes this building classical and what makes it modern and innovative? 18. What did Neoclassicism symbolize for Thomas Jefferson and the United States? What influences are present in Thomas Jefferson’s Monticello? What makes this structure truly American? 19. How is Gros’ Napoleon at the Pesthouse at Jaffa representative of both the Neoclassical and Romantic styles? How did this serve as propaganda for Napoleon? 20. What is Romanticism? How does it relate to and differ from the ideas of the Enlightenment? 21. What were some inspirations to Romantic artists and patrons? Be prepared to explain the Romantic interest in the “Gothic” and in exotic lands and experiences. What was the Romantic interest in death, the nightmare, and individuality? Be able to explain this in relation to various works of art. 22. What are some different interpretations of The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters by Goya? What is it saying about the unconscious? 23. What was Goya’s position in the Spanish Court? How does his painting, The Family of Charles IV, relate to Velazquez’s Las Meninas? Why would the family have commissioned this painting? What may have been the artist’s actual intentions here? 24. What are the historical events referenced in The Third of May? How does he render the victims as heroic figures and the French soldiers as villains? What references does he make with his poses? 25. What are Goya’s “Black Paintings”? Explain this body of work and the circumstances of Goya’s life in relation to his Saturn Devouring His Children. What defines this painting as Romantic? 26. What contemporary event inspired Gericault’s Raft of the Medusa? What about the subject of this work made it controversial and problematic for the current French government? What makes the composition of this work so dramatic? What moment is shown in the painting? What efforts did Gericault undertake to make this work accurate? 27. What is Gericault’s interest in depicting the insane victims in some of his paintings? What about his interest makes it Romantic? 28. What event does Delacroix show in his Liberty Leading the People? What in this work shows that it is taking place in Paris? Is it an exact representation of a specific event? What in this work references the ideals of the French Revolution? What symbols does Delacroix employ in this work? What makes it Romantic? 29. We have thus far seen a number of depictions of war. Notably we have recently seen the Death of General Wolfe and paintings by Goya and Delacroix. The sculpture, Le Marseilles, shows an episode from the French Revolution. How did Rude choose to show this event? Is it historic or symbolic? What about this sculpture shows the influence of Neoclassicism and Romanticism? 30. We are seeing a number of paintings with nature. How do landscape paintings fit into Romanticism? 31. What is the relationship of man to nature in Caspar David Friedrich’s Abbey in the Oak Forest? 32. How are the landscape paintings of Constable different from those of Turner? Consider this both in regard to subject and to how each painted the subject. 33. What characterizes the paintings of Turner? What event does he show in The Slave Ship? What commentary does he make with this painting? 34. American painters tended to emphasize a different view of nature than the painters we have seen thus far. One famous group of painters is the Hudson River School of which Thomas Cole was a prominent member. How are American landscapes different from others we have seen? 35. Photography was an important invention of the 19th century. What possibilities did it offer in itself and as documentation? How was it initially perceived- as a marvel of science or as an art? Also, what did photographs make accessible to the public for the first time?